. . . Conts. Weight. silver. Sterling. ox. dwt. dwt. gr.dwt.gr. mi. grains. d. Wirtemberg Rixdollar, specie W.1 3 18 1 16 14 2359, 1 4 2,14 Copstuck W.4 2 4 61 2 16 12 59, 8 0 8,35 Wurtzburg Rixdollar, specie W.1 3 18 17 16 4 16 359,7 4 2,22 Copstuck W.4 3 4 61 2 16 6 59,3 8,28 Zurich . . Rixdollar, or ecu (1753) W.0 14118 12 21 8375, 4 4,36 Half rixdollar (1753) W.0 194 8 23 8 4 12 181,8 2 1,38 Ecu (1761) W.1 5 17 231 15 22 14 354, 4 1,43 Half ecu (1761) W.1 5 8 211| 7 21 4175, 2 0,43 Ecu (1773) W.0 19 17 2 15 14 18 346, 8 4 0,42 Half ecu (1773) W.O 19 8 13 7 19 9173, 4 2 0,21 Ecu (1794) W.0 191 16 61 14 19 18 329,3 3 9,98 Half ecu (1786) W,1 0 8 48 7 10 10165, 2 1 11,06 Piece of 20 schillings (1798) W.3 9 3 188 2 14 657,6 0 8,04 East India Rupee of Mohammed Shah B. O 647 91 7 14 9168,7 1 11,55 Rupee of Ahmed Shah B. O 12 7 91 7 18 16172, 8 2 0,12 Rupee of Allum Ghir (1759) B. O 13 7 11 7 22 0175, 8 2 0,54 Rupee of Shah Allum (1772) B, 014 7 10 7 21 4175, 2 0,43 Rupee of the same (Benares 1774) B. 08 7 63 7 13 0167,5 1 11,38 Rupee of the same (1779) B. O 14 7 111 7 23 8176, 8 2 0,68 Rupee Benares (1818) B. 0 13 7 7 7 14 5168,9 1 11,58 Rupee, sicca, coined by the East In B. O 13 7 11}| 7 22 0175, 8 2 0,54 dia Company at Calcutta Rupee, Calcutta (1818) Stand. 8 0 8 00175,9 2 0,56 Rupee, Arcot (1759) . B. 0 7 7 94 7 14 16 169, 1 1 11,61 Rupee, ditto (1782) B. 08 7 6 7 12 4166,8 1 11,29 Rupee, ditto (1788) B. 08 7 91 7 15 12 169, 8 1 11,71 Rupee, ditto, of the latest coinages B. O 41 7 8f 7 12 2 166,5 1 11,25 Rupee, Bombay, old B. O 13 7 101| 7 21 4174, 9 2 0,42 Rupee, Bombay, new, or Surat (1818) w.o 0f 3 11 7 10 4164,7 1 11,01 Rupee, Lucknow B. 0 89 7 541 7 12 2 166,5 1 11,25 Rupee, Sultanny B. ( 347 9 7 12 0166,3 1 11,22 Rupee, Madepoor, or Nowsee W.0 5 7 5 7 1 16157,1 19,93 Rupee, Madras Rajapoor B. 0 4 7 7 7 10 4 164,8 1 11,01 Rupee, Jeypoor B, 012 7 7 7 16 8 170,6 1 11,82 Rupee, Furruckabad (1818) B. O 11 7 5 7 10 14 165,3 1 11,07 Rupee, Chanderry W.0 037 5 7 4 8 159,5 1 10,27 Rupee, Oukery W.1 0f | 7 7 6 14 0146,9 1 8,51 Rupee, Shree sicca of Poona W.0 13 7 41 7 3 6 158, 5 1 10,13 Rupee, Halee sicca B. O 124 7 741 7 17 2/171, 2 1 11,90 Rupee, Ougein. B. 0 5 7 61! 7 10 4164, 8 1 11,01 Rupee, Maisore, or new Holkar B. 0 7 7 5 7 10 8165, 1 1 11,05 Rupee, Indore Holkar B. O 44 7 5 7 8 6163, 1 1 10,77 Rupee, Chinsouree B. O 2 7 49 7 6 6161, 2 1 10,50 Rupee, Broach, old W.0 0 7 10 7 O 10164,3 1 10,94 Rupee, Broach, new W.0 10 7 10 7 1 18157, 2 1 9,95 Rupee, Brodera, old W.0 4 7 101| 7 6 17161, 8 1 10,59 Rupee, Brodera, new W.0 1011 7 101 7 2 2 157,3 1 9,96 Rupee, Ana Sai, coined at Caira W.0 10917 816 23 14155, 1 1 9,65 Rupee, Ana Sai, coined at Pitlad W.0 1717 91 6 19 4151, 1 9,08 Rupee, Amedabad sicca W.0 77 10 7 3 18 159, 1 1 10,21 Rupee, Mungull Sai W.0 101 7 1017 2 4157, 4 9,97 Rupee, Mumo Sai W.0 897 98 7 2 14157,9 1 10,04 1 9,72 time) Rupee, Cambay W.O 18 7 10 6 19 2150, 9 1 9,07 Rupee, Persian (1745) B. O 13 7 911 7 19 10 173, 5 2 0,22 Rupee, ditto (1789) B. O 124 7 10 7 20 0173,9 2 0,28 Rupee, Madras (1818) Gold Sta. 7 12 7 12 0165, 1 11,04 Fanam, Cananore W.0 11 1 111 1 11 10 32,9 0 4,5 Fanam, Bombay, old B. O 13 1 11 1 13 16 35, 0 4,88 Fanam, Pondicherry . B. O 51 1 0 1 1 2 22,8 0 3,18 Fanam, ditto, double W.0 3 1 181 1 18 2 39, 0 5,44 Larin |B. O 10 3 24 3 6 072, 1 0 10,06 Bussorah Crux W.6 08 11 16 5 7 14'118, 1 1 4,49 Gulden of the Dutch E. I. Comp. (1820) |W.0 74 6 22 6 16 6148,4 1 8,72 . . . Rupee, Seca Sai (coined in Futty?w.o 947 78 7 0 4155, 6 . C . In order to show the principles on which the foregoing tables are calculated, it may proper first to explain the manner by which the value of any coin may be determined when its weight and fineness are known. For this purpose the quantity of standard gold and silver contained in it must be first found; and then its sterling value may be ascertained from the Mint-price of the Gold Coins—What is the sterling value of a French Double Louis d'or, the Report (per table, page 131,) being as follows:-weighi 9 dwt. 20 gr. Assay W. 14 gr. that is, 0 car. 14 gr. worse than The foregoing calculatious may be considerably abridged by using a constant decimal as a multi- plier. The following is a general rule for gold coins. Multiply the carat grains in the fineness by the troy grains in the weight, and again multiply this Or, the contents in pure gold may be found by multiplying the standard weight hy 11, and dividing by 12 ; and standard gold may be reduced to pure by reversing this operation. Silver Coins.—What is the value of a Spanish Dollar, the Report (per table, page 133,) being a follows :-weight, 17 dwt. 8 gr. Assay W. 8 dwt. that is, 0 oz. 8 dwt. worse than English standard? L The foregoing operation may be thus abridged Rule for Silver Coins-Multiply the carat grains in the fineness by the troy grains in the weight, and again multiply this product by 5818 ; cut of seven decimals, which will give the answer in pence and decimals of a penny sterling. Thus, in the foregning question of the Spanish Dollar, 214 x 416 = 89024 5818 51,7941632 4 oz. OZ. dot. gr. gr. 3,1766528 Answer. 4s. 3 d. dwt. 17 8 : 370,9 Or the contents in pure silver may be found by multiplying the standard weight sy 37, and dividing by 40; and, on the contrary, multiplying the contents in pure silver by 40, and dividing by 37, will give the standard weight. The precious metals in England are mostly bought and sold at so much per ounce standard. It therefore becomes necessary to determine the standard weight; and this must be calculated from the Assay Master's Report of weight and fineness. But it may be useful first to explain the characters which are generally used in these Reports. Assayer's Marks. ob Obulus) i The common method of finding the value of small quantities of gold and silver is by alloying, from the Assay Master's Report, at the rate of 4s. per carat, better or worse, in every ounce weight gold; and at the rate of 6d. per ounce, better or worse, in every ounce weight of silver. But when silver is more than 10 dwt, worse, an allowance of 20. per ounce must be made for refining. 2 5 10 15 18 19 2 dwt. (fd. Thus, to find the value of 2 oz. of gold B. 1 car. 1 gr. at £4. per oz.—To £8. (for 2 oz.) add 10s. for better, which gives the value £8. 10s.-And to find the value of 12 oz. of silver, W. 10 dwts. at 5s. 6d. per oz. From £3. 6s. (for 12 oz.) subtract 3s, for worse, which gives the ralue £3. 33. We submit finally 1.-RULES FOR STANDARDING Gold. As 22 carats are to the Assay, or Report of fineness, so is the gross weight to the quantity that is to be added or subtracted from this gross weight, according as the report is better or worse. If better, the additional quantity is called (by the trade) Betterness, and if worse, the subtractional quantity is called Worseness. Example—How much standard gold is there' in an ingot of the following Report, B. 1 car 3} grains. Weight, 67 oz. 15 dwt. 8 gr. ? oz, dwt. gr. oz. dwt. gr. As 22 : 1 31 :: 67 15 8 Or thus, as 22 ; 23 31 :: 67 15 8 : 73 10 20 oz. dwt. gr. 4 4 20 oz. The following method for standarding gold may be generally used with advantage : 8 Gross Weight B. or W, 1.car. 34 gr 2 gr. $ 33 67 dwt. gr. 16 II. RULES FOP. STANDARDING Silver. As 11 oz. 2 dwt. to the assay, so is the gross weight to the quantity which is to be added or subtracted, according as the report is B. or W. Example-In 287 oz. of silver, W. 12į dwt., how much standard ? oz. dwt. nz. dwt. gr. As 11 2 ; 12 :: 287 Or thus, as 11 2 : 10 94 :: 287 : 270 16 20 oz. dwt. dwt. oz. 20 20 oz, dwt. gr. From 287 0 0 Gross Weight Subtract 16 3 of Worseness 270 16 20 Standard. From the last example, the reason of the following rule for standarding siiver is obvious: Multiply half the weight in ounces by the assay in pennyweights, and divide the product by 111, the quotient will be the betterness or worseness in ounces. Example—How much standard silver in 160 ounces of B. 18} dwt. ? Half weight 80 181 It should be observed that there are tables constructed, and sometimes used, for standarding gold and silver, as may be seen in Postlethwayt's Dictionary of Commerce, vol. 1, page 388 to 398; but, from the simplicity and conciseness of the foregoing examples, it is manifest that such tables cannot much shorten the operation, though they may serve to check or prove the calculation. JJI. RULES FOR CONVERTING THE FOREGOING Tables of Corns into French DENOMINATIONS. To reduce English gold coin into Francs, and the contrary. Here 2400. X ,105 = 25 Francs 20 Centimes. And again, 25 Francs 20 Centimes X 9,525 = 240 Pence. 240 X ,103 = 24 Francs 72 Centimes; And this number x 9,709 = 240 Pence. Rule-Multiply the number of Grains by ,064792; and the number of Grammes by 15,434. Answer, 7 Grammes 328 Decigrammes, nearly; and this number, multiplied by 15,434, equals 113,1 grains. By the application of the above rules, all the foregoing Tables of Coins may be converted into French denominations, except the first column, which contains the Assay, and which is thus reduced : RULE FOR Gold Coins— Make the Assay Report the numerator, and 24 the denominator, and this vulgar fraction, reduced to three places of decimals, will give the Milliemes, according to the French erpression. Example-To convert English standard gold into Milliemes. Thus, 11 = 916 Milliemes. If the gold be 1 carat 2 grains worse than standard. then = 854 Millicmes. Carat grains 82 96 Miliemes are reduced to carats by multiplying by 24 and cutting off three decimals. For Silver Coins-To reduce English Assay Reports of silver into French Reports, or Milliemes. Rule--Make the number of pennyweights in the Assay Report the numerator, and 240 the denominator, and this reduced to a decimal fraction of three places gives the Milliemes. 'sumple—To reduce English standard silver into Milliemes. dwt. gr. 11 2 222 = 72 = 925 Milliemes. 240 To reduce Milliemes into English Assay Reports of silver. RULE-Multiply by 240, und cut off three decimals. Thus, 891 Milliemes x 240 = 211 = 10 dwt 4 gł., and this subtracted from 11 dwt. 2 gr. gives 8 dwt. worse than English standard. |