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Conts.
Assay. Weight. Standard in pure Value in

Weight. silver. Sterling.

ox. dwt. dwt. gr.dwt.gr. mi. grains. d. Wirtemberg Rixdollar, specie

W.1 3 18 1 16 14 2359, 1 4 2,14 Copstuck

W.4 2 4 61 2 16 12 59, 8 0 8,35 Wurtzburg Rixdollar, specie

W.1

3 18 17 16 4 16 359,7 4 2,22 Copstuck

W.4 3 4 61 2 16 6 59,3 8,28 Zurich . . Rixdollar, or ecu (1753)

W.0 14118 12 21 8375, 4 4,36 Half rixdollar (1753)

W.0 194 8 23 8 4 12 181,8 2 1,38 Ecu (1761)

W.1 5 17 231 15 22 14 354, 4 1,43 Half ecu (1761)

W.1 5 8 211| 7 21 4175, 2 0,43 Ecu (1773)

W.0 19 17 2 15 14 18 346, 8 4 0,42 Half ecu (1773)

W.O 19 8 13 7 19 9173, 4

2 0,21 Ecu (1794)

W.0 191 16 61 14 19 18 329,3

3 9,98 Half ecu (1786)

W,1 0 8 48 7 10 10165, 2 1 11,06 Piece of 20 schillings (1798) W.3 9 3 188 2 14

657,6 0 8,04 East India Rupee of Mohammed Shah

B. O 647 91 7 14 9168,7

1 11,55 Rupee of Ahmed Shah

B. O 12 7 91 7 18 16172, 8 2 0,12 Rupee of Allum Ghir (1759)

B. O 13 7 11 7 22 0175, 8

2 0,54 Rupee of Shah Allum (1772)

B, 014 7 10 7 21 4175, 2 0,43 Rupee of the same (Benares 1774) B. 08 7 63 7 13 0167,5 1 11,38 Rupee of the same (1779)

B. O 14 7 111 7 23 8176, 8 2 0,68 Rupee Benares (1818)

B. 0 13 7 7 7 14 5168,9 1 11,58 Rupee, sicca, coined by the East In

B. O 13 7 11}| 7 22 0175, 8 2 0,54 dia Company at Calcutta Rupee, Calcutta (1818)

Stand. 8 0 8 00175,9 2 0,56 Rupee, Arcot (1759) .

B. 0 7 7 94 7 14 16 169, 1 1 11,61 Rupee, ditto (1782)

B. 08 7 6 7 12 4166,8 1 11,29 Rupee, ditto (1788)

B. 08 7 91 7 15 12 169, 8 1 11,71 Rupee, ditto, of the latest coinages B. O 41 7 8f 7 12 2 166,5 1 11,25 Rupee, Bombay, old

B. O 13 7 101| 7 21 4174, 9

2 0,42 Rupee, Bombay, new, or Surat (1818) w.o 0f 3 11 7 10 4164,7 1 11,01 Rupee, Lucknow

B. 0 89 7 541 7 12 2 166,5 1 11,25 Rupee, Sultanny

B. ( 347 9 7 12 0166,3 1 11,22 Rupee, Madepoor, or Nowsee W.0 5 7 5 7 1 16157,1 19,93 Rupee, Madras Rajapoor

B. 0 4 7 7 7 10 4 164,8 1 11,01 Rupee, Jeypoor

B, 012 7 7 7 16 8 170,6 1 11,82 Rupee, Furruckabad (1818)

B. O 11 7 5 7 10 14 165,3 1 11,07 Rupee, Chanderry

W.0 037 5 7 4 8 159,5 1 10,27 Rupee, Oukery

W.1 0f | 7 7 6 14 0146,9 1 8,51 Rupee, Shree sicca of Poona

W.0 13 7 41 7 3 6 158, 5 1 10,13 Rupee, Halee sicca

B. O 124 7 741 7 17 2/171, 2 1 11,90 Rupee, Ougein.

B. 0 5 7 61! 7 10 4164, 8 1 11,01 Rupee, Maisore, or new Holkar B. 0 7 7 5 7 10 8165, 1 1 11,05 Rupee, Indore Holkar

B. O 44 7 5 7 8 6163, 1 1 10,77 Rupee, Chinsouree

B. O 2 7 49 7 6 6161, 2 1 10,50 Rupee, Broach, old

W.0 0 7 10 7 O 10164,3 1 10,94 Rupee, Broach, new

W.0 10 7 10 7 1 18157, 2 1 9,95 Rupee, Brodera, old

W.0 4 7 101| 7 6 17161, 8 1 10,59 Rupee, Brodera, new

W.0 1011 7 101 7 2 2 157,3 1 9,96 Rupee, Ana Sai, coined at Caira W.0 10917 816 23 14155, 1 1 9,65 Rupee, Ana Sai, coined at Pitlad W.0 1717 91 6 19 4151, 1 9,08 Rupee, Amedabad sicca

W.0 77 10 7 3 18 159, 1 1 10,21 Rupee, Mungull Sai

W.0 101 7 1017 2 4157, 4 9,97 Rupee, Mumo Sai

W.0 897 98 7 2 14157,9 1 10,04

1 9,72 time) Rupee, Cambay

W.O 18 7 10 6 19 2150, 9 1 9,07 Rupee, Persian (1745)

B. O 13 7 911 7 19 10 173, 5 2 0,22 Rupee, ditto (1789)

B. O 124 7 10 7 20 0173,9 2 0,28 Rupee, Madras (1818)

Gold Sta. 7 12 7 12 0165, 1 11,04 Fanam, Cananore

W.0 11 1 111 1 11 10 32,9 0 4,5 Fanam, Bombay, old

B. O 13 1 11 1 13 16 35, 0 4,88 Fanam, Pondicherry .

B. O 51 1 0 1 1 2 22,8 0 3,18 Fanam, ditto, double

W.0 3 1 181 1 18 2 39, 0 5,44 Larin

|B. O 10 3 24 3 6 072, 1 0 10,06 Bussorah Crux

W.6 08 11 16 5 7 14'118, 1

1 4,49 Gulden of the Dutch E. I. Comp. (1820) |W.0 74 6 22 6 16 6148,4 1 8,72

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Rupee, Seca Sai (coined in Futty?w.o 947 78 7 0 4155, 6

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The foregoing operation may be thus abridged

Rule for Silver Coins-Multiply the carat grains in the fineness by the troy grains in the weight, and again multiply this product by 5818 ; cut of seven decimals, which will give the answer in pence and decimals of a penny sterling.

Thus, in the foregning question of the Spanish Dollar,

214 x 416 = 89024

5818

51,7941632

4

oz.

OZ.

dot. gr.

gr.

3,1766528

Answer. 4s. 3 d.
To find the contents of the Spanish Dollar in pure silver, say-

dwt.
As 12 : 10 14 ::

17 8 : 370,9 Or the contents in pure silver may be found by multiplying the standard weight sy 37, and dividing by 40; and, on the contrary, multiplying the contents in pure silver by 40, and dividing by 37, will give the standard weight.

The precious metals in England are mostly bought and sold at so much per ounce standard. It therefore becomes necessary to determine the standard weight; and this must be calculated from the Assay Master's Report of weight and fineness. But it may be useful first to explain the characters which are generally used in these Reports.

Assayer's Marks.
1 is 1 Dwt. and occasionally as 1 oz.
ü
2
e
62
Edij
Gie

ob Obulus) i The common method of finding the value of small quantities of gold and silver is by alloying, from the Assay Master's Report, at the rate of 4s. per carat, better or worse, in every ounce weight

gold; and at the rate of 6d. per ounce, better or worse, in every ounce weight of silver. But when silver is more than 10 dwt, worse, an allowance of 20. per ounce must be made for refining.

2

5

10

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2 dwt. (fd. Thus, to find the value of 2 oz. of gold B. 1 car. 1 gr. at £4. per oz.—To £8. (for 2 oz.) add 10s. for better, which gives the value £8. 10s.-And to find the value of 12 oz. of silver, W. 10 dwts. at 5s. 6d. per oz. From £3. 6s. (for 12 oz.) subtract 3s, for worse, which gives the ralue £3. 33. We submit finally

1.-RULES FOR STANDARDING Gold.

As 22 carats are to the Assay, or Report of fineness, so is the gross weight to the quantity that is to be added or subtracted from this gross weight, according as the report is better or worse. If better, the additional quantity is called (by the trade) Betterness, and if worse, the subtractional quantity is called Worseness.

Example—How much standard gold is there' in an ingot of the following Report, B. 1 car 3} grains. Weight, 67 oz. 15 dwt. 8 gr. ?

oz, dwt. gr.

oz. dwt. gr. As 22 : 1 31 :: 67 15 8 Or thus, as 22 ; 23 31 :: 67 15 8 : 73 10 20

oz.

dwt. gr.

4

4

20

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oz.

The following method for standarding gold may be generally used with advantage :

8 Gross Weight B. or W, 1.car. 34 gr 2 gr. $ 33

67

dwt.

gr.
15
17 16
18 20
9 10

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II. RULES FOP. STANDARDING Silver. As 11 oz. 2 dwt. to the assay, so is the gross weight to the quantity which is to be added or subtracted, according as the report is B. or W. Example-In 287 oz. of silver, W. 12į dwt., how much standard ?

oz. dwt.

nz. dwt. gr. As 11 2 ; 12 :: 287 Or thus, as 11 2 : 10 94 :: 287 : 270 16 20

oz. dwt. dwt.

oz.

20

20

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oz, dwt. gr. From 287 0 0 Gross Weight Subtract 16 3 of Worseness

270 16 20 Standard.

From the last example, the reason of the following rule for standarding siiver is obvious:

Multiply half the weight in ounces by the assay in pennyweights, and divide the product by 111, the quotient will be the betterness or worseness in ounces. Example—How much standard silver in 160 ounces of B. 18} dwt. ? Half weight 80

181

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It should be observed that there are tables constructed, and sometimes used, for standarding gold and silver, as may be seen in Postlethwayt's Dictionary of Commerce, vol. 1, page 388 to 398; but, from the simplicity and conciseness of the foregoing examples, it is manifest that such tables cannot much shorten the operation, though they may serve to check or prove the calculation.

JJI. RULES FOR CONVERTING THE FOREGOING Tables of Corns into French DENOMINATIONS.

To reduce English gold coin into Francs, and the contrary.
Rule-Multiply the number of Pence by ,105: and the number of Francs by ,9525.
Example—How many Francs in a Sovereign ?

Here 2400. X ,105 = 25 Francs 20 Centimes.

And again, 25 Francs 20 Centimes X 9,525 = 240 Pence.
To reduce English sterling silver into Franes, and the contrary.
RULE- Multiply the number of Pence by ,103: and the number of Francs by 9,709.
ExampleHow many Francs in 240 Pence, silver value ?

240 X ,103 = 24 Francs 72 Centimes;

And this number x 9,709 = 240 Pence.
The foregoing resuits are the Pars, very nearly, in gold and silver value.
To bring English grains into Grammes, and the contrary.

Rule-Multiply the number of Grains by ,064792; and the number of Grammes by 15,434.
Erample-How many Grammes in a Sovereign, weighing 113,1 English grains of pure gold ?

Answer, 7 Grammes 328 Decigrammes, nearly; and this number, multiplied by 15,434, equals 113,1 grains.

By the application of the above rules, all the foregoing Tables of Coins may be converted into French denominations, except the first column, which contains the Assay, and which is thus reduced :

RULE FOR Gold Coins— Make the Assay Report the numerator, and 24 the denominator, and this vulgar fraction, reduced to three places of decimals, will give the Milliemes, according to the French erpression. Example-To convert English standard gold into Milliemes. Thus, 11 = 916 Milliemes. If the gold be 1 carat 2 grains worse than standard.

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then = 854 Millicmes. Carat grains 82

96 Miliemes are reduced to carats by multiplying by 24 and cutting off three decimals.

For Silver Coins-To reduce English Assay Reports of silver into French Reports, or Milliemes.

Rule--Make the number of pennyweights in the Assay Report the numerator, and 240 the denominator, and this reduced to a decimal fraction of three places gives the Milliemes.

'sumple—To reduce English standard silver into Milliemes.

dwt. gr.

11 2
20

222

= 72 = 925 Milliemes.

240 To reduce Milliemes into English Assay Reports of silver.

RULE-Multiply by 240, und cut off three decimals. Thus, 891 Milliemes x 240 = 211 = 10 dwt 4 gł., and this subtracted from 11 dwt. 2 gr. gives 8 dwt. worse than English standard.

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