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1 might give a short hint to an lm artinl writer it would be to tell him his fate. If he resolved to venture upon 1: dan eroul precipice of telling unbiased truth let him proclaim war with mankin -neither to give nor to take quarter. If he tells the rrirncs of great men they fall upon him with the iron hands of the law; if he tells them of virtues, when they have any, then the mob attacks hun with slander. But if he regards truth, let him expect martyrdom on both 3112!}, and then he may go on fearless ; and this is the course 1 take myself.—
CASE OF THE ALEXANDRA.
Another signal failure of justice, through the unworkmanlike manner in which our modern statutes are framed, causes great and grievous scandal. For weeks the public mind has been put out of temper at finding that a blundering Act of Parliament had enabled the attorney of a deliberate and dastardly murderer to laugh at the decision of a judge and jury, and to make a tool of a Secretary of State, by getting up a sham proof of insanity, which having served its turn, vanishes from the juggling scene. We are now confronted with a far more serious and more shameful discovery, namely, that in a case of the utmost importance, pending between the subject and the Crown, in which confemdly a grave misunderstanding arose as to the direction of the judge at Nz's-i Prim, the important issue remains _ undecided from a doubt among the Judges of the Exchequer Chamber whether the Act relied on gives them jurisdiction. Of seven learned functionaries specially convened to try the case in appeal, three were of opinion that they had the power, and ought to proceed; while the remaining four came to the opposite conclusion. What makes the matter if possible more absurd and intolerable is that, to the opinions of Chief Justice Erlc, Mr Justice Williams, and Mr Justice Willes, must be added those of the four Barons of the Exchequer, who deliberately framed a new set of rules, for the very purpose of sending thiscase to the Exchequer Chamber. Instead of a minority of three, there is therefore a majority of seven of the Judges declared in favour of a construction of law which has for the present been overruled by a minority of four. The Attorney-General, who has staked his reputation as chief adviser of the Crown upon the validity of an appeal thus sanctioned, announces his determination to carry it to the House of Lords, where a wholly different set of learned magistrates will be invited to give judgment. Should that tribunal of last resort become perplexed with the same doubts that have paralyzed the action of the Court of Exchequer Chamber, we shall have reached the climax of legal incoherence and impotency.
A case of the greatest moment to the interests of the community being tried before a judge whose integrity no one questions, and whose ability is great, he delivers a charge to the jury the obvious meaning of which he subsequently repudiates, yet fails to explain; and he refuses to sign a bill of exceptions wherein he must have
admitted the fact of misdirection, which everybody but himself remembers. Under these circumstances, the Court of Exchequer was equally divided as to whether or not there should be a rule for a new trial; and etiquette requiring that the junior Baron should give way to the presumably superior judgment of the Chief, the rule for a re-hearing was discharged, not upon the merits, but confessedly on strictly technical grounds. All the Barons agreed, however, that this decision would cause a defeat of justice which they were bound if possible to obviate. They believed that they had the power to do so, by exercising an authority given them under the Common Law Procedure Act of granting an appeal in error; and to this end they framed and published rules whereby suits on the “ Revenue side” of the Exchequer might henceforth be dealt with in all respects as other actions. When in accordance with the mode of proceeding thus deliberately marked out as theproper one to be taken by the advisers of the Crown, the Alexandra case came on for hearing in the Exchequer Chamber, all the judges of the Common Pleas who were present, considered it to be their duty to hear and dispose of it; while all the Judges of the Queen's Bench who were present declared that their brethren of the Exchequer exceeded their statutable jurisdiction in granting the appeal, _and that they had no authority to proceed. If it be possible to suppose a like difference of opinion, among the half-dozen peers who form the judicial element of the Upper House, upon the due construction of the act of 1854 which they had themselves a principal hand in framing, we shall begin to believe that we are drifting back into the slough of delay and uncertainty, from which we thought we had escaped thirty years ago, and that without Lords
SATURDAYTFEBRUARY is, ’1864.
Ellenborongh or Eldon, we are in as pitiable a legal plight as our fathers were. If ever there was reason to call for the appointment of a minister of justice whose business it should be to revise and review continually imperfect legislation, we have it in the incidents thus recently forced upon our notice. The egregious bungling betrayed in our present mode of passing acts of Parliament amounts to barbarism. Instead of making progress, we seem to be going back; and while the cost of government increases year by year, the failure to secure its primary objects grows every day more palpable. Has the House of Commons left in it no men sensible of the national discredit?
We trust that no political misuse will be made of the wretched mischances that have attended this case of the Alexandra. Let our smart cousins on the other side of the ocean jeer and jibe as they please at the incoherent exposition of the Foreign Enlistment Act by Chief Baron Pollock, and the decrepit fumblings about rules and technicalities of procedure which have recently been witnessed ; but let them not be misled into confounding these things with any desire or purpose on the part of the English Government or the English people to elude the obligations of international justice, which the detention or liberation of the Alezandra is supposed to involve. On all hands it is admitted now that the language of the provisions restraining the clandestine equipment and fitting of vessels in our ports, meant to be employed for warlike purposes, are loosely drawn, and that they require to be amended. It would not have been possible for Ministers, perhaps, to have induced the Legislature to agree to a revision of the Act under existing circumstances until some attempt had been made to put the present statute into operation. Its inadequacy needed to be experimentally shown before clauses more stringent could with advantage be proposed. This implied, no doubt, the possibility of failure in the first instance; but this is habitually the Westminster rule of work,-—-never to think of rebuilding until some part of the old house is actually tumbling down. Commonwealths founded on philosophical principles may laugh if they will at our old-fashioned love of patchwork: but let them not mistake it for indifference or carelessness about decency. We are satisfied that on the main question involved in the cases of the Alabama, the Alexandra, and Mr Layard’s steam rams, the mind of the country and of the Government is thoroughly generous as well as just. We did not like to be bullied into re-making a municipal law, by articles in the New York journals, or speeches in Congress, or despatches from Mr Seward. But while remaining imperturbable and motionless so long as these were the only incentives to remedial legislation, we shall be perfectly open to entertain by-and~by any proposition that can be shown to be necessary for securing a genuine reciprocity to our neighbours on the subject of neutral obligations. We do not wish the few amongst us who may be capable of hazarding the peace of the seas for the sake of their own quasi practical gain, to find any shelter or protection for their lawless trade in British ports, which they or their fellows are denied in the ports of France or America. We admit that we had nothing to complain of when we were belligerents, and our transatlantic kinsmen were neutrals; and we should be ashamed to give them any just cause of complaint against us now that our positions are reversed. We must, however, be allowed to deal with these things in our own way. The arrest of the steam rams in September last, as soon as evidence was furnished to the Foreign Office on which it could act, coupled with the refusal of that department to interfere until it could do so legally, ought to dissipate unworthy suspicions regarding the policy of this country; and however disreputable to the character of our judicial system, and to that of our legislative handicraft the history of the Alexandra. case may be, we believe that in the se uel it will be found to have served rather than dis-served t e cause of permanent good understanding between America and England.
PASSIVE OBEDIENCE OF THE HOME SECRETARY.
Sir George Grey has lost no time in bringing in a Bill to amend the Act under which was compassed the signal defeat of justice in Townley’s case. At present any two county magistrates and any two medical men, conjoined, may certify to the insanity of a prisoner; Sir George Grey proposes to restrict the authority to a commission of the visiting justices of a jail, and two medical men selected by them. This will at least render the law less unsafe than it now is, and that is all that can be said, for visiting justices are not always all that they should be, and some of the number have their peculiar notions about capital punishment and about insanity, the definition of which not unnaturally becomes very large and loose where a life is concerned. But to provide against error, Sir George Grey proposes to divest the certificate of its mandatory character, and to leave it discretionary with the Secretary of State to act upon it or not. This is quite right.
P UNSTAMPED ...FIVEPENCE. RICE israurso ...... ...SIXPENCE. We still, however, cannot help thinking that Sir George Grey was not so passively bound by the certificate of Townley’s insanity as be supposed. If the words “ it “shall be lawful” were mandatory as regards the Scoretory of State they must certainly be of equal force as regards any two magistrates and medical men, but no one will contend that the action of those individuals is not discretional.
Sir George Grey had before him the report of the Com— missioners of Lunacy, whom he had directed to inquire into Townley’s state of mind, and surely, when he found the opinion of those experienced officers at variance with the certificates of the Derby gentlemen, he might have seen reason to ask some questions about the latter—how they were moved, and what was their impartiality and competency —staying the execution meanwhile. Sir George Grey says, indeed, that the Commissioners’ report was not so clear and. explicit as he had hoped, but at the same time he says it was clear, if the prisoner had been one of their patients, they would have declared him entitled to a discharge, and to be restored to liberty. Where, then, was the want of clearncss? The Commissioners had given their opinion that Townley was not of sound mind, though not of such unsound mind as not to know what he was about, and to be irresponsible for his actions. And this distinction seems not to have satisfied Sir George Grey so much as the positive, undiscriminating judgment of the certificates. The distinction of the Commissioners of Lunacy is, however, a thoroughly right one; and in the debate of Monday Sir George Bowyer, who approved of Sir George Grey’s course, showed most clearly that the view of the Commissioners was the true view, the question before them being something more than whether the man’s mind was sound or unsound:
A medical man was bound to ascertain the smallest trace of medical disease for the purpose of applying to it either cure or alleviation. But the legal idea of insanity was entirely different, because it applied to particular acts. If a man had executed a deed or made a will, it became a legal question whether at the time he was competent to do that legal act. So of the criminal law. If a man committed a crime, the question was, not whether he was of sound mind, but whether at the time of committing the act he had the knowledge of right and wrong to which the criminal law attached responsibility and liability to punishment. Counsel too often appeared to lose sight of this distinction. It was their interest in certain cases to confound it, and to maintain that any degree of mental aberration in the prisoner was sufficient to justify a ury in finding a verdict of not guilty. But the question put to smcdicsl man ought notto be -—“ Is the prisoner of sound mind?" but whether the insanity and unsoundness of mind under which he might labour had deprived him of the knowledge of right and wrong, and of that responsibility without which the law never inflicted criminal punishment.
If this point; had been duly considered by Sir George Grey, we cannot but think that he would have attached more weight than he did to the Commissioners' report, and made some inquiry into the birth and parentage of the certificates. But he had no choice we shall again be told. To hear was to obey. The flat of two justices and two mgdical men had gone forth, and justice was to be arrested. Now, is it conceivable that the Legislature could intend to make so passive a machine of the Secretary of State? If it was intended to give such force to the behests of any four gentlemen half-magisterial, half-medical, would not the high officer of State have been spared the undignified part of passive compliance? Why should the instrument to pick open prison locks go to him, when its commands might as well have been laid upon some inferior functionary, for the transfer of a prisonerto a Lunatic Asylum? If the motion was a mere motion of course, it might 'surely have been put into other hands than those of the supervisor of justice. The nature of Sir George Grey's office argues against the denial of discretion; and to bring the question to a test, if another certificate of Townley's insanity, in due form, were to reach the Home Office to-morrow, as it might do, the law as yet remaining unchanged, would Sir George Grey think himself bound to act upon it, and send the man back again to Bedlam? N 0 one can believe in such an absurdity.
The proposed Bill, we repeat, will be some improvement of a very unsafe law, but. it is to Sir F. Kelly’s measure that we hope to look for better securities of Criminal Justice.‘ The Home Office is the worst of all possible courts of appeal, as the public have at last discovered. The dispensing power, always dangerous, can never be safe except in high judicial hands, and under the light of publicity.
THE FAILURE OF CHURCH PROSECUTIONS.
Abatement of the worst bitterness of controversy will, we hope, follow the final judgment of the Committee of Privy Council on the appeals of Dr Rowland Williams and the Rev. H. B. Wilson against Dr Lushington’s decision upon their case in the Court of Arches. That decision, while it left much larger latitude to free inquiry than some had supposed lawful, still found in the contributions of Messrs Williams and Wilson to the volume known_as ‘ Essays and Reviews’ grounds for a sentence of suspension for one year, monition, and condemnation in costs. The practical result of the prosecution instituted by the Bishop of Salisbury and Mr Fendall was indeed a penal sentence against individuals, but together with it there was procured a publication to the clergy of their right to more independence of thought than had been considered lawful by the movers of such prosecution. The result of the subsequent appeal is no triumph to either party, but a salutary check upon the rash resort to internecine strife within the Church. Religion in the Church will be the only gainer by discouragement of the vain clamour for pains and penalties as the repressors of opinion.
The appeal having been heard before the two Archbishops, the Bishop of London, the Lord Chancellor, and Lords Cranworth, Chelmsford, and Kingsdown, the judgment, read by the Lord Chancellor last Monday, opened and closed by carefully guarding itself against being interpreted as an expression of opinion of any sort as to the character and tendency of the book known as ‘Essays and Reviews.’ “ If, therefore," it said, “the book, or these two essays, or either of them as a “ whole, be of a mischievous and bancful tendency, as
either in the Articles or in any of the formulsries of the Church. But in the 6th Article it is said that Holy Scripture aontainsth all things necessary to salvation and the books of the Old and New Testament are therein termed canonical. In the 20th Article the Scriptures are referred to as “God’s Word written;" in the Ordination Service, when tho Bible is given by the Bishop to the priest, it is put into his hands with these words, “Take thou authority to preach the word of God," and in the Nicene Creed are the words, “ the Holy Ghost who spoke by the prophets." We are confined by the article of charge to the consideration of these materials, and the question is whether in them the Church has affirmed that every part of every book of Scripture was written under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit and is the Word of God. Certainly this doctrine is not involved in the statement of the 6th Article, that Holy Scripture containeth all things necessar to salvation. But inasmuch as it doth so from the revelations o the Holy Spirit, the Bible may well he denominated “Holy,” and said to be “ the Word of God," “God's Word written," or “ Holy Writ ; " terms which cannot be affirmed to be clearly predicated of every statement and representation contained in every part of the Old and New Testament. The framers of the Articles have not used the word “ inspiration ” as applied to the Holy Scriptures; nor have they laid down anything as to the nature, extent, or limits of that operation of the Holy Spirit.
In the other article of accusation left to be sustained against Mr Wilson The charge is, that Mr Wilson sdviscdly declares that after this
“ weakening the foundations of Christian belief and likely “ to cause many to offend, they will retain that character, r “ and be liable to that condemnation, notwithstanding this “ our judgment.” The Judicial Committee of Privy; Council declares, as the Court of Arches had declared, that it had only to weigh the plain grammatical meaning of the passages brought before it as under a charge of heterodoxy, and in the same way to weigh and compare with them; these passages in the articles and formularies of the Church‘ which they were said to contravene. }
Of all the charges originally made against Dr \llTilliamsy and Mr Wilson, so many had been disallowed in the Court' of Arches or abandoned by the prosecutors, that upon two only in each case issue was joined in the last appeal; andI on all points the decision of the Judicial Committee was against the prosecutors. But there was this noticeable distinction between the two cases, that in the case of Dr Williams the Committee disallowed the construction put upon the cited words of the accused, adding almost by superfiuity their widened reading of the sense of the 11th Article; while in the case of Mr Wilson it accepted the interpretation put on the impugned passages, but disallowed the interpretation of articles and formularics of the Church that were adduced in opposition to them.
It was charged against Dr Williams—1. That in certain quoted words of his he maintained the Bible to be “an “ expression of devout reason and the written voice of the “ congregation"—-not the Word of God; 2. That he denied justification by faith in saying that “ the doctrine “ of merit by transfer is a fiction." Upon the first charge it is found that Dr Williams himself did not say that the Bible is “not the Word of God ;” that is only an inference drawn from his words by the prosecution; and to declare that he meant this, is not a just inference, especially when his actual language is read in connexion with his statement made a few sentences later, that the Holy Spirit dwelt in the sacred writers of the Bible. The decision, therefore, from which only the two Archbishops dissent, is that he had not written what could be legally interpreted as a denial that the Scriptures are the Word of God. In consideration of the second charge it is found that the attainted passage is part of the language put in the mouth of an imaginary advocate, who is supposed to defend Baron Bunsen against those who declare him to be -—it is not said, not a member of the Church of England, but not a Christian. From such a passage it is decided that it would be “unjust to him to take his words as a " full statement of his own belief or teaching on the sub“ject of justification." Here the judgment of the Court of Appeal might have stopped; but it has, with great pro-l priety, and without the dissent of the Archbishops, gone on to close the door against more unseemly brawl and liti-l gation upon this great mystery, by pointing out that thel
11th Article “ is wholly silent as to the merits of Jesus!
“ Christ being transferred to us. It asserts only that wel “ are justified for the merits of our Saviour by faith and “ by faith alone." The interpretation put upon the passages quoted by the promoter of the suit against Dr Williams when he is charged with asserting “that justifi“ cation by faith means only the peace of mind or‘ sense'1
' “ of Divine approval, which comes of trust in a righteousl " God,” is disallowed. “That,” it is decided, “is not “ the assertion of Dr Williams.”
Against Mr Wilson, the two charges before the Committee of Privy Council were—l. That he had declared in effect that the Scriptures were not necessarily at all, and certainly not in parts, the Word of God, written under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit; 2. That he did not believe in the eternal damnation of the wicked. Upon the first charge the decision of the Judicial Committee of Privy Council, from which the Archbishops dissent, is most important, since it finally removes all question of material pains and penalties from full and honest study of the Bible. Our clergy, with their consciences already partly freed by Dr Lnshington’s judgment in the Court of Arches, will he altogether frco henceforth to search the Scliptures and possess their souls in peace. The first charge against Mr Wilson, says the judgment of the Committee,
Involves the proposition, “ That it is a contradiction of the doctrine laid down in the 6th and 20th Articles of Religion, in the Nicene Creed, and in tho Ordination Service of Priests, to affirm that any part of the canonical Books of the Old or New Testament upon any subject whatever, however unconnected with religious faith or moral duty, Was not written under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit." The proposition or assertion that ever part of the Scriptures was wnttrn under the inspiration of the oly Spirit is not to be found
life there will be no judgment of God, awarding either eternal happiness or eternal misery,—-an accusation which is not warranted by the passage extracted. Mr \Vilscn expresses a hope that at the day of judgment those men who are not admitted to happiness may be so dr-alt with as that “ the perverted msy be restored," and all, “ both small and great, may ultimately find a refuge in the bosom of the Universal Parent." The hope that the punishment of the wicked may not endure to all eternity is certainly not at variance with anything that is found in the Apostles' Creed, or the Nicene Creed, or in the Absolution, which forms part of the Morning and Evening Prayer, or in the Burial Service.
The judgment proceeds to consider the Words bearing upon this subject in the Catechism, the Commination Service, and the Athanasian Creed, and adds,
It is material to observe that in the Articles of King Edward VI., framed in 1652, the 42nd Article was in the following words: “ ‘ All men shall not bee saved at the lengih.’—Thei also are worthie of condemnation who indevoure at this time to restore the dangerous opinion that al menne, be thci never so ungodlie, shall at lengtht bee saved, when thei have suffered paincs for their sinnea a certain time appoinctcd by God's justice.” This Article was omitted from tho Thirty-nine Articles of Religion of the yesr1562, and it might be said that the effect of sustaining the judgment of the Court below on this charge would he to restore the Article so withdrawn. \Vc are not required, or at liberty, to express any opinion upon the mysterious question of the eternity of final punishment, further than to say that we do not find in the formulnries to which this Article refers any such distinct declaration of our Church upon the subject as to require us to condemn as penal the expression of hope by a clergyman that even the ultimate pardon of the wicked who are; condemned in the day of judgment may be consistent with the will of Almighty God.
It cannot be too clearly understood that in all this judgment there is no decision whatever upon any point of doo- l trine. Truth will prevail the more surely when the strife of passion has been stilled. The decision is only upon points of discipline. And as the judgment in the Gotham
case arrested the more physical strife of High Church against Low Church. and conceded their due place within? the great National Church to many pious men of the evan-l gelical section of the clergy, so the effect of this judgment! will be to declare that the Church of England will notl cast out those men of what is called the “ Broad Church" ‘i who wish also to serve God within her communion. The. spiritstrcngthened by such prosecutions as those now brought ' to an end, is not the spirit of the Master whom we all as Churchmen serve. Let argument continue between earnest men, for by that truth is assured; butit is full time that we made an end of litigation. And it is happily now made so difficult for one section of Churohmcn to carry off anotheri section into bondage by appealing to the letter of the law, l or for any pugnaoious clergyman to say which of his: brethren may be taken by the throat and mulcted in his; worldly goods for the discouragement of his opinions, that‘ we may hope to find it easier henceforth to keep the unity of the spirit in the bonds of peace. There is a great work waiting to be done by the Church among the people, a simply Christian work in which all sections of our clergy may employ themselves, with the whole country to aid them. To such work many of the London clergy are applying themselves, and foremost among them has long been the Bishop who now judiciously abstains from joining the Archbishops in dissent from a decision that in fact leaves untouched every Church doctrine, but interprets the merely penal force of the Church formularics, with a judicial strictncss, in the interests of peace.
The circumstances of Lieutenant Tinling’s death at Shoushing have been again discussed in the House of Lords as if the only question were personal, or what was due to the feelings of the relatives of the deceased. To us it seems that something more is involved, namely, the subordination of the N uvy.
Captain Dew very frankly avows, indeed almost boastfully, that he acted against orders in passing beyond the prescribed boundary to hostilities of thirty miles from the shore, but he rather quibbles with the question whether Lieutenant Tinling was acting under his orders, and also whether the object was an attack upon the Taepings. He denies, indeed, that the Lieutenant was on duty; but says be accompanied him, Captain Dew, at his own request, and was to be considered on leave, that is, on leave not only of absence from duty, but leave to enter upon forbidden ground, actually against duty. According
in a sort of escapade out of bounds. But yet Captain Dew warned the Lieutenant and other officers, who upon other occasions had accompanied him where they were forbidden to go, that he was responsible for their safety. Now responsibility in such case implies command. Off duty there is clearly no responsibility in mere companionship. There cannot, indeed, be a reasonable doubt that Captain Dew expected obedience and had it, though he himself was acting and leading others to act in contempt of orders. Lord Hardwieke observed, after Captain Dew’s letter had been read, “Obedience is the first “duty of a naval ofilcer, and what the Duke of “ Somerset in the case of Lieutenant Tinling called volun“ teering was neither more nor less than an act of duty." But what, then, was the act of his commanding officer, Captain Dew, and what sort of example did it set to the men of his ship, who knew that their Captain had quitted his post to go where he was forbidden to go, and that if they were for any reason to do a similar thing they would be lectured on the duty of implicit obedience, and well flogged to boot? The countenance given to such an example argues much relaxation of the discipline of the navy. It is nothing to the purpose to plead service rendered in defiance cf orders; the value of the service may be questionable, not so the value of the rule of obedience to orders. Nelson exceeded his instructions, and when a glorious fault is committed by a Nelson it will be condoned, but there must not be the fault without the Nelson. And a Nelson would not have quitted his ship to go thirty leagues up the country to hunt such small deer as the Taepings, and cfllciously to serve such cruel, false allies as the Imperialists.
Captain Dew, however, denies the intention of hostilities, and protests that he broke bounds only to advise the French commander. If this was all his purpose, why did he not go alone '2 He did not want any one to help him in giving advice, if that was the sole business of his errand. And when the unfortunate Lieutenant asked leave to accom~ pany him, he might have answered, “ I am about to trans“ gress instructions. I do so upon my own responsibility, “ trusting to be excused by the circumstances and the “ service which may be rendered, but I will not engage “ another in the same breach of orders without the same “ object, the object not being to fight but to counsel. “ Your duty does not lie where I am going, so keep to “ your ship."
Instead of holding this language, Captain Dew accepted the offered companionship, as he states, and with it the responsibility for the safety of the officers associated with him. But how was safety concerned if, as he protests, his mission was in design simply and solely one of advice to the French commander?
This is his statement:
I deemed it necessary for the safety of Ningpo to pass beyond the thirty miles’ radius, not for the purpose of engaging in hostilities with the Tsepings but rather by my presence and advice to ward of! disaster from the Imperial forces. All the oflicers who accompanied me on these occasions perfectly understood their own and my position, and considered themselves on leave. I repeatedly warned them against exposure to fire, especially on the eve of the assault on Shoushing, when I particularly cautioned Lieutenant Tinling, knowing his fearless nature, and told him and them to bear in mind that I held myself personally responsible for their safety. . . . . . . The fall of Shoushing alone would enable me to leave Ningpo, so I went to the front, not at first intending to be present at the attack, but merely to urge on the French commander the necessity of making one. General Tsidif requested me to remain, as, in the event of an accident to himself, he feared his force would disperse. His worst fears were realized; he fell early on the day of the assault, his ofiicers and men became dispirited, and my presence alone saved a great desertion; ma/gre' moi, I had to take the direction of the siege till Admiral James sent up competent oflicers to relieve me ; and in a fortnight, so hard were the besieged pressed, that they evacuated the city. and one of the first provinces in China was regained to the Imperial Government, and I was enabled to leave Ningpo, with a gunboat alone for its protection.
The question whether Lieutenant Tinling died in performance of his duty is a cruel one for his family. Unhappily he fell where it was not his duty to be, and where it was equally against duty for any to be giving him orders. It is a sad case, and a most pernicious example for the discipline of the service. A good officer is lost, and a dangerous precedent established. Fifty years ago it would have gone hard indeed with an officer who gave the account of his conduct to the Admiralty that Captain Dew has done, evidently in full confidence that his contempt of orders would not subject him to any disagreeable consequences, but rather earn him praise. That he was right in this expectation is a grievous reproach to naval discipline, and bad consequences are too sure to ensue.
BALLET DRESSES AND FIRE.
Various cxpedients have been suggested for guarding the dresses of dancers and ballet girls against fire, and it is rather extraordinary that a plan remains unrecommendcd and unnoticed which has been in every way successful at one of the small theatres. The common cause of danger are the lights placed low on the floor of the stage, and the way of providing against it at the theatre alluded to is simply to shorten the dresses of the ladies so as to put them completely out of reach of the lamps, amongst which they could bound about and twirl with the most entire safety, for no aspiring flame could touch the lowest hem of their garments. And this is not all. Beginning with the indisputable principle that there can be no danger of fire where there is no drapery whatever, the next deduction is that
to this view Lieutenant Tinling was his Captain's companion
the danger is diminished to the greatest possible degree by reducing the clothing to the minimum. So aloft and alow, to borrow nautical phrase, the dresses are close-rcefcd, lowered as much as may be above, and raised below—low in the high, high in the low quarters. Less covering indeed, it must be confessed, there could not be consistently with the rotundity required by fashion. What there is runs mainly to breadth. Upon seeing this expedient you may have uneasiness on some scores, but it will not be alarm of fire from ground lights. We have said that the plan has been in every way successful, for it has not only succeeded perfectly as regards the danger to be guarded against, but it has filled the little theatre nightly to overflow.
The New Royalty Theatre used to be about the most obscure, and the most hopeless as regards profit of any in London, but now it is highly popular and prosperous, in direct proportion, indeed, to the height of the petticoats. And for this we have seen great laudation bestowed on the management by judicious critics. But after all, what is it that the management has done to attract the public and fill the treasury ‘2 Simply and solely shortened the ladies’ petticoats six inches. We tremble when we think of what competition might do in this direction. It may be worked as a rule of three question, and then where is it to stop :-—-if shortening by six inches will do so much, how much more may be done by shortening by seven, and so on ? What the danger of this calculation may be we need not point out more particularly, but it certainly is not fire from low footlighta to high drapery.
The military monarchies have, in a certain sense, all got their constitutional checks. It is no longer songs and cpigrams circulating amongst the intelligent classes of society, or murmurs heard from the lower, which temper government absolutism and zeal. But the monied people everywhere have got hold of the State purse-strings, and pull them tight against the itching fingers of war parties. It is curious to mark how universally this is the case. In England the economists even of the Government will not have their estimates deranged, though it be to save Denmark. Over the channel Fould forbids a Polish war. At Berlin the Chamber has sent the King to make war on his private resources. Even the Vienna Reichsrath curtails tho military budget, disliking the use made of it. Russia has not said a word in behalf of its own Treaty of 1852. It would gladly maintain that arrangement, but the cost has to be counted. Civilization can at last boast that it has placed some little check upon military despotism, even where it has not succeeded in establishing or perfecting Constitutional Government.
If the check be felt at St Petersburg, it is also experienced at Constantinople, where it is far more required, and more useful. People must recollect the flourishing Turkish Budget, which was published some time since, with its fifteen millions of revenue clearly exceeding some fourteen millions and three-quarters of expenditure. Never was a nicer balance. On the strength of the surplus all its kind advisers prompted the Ports to collect an army on the Danube, in order to walk into Servia, or the Principalities, as soon as Europe was occupied with its own embarrassments. The Porto was but too willing. It had a standing quarrel with Scrvia. The Greek convents were a convenient subject for entering into the same relations with the Principalities. We now learn that several of the great Powers, especially Austria, incite the Turks to take the disputed question into their hands, and by a military invasion compel Prince Michael and Prince Couza to conform to the Turkish wishes. This would be diflicult. For the Ports seeks no less than to dethrcne them, and supersede them by Funariot rulers, such as made provincial government so lucrative for themselves and for the high officers of the Porto in the last century.
Poverty, however, has taken the Turkish Government by the throat. The experienced who examined the boasted estimate of fifteen millions, said at the time that the fifteen would turn out tea. The returns were exaggerated, every petty and doubtful debt taken as certain of recovery, and the boasted surplus all moonshine. “’0 see the correctness of their surmises. The financial year does not close till the end of March. But by the end of December the Turkish treasury was dry. The regular advances, arranged with the banks, were paid up and exhausted ; and the old system of taking up money from the Galata merchants at 12 per cent. interest has been compulsorily resorted to. In fact, the revenue suffices for three-fourths of the year, but the last quarter demands the old supply of Treasury bills and paper, constituting a deficit, and a costly one, that does not appear upon the bond.
The warlike propensities of the Turkish Government are thus not to be found in the last quarter of its financial year. That is something. \Vhat it might do in May is another matter, and will form a new consideration. The Sultan is not only keeping up his army, but getting, by degrees, a fleet of ironclads, like his neighbours. The necessity of paying up at least a portion of the price of the )wo, new building for him in England, was lately a great cause of pecuniary distress. The Sultan met it by advancing money from his
rivals resources for the Civil List, which the Bank regulhrly pays. We fear that his ironclads are destined for acting upon the Danube, a prospect far more alarming to the Christian inhabitants of the great river’s bank, than any amount of muskets or fowling-pieces in the hands of the Christians could be to the Turks.
Whilst mentioning these facts, which mark an unquiet mind and insufficient financial economy and control in the Turkish Government, let us not pass over an act in the opposite direction. This is the admission of some thirty Christian youths to the Turkish Military School. They are of all the Christian pcrsuasions; and, strange to say, they are strictly forbidden to turn Mussulmans. Christian officers, such as Omar Pasha, do frequently become renegades in order to obtain high command. But this is new not to be permitted, the effect of which will be to encourage the formation of Christian lieutenants, but to discourage the rise of semi-Christian Pashaa. The innovation on the religious rigidity of the Turks has been, no doubt, owing to Sir Henry Bulwer, who is said to have for years insisted that it is necessary for the Sultan to employ Christians and even foreigners, both as civilians and as officers. By depriving itself of the services of the most wealthy and educated of its subjects, the Porte, in the opinion of the British Ambassador, merely flung away one of its advantages.
LOVE, LAW, AND PHYSIC.
Can love be controlled by advice, Will Cupid our mothers obey ?
sings Polly in the ‘ Beggar’s Opera,’ but it appears most prosaically and unharmoniously in the action for breach of promise of marriage, Shuttleworth v. Kirkman, that love can be controlled by advice, and that Cupid will attorneys obey, though not mothers, the amorous old gentleman of seventy having put his passion under the guidance and control of his solicitors, who would not consent to his happiness at the price of a small settlement. The defendant is the medical superintendent of a lunatic asylum, and seems as foolish as doctors of this class usnllly are. There was no delusion in the case, however, nor illusion either, when it came to the question of money.
We have a. strong opinion against actions of this sort, and think that a lady of thirty years of age has no claim for damages for not getting for a husband an old man of seventy not remarkable for sense; but the Chief Justice of the Queen's Bench remarked, with his usual good feeling, that it is one of the misfortunes of these cases that the lady’s feelings are too often first outraged and afterwards laughed at. Thcjury thought it no laughing matter, and gave Miss Shuttleworth 400l. damages. Dr Kirkman ought to have considered that his lawyers, to whose judgment be sacrificed his flame, had an interest in the matter, which might incline them to prefer the profit of costs for a breach of promise to the smaller one for a marriage settlement.
BENEFIT OF DRUN KEN N ESS.
When will magistrates hold a consistent language about drunkenness P When will they cease to say and unsay? To declare it no palliation of offence in one breath and treat it as palliation in the next.
In the Criminal Court the Common Serjeant, in passing sentence on Whitehead, convicted of an indecent assault, observed, “ with respect to his being in a state of drunken“ ness, that was no excuse for the offence he had been “ guilty of, but still the Court would take that into con“ sideration, and the impression formed that the prisoner “ did not meditate insulting the prosecutrix."
This is Touchstone’s style of argument. Drunkenncss, in respect that it is voluntary loss of reason, is no excuse for offence, but in respect that the man does not know what he is about it is to be taken into consideration. Why does the Court give a thought to a circumstance that does not cxtenuate ofl'ence? If it takes the plea into consideration at all it should be in aggravation rather than mitigation. But the fact is, that the Common Serjeant did allow some weight to the plea of intoxication.
It will be remembered that the case was a very bad one. The prisoner instantly, upon stepping into a railway carriage, commenced an indecent assault upon a lady, accompanied with gross language of insult, treating her, indeed as a common prostitute. Upon the trial Whitehead was judiciously advised by his counsel to plead guilty, prot'cssedly to save the prosecutrix the 'distress of repeating evidence painful to modesty, but most probably to avoid the indignation which would naturally have been excited by the lady’s account of the outrage, and the feelings of shame which the recital must have moved in her. And Mr Scrjeant Parry had the audacity to claim for his client the credit of manliness for this politic course, and represented it as some atonement for the unmeditated offence of a drunken man. But unfortunately, it appeared in the report of the proceedings before the magistrate, that the prisoner was laughing at the complainant and mocking her when she was giving her evidence as to his disgusting and rufiianly behaviour; and this must have been when the intoxication had passed away, and he had had time to think of his conduct, and repeat of it, if he had any of the feelings of a man.
The Common Serjeant, adopting the view of the prisoner's counsel, laid some stress on the circumstance that Whitehead had not meditated the insult. The fellow, upon seeing a good-looking woman in a railway carriage, had incontinently made an indecent attack upon her, and for this allowance is made as for an act without deliberation. Why, it is an aggravation that at the first sight of the woman the rufilan was ready with a filthy assault and expressions. How could there be meditation in such a case as regards the particular person outraged? To see and to
insult were in the close order of licentious brutality. As well might it be pleaded for the wretches who commit indecent assaults in the streets that they are not premeditated.
At the Westminster Police-court, a filthy German was convicted of one of these assaults upon a woman he had never seen before, and it having been proved that the plea of drunkenness was false, Mr Selfe properly observed:
That had it been otherwise drunkenness would be no excuse for his insulting and attacking a respectable woman in such a way, and committed him for twenty-one days' hard labour in the House of Correction.
Mr Selfe, unlike the Common Scrjeant, would not have taken drunkenness at all into consideration, nor did he see any cxtenuatiou in the fact that the prisoner had attacked a woman as soon as he set eyes on her, of course without premeditation. The German has three weeks with hard labour; Mr Whitehead two months without labour, in effect a milder punishment; and we see an unpremeditatcd assault on a woman, without the aggravation of indecency, punished at the Thames Police'oourt with three months' imprisonment with hard labour, and very properly so punished.
THE BATTLE IN NEW ZEALAND.
The Maoris have suffered a defeat that may possibly shorten the wretched war with them into which we have unwillingly been forced. On Friday the 20th of November, General Cameron advances to Rangariro against the chief Maori entrenchments which had been for nine months in course of construction and, really well constructed, were said to be manned with about 1,100 natives. The whole of the Ngatiawa or proper Waikato tribe was within the place, which was backed on two sides by the Waikari tribe. By land and up the river in the gunboats Pioneer and Aron, General Cameron brought against these eutrcnchments a force of about 1,200 men, exclusive of sailors and marines, with two guns of the Royal Artillery, that opened fire on shore at the same time that the steamers were opposite the landing-place; but the Pioneer could not be got into position for landing her troops. All being so far ready, at half-past four in the afternoon immediate attack was resolved upon, the 65th Royal Engineers were told off for the storming party, advanced rapidly under heavy fire, leapt over the first line of pits, and followed by the rest of the land force drove the Maoris from their outer Works into the heart of their position. The fire of a detached party sent to cut off those lllnoris who made for a swamp in the rear, drove them to the water, and more than a hundred began swimming and wading to the other side. At this time the Pioneer got alongside, and the troops being quickly ashore, a shower of bullets fell upon the swimmers, and comparatively few escaped. General Cameron’s whole force Was then gathered round the Maori entrenchments, to which there was admission only by.a narrow opening through which but one person could enter at a time. Every officer who led the attempt to take this position by storm was either killed or dangerously wounded. The hour too was becoming late. General Cameron, therefore, gave orders for the parapcts to be undermined and blown up, and the attack deferred till daylight the next morning. The soil being a loose sand, perfect undermining was impossible, but the parapets during the night were considerably reduced, the natives all the while yelling and shouting. Soon after daybreak their head chief stood forward with a white flag and called for an interpreter. The interpreter advanced, the English soldiers also had crept up and the Maoris saw themselves surrounded. They saved themselves by unconditional surrender, and were complimented on the brave stand they had made. There were but 185 of them, including twelve wounded and one or two Women. Less than fifty Maori dead have been found, including some women; there are not quite 200 prisoners, and few are said to have escaped. The estimate of 1,100 natives in the earth-work was thereforc an error, and the victory was easy over a handful of brave savages in their cntrcnehment, by an English force of three or four times their number, with gunboats and land-guns. The English loss was forty-one killed, officers and privates, and. a dozen officers severely wounded. Several chiefs are among the prisoners, and the fight, therefore, may shorten the war; but it was neither glorious nor inglorious to the assailants, while the Maoris can boast that they surrendered only to a much superior force after inflicting severe punishment upon the enemy.
THE GERMANS IN SLESVIG.
The sudden abandonment of the Danewerke has been as the breaking of a dam, and already the overpowering force of the Prussians rushing into Slcsvig has with much sacrifice of life swept northward before it the little army of the gallantly retreating Danes. The day draws near when the invaders must explain to Europe, Why this bloodshed? The last of a long series of shadowy pretexts of quarrel was the Constitution of November 18, 1863. The Germans have no right whatever to demand its abrogation, yet before a life was sacrificed, Denmark consented to abolish it at the first possible moment, and in the only possible way, short of converting a sound constitutional kingdom into a mere imitation of a German despotism; and England offered guarantee of her good faith. Austria and Prussia still profess, diplomatically, that they do not mean to break the Treaty of 1852 by detaching Slesvig or Holstein from the Danish crown. Their acts seem to belie their words.
Sir,—On the 9th instant Lord Hardwicke, in the House of Lords, asked whether the Government were in possession of
as which would penetrate iron-plates four-aud-a-half inches thick; his lordship stated that Sir W. Armstrong had made some nice breech-loadiu field-pieces up to the calibre of 12- ounders, but that all is eat breech-loaders had failed. n the other hand, Mr hitworth had made guns which had sent flat-headed shots through the strongest iron-plates. Lord Hardwicke wanted a little information. It is strange, after the uestion of great guns had been so ventilated, that his lords ip should take so narrow a view of so very broad a uestion. .
Lord Hardwidlre totally put out of sight the fact that for six ears one man alone has been allowed to peddle with our artillery—that he received honours and money for making a dead failure, that his failures in no way interfered between him and fresh jobs, that as fast as one thing had been a costly failure he was allowed to make another attempt. In short, that he had been ap ointed Inspector of Royal Artillery when he should have can qppointed Tinker of Royal Artillery; that two millions an a half had been made ducks and drakes of by this man, from a determination on the part of the War Office that if he could not do the work nobody else should. So strong is the back-stairs influence of Sir W. Armstrong. The power of holding on and the tenacity with which he stands to his breechloading a-shooters, as the Times’ Richmond Correspondent terms t em, and the old 68-pounders, is marvellous. Why he is to supersede all other engineers is a question easier asked than answered. It re is a case of the Showman and the little boy—Walk in, my little dear, and see what you shall see—Here is Danull in the Lion's Den, uito composed and heasy in his mind, a reading of the Ttmr's' newspaper, but the Lion won't touch he.--Little Boy : Why won’t he touch him, sir P—Showmau: Vy vont he touch him? Vy in course becos he‘s Danull. Armstrong or Daniel, it is all one, the case applies to either. When the Duke of Somerset and Lord De Grey found the case put' to them in this mild form by Lord Hardwicke they were in clover. Oh, they had just now got some great ans made by Armstrong, but no broadside guns for ships. hitworth was to have a trial with Armstrong, crhaps something would come of it. Armstrong was a fine fellow and always ready, but Whitworth hung back, not so much on the part of his guns as dread of that Ordnance Committee, whom he justly considered to be onesided and packed. Lord De Grey admitted that Whitworth was not afraid of his cause, but very much afraid of the judges who were to determine the merits of the ordnance op trial; and in this opinion Mr Whitworth is not singular, but is supported by the ma'ority of engineers throughout the countr . The Duke of omerset and Lord De Grey treated the su ject exactly as though Woolwich. Shoeburyncss, and Portsmouth were Sir W. Armstrong’s manors; the Ordnance Committee his keepers, who were bound to see that no
healthy manhood. At the age of fifteen the youth was
The young student had a strange humour for living and
Such was the frank and happy student who was in due time to join and succeed his father in the practice of the law, and who would have made law instead of literature the business of his life but for the accident that made him what he afterwards became. In Prescott’s junior year,—he was then but sixteen years old,——there was one day after dinner such rough frolicking and pelting among the undergraduates in Common Hall as sometimes occurred when the College officers had left their tables before the room was cleared. When Prescott, who was going out at the door, turned his head quickly to see what was going on, a large hard piece of bread, that had been thrown at random, and would otherwise have hit the back of his head, struck his left eye. It struck upon the open surface of the eye,
oaching engineers trggipassed upon his land and infringed his manorial rights. hitworth they deemed a poacher of a dangerous character, but as he was rather sup orted b i S uire Bull they were obliged to s ueezc him in or a trial: which they would ruin if the cou d. If Lord Hardwicke had framed his questions wit a view of blinking the reali state of things,in order to allow the Duke of Somerset and Lord 1 De Grey to get off easily, he could have devised no betterl means. It is to be hoped, indeed I shrewdly suspect, that in ‘ the House of Commons there are certain members more awake, and who will not leave the covering alone which has been so curiously wrapped round the grossest job that has been perpetrated for many years to the detriment of the country and the great benefit of the cause of momépoly.
In the form of a dainty little modern-antique quarto, a . drawing-room book of which the aspect is very delightful to the student's eye, this is one of the most genuiner biographies that has been published in our day. It is fresh,
By George Ticknor.
natural, warm with the recollection of a life-long friendship based on a rare fulness of sympathy ; an adequate , sketch of a most interesting life by the one man who wasl most competent to write it. Mr Ticknor—the recent new‘ edition of whose ‘ History of Spanish Literature’ we by no; means intend to leave undiscussed—was the friend by whom l Prescott was set on the path of study in which he earned? his brilliant success. What memoir there might be of himl it was Mr Prescott’s desire that his friend Ticknor should write; and here it is, so written that it will live together with the works of which it tells the tale.
William Hickling Prescott was born at Salem, New England, May 4th, 1796; his father, handsome and gentle, then thirty-four years old, was already a successful barrister; his mother, five years younger, was joyous and full of womanly activity. He was the second born but the first living son ; a bright, merry, sensitive boy, with a strong memory, who loved play better than books. Trained to free speaking by the indulgence of a happy home, happy also in his first schoolmistress, who called herself “ schoolmothcr” of her flock, he was at school full of life and mischief, ready and able to do what work he was obliged to do, but careful not to do more than his task. He read at random, as a natural boy should; delivered his fancy captive to Southey’s version of ‘ Amadis of Gaul ;’ established a school friendship with the son of his teacher, fought with him mock combats, and beguiled the time with him by alternate invention of romantic stories as they went along the streets. He was simply, in fact, the fortunate son of a happy house advancing‘by the natural way to a bright,
before the lid had time to close for its protection. He fell,
After a period of prostration in a dark room Prescott
During the four or five months after leaving college, at
As summer wore away winter was dreaded; it was
resolved, therefore, to send him to St Michael’s, where his grandfather Hickling was Consul of the United States, and after wintering there he was to visit London and Paris for the benefit of the best medical advice, and, if he were able, proceed to recruit his health in Italy. In the year 1815 the voyage from Boston to St Michael’s could only be by a small sailing vessel. He was three weeks at see, but he carried his kind gladness of heart into the miserable cabin, where his inflammation of the eye was brought back, and he must diet himself on rye pudding, with no sauce but salt. He reported home that he had been treated with every attention, and made as comfortable as possible by captain and crew, “ but this “ cabin was never designed for rheumatics. The “ companion way opens immediately upon deck, and “ the patent binnncle illuminators, vice windows, are so “ingeniously and impartially constructed, that for every “ray of light we have half a dozen drops of water." He landed with a slight renewal of the trouble in his eye, and, again to be happily housed, was welcomed warmly into Yankee Hall, the comfortable home of a genial and hale grandfather of seventy-two, who by a second wife had children, of whom some were of like age and humour with their nephew or cousin. Here, he said, “ every one is “ sans souci, the air of the place is remarkably propitious “ both to good spirits and good appetites." In a fortnight his eye was again seriously attacked, and for three months he was a prisoner to the dark room, where he would lie, singing aloud, with unabated cheer. “ There have been “ few days,” he wrote home, “ in which I could not “ solace my sorrows with a song. I preserved my health “ by walking on the piazza with a handkerchief tied over “ a pair of goggles, which were presented to me by a “ gentleman here, and by walking some hundreds of miles “in my room, so that I emerged from my dungeon, not “ with the emaciated figure of a prisoner, but in the “ florid bloom of a ban. civant. Indeed, everything has “ been done which could promote my health and happi“ nose.” The joyous, grateful heart of the young man won on the whole of his grandfather’s household. The young people used their bright eyes for him in reading to him, in his prison, Scott, Shakespeare, the Iliad and the Odyssey; the old people wept at parting from him, and. the grandfather, as be pressed him often in his arms upon the beach, said, “God knows, it never cost me more to part “from any of my own children.”
Early in April 1816, his age then being twenty, Prescott left St Michael’s for London, where he took the best reputed professional advice, and learnt that there was no hope of recovery of sight in the eye first injured, and that little could be done for the other except to add to its strength by strengthening the whole physical system. He was then unable to read the books he bought for future use; he might not attend, sorely as they tempted him, the farewell performances of Mrs Siddons and John Kemble; but of the few things he did see he enjoyed most the Cartoons of Raffaello and the Elgiu Marbles. Of the Elgin Marbles he said, “ there are few living beings in whose society I have ex“ perienced so much real pleasure.” From August until October in that year the youth was in Paris, and then, travelling with an old schoolfellow and friend, he wintered as a traveller in Italy. In the spring he returned to Paris, where his friend who is now his biographer found him ill. His illness suddenly became dangerous, and, says Mr Ticknor,
I went personally for his physician, and brought him back withIme, fearing, as it was already late at night, that there might otherwisebe some untoward delay. The result showed that I had not been noreasonably snxisus. The most active treatment was instantly adopted, and absolute quiet prescribed. I watched with him that night; and as I had yet made no acquaintances in Paris, and felt no interest there so strong as my interest in him, I shut myself up with him. and thought little of what was outside the walls of our hotel till he was better. I was, in fact, much alarmed. Nor was he insensible to his position, which the severity of the remedies administered left no doubt was a critical one. But he maintained his composure throughout, begging me, however, not to tell him that his illness was dangerous unless I should think it indispensable to do so. In three or four days my apprehensions were relieved. In eight or ten more, during which I was much with him, he was able to go out, and in another week he was restored. But it was in that dark room that I first learned to know him as I have never known any other person beyond the limits of my immediate family, and it was there that was first formed a mutual regard over which, to the day of his death,— a period of above forty yearn—no cloud ever passed.
Returning to London in May, the young invalid travelled a little in England, and at Midsummer embarked for home with unstrengthened eyes. At home nothing was wanting that might give him health and happiness. His sister, three years younger than himself, became his comrade, and shut herself up with him to read to him for six or even eight hours at a stretch, until the father and. mother, for her own health's sake, intervened to restrain and regulate her loving zeal. It was out of question now that he should practise as a lawyer. As much out of question that he should lead an idle life. Experience of the little benefit derived from seclusion caused him, except when there was some especial inflammation of the eye, how to gratify his always strong relish for society, and the result of this was very soon his marriage to Miss Susan Amory, the daughter of a successful and cultivated merchant. “ Omnia vincit Amor, ct nos cedamus Amer-i," he said, when his old schoolfellows joked him upon his desertion from their bachelor ranks. In May 1820, his age being then twenty-four, the cherished son's young wife was received into the household of the Prescotts. In that marriage, as in all other domestic relations, Prescott's life was one of unclouded love. At the time of his wedding, says his friend,
He was tall, well-formed, manlyin his bearing but gentle, wiih light brown hair that was hardly changed or diminished by years,