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maniples of the Hastati and Principes in the same line, and the maniple of the Triarii in rare. This arrangement of cohorts superseded that of three lines. Each cohort formed one compact body drawn up in ten ranks.

In the first formation just given, the Hastati occupied the four first ranks, the Principes the four next; and the Triarii the two last. In the second formation the Principes and Hastati, side by side, occupied the eight first ranks; the Triarii the two last as before.

The legion was thus composed of ten cohorts, which were disposed in two or three lines as most convenient.

The Roman Generals, under the title of consuls or prætors, were elected yearly by the people. This system was doubtless adopted from a fear lest a successful General, left too long in command, might gain sufficient influence over his troops to enable him to seize on supreme authority. A yearly change of Commanders, however, if rigidly enforced, would render success impossible in a protracted war, and in times of emergency it was found necessary to continue the same generals in command, either under the title of proconsul or proprætor, or to re-elect them to their offices for another year. The military authority of the Consuls was coequal and supreme. A Consular army usually consisted of two legions numbering 20,000 infantry, and 1800 cavalry; the army of a prætor might consist of one or two legions, according to circumstances.

Staff Officers. Military tribunes were legionary officers, whose functions were more those of superior Staff Officers than to

exercise any distinct command; they had the general superintendence of the working of all the different departments of the army.

Under them subordinate Staff Officers were employed, under the names of Anti-mensores and Anti-censores whose business was to furnish correct intelligence regarding all points connected with the marches of the army, such as state of the roads, rivers, resources of country, halting places, &c.; and to mark out the general camping ground. Mensores and Censores, charged with the details of the actual camp, its measurement, and construction, &c.

Exploratores and Sulcatores, whose sole duty was to reconnoitre the enemy and to furnish every possible information regarding him.

Chief of the Staff.Civil Department.

Every Roman army had attached to it an officer who, under the name of Quæstor or Prefect, performed the duties of a Chief of the Staff, and was next in authority to the Commander. He had the particular control as well of the military as of the Civil departments, in which last were comprised those of the Paymaster and Commissary-General, and what we should call the Medical Service.

The Commissariat arrangements were very elaborate; it is unnecessary to enter into them; but connected with the medical service it is interesting to notice the existence of a body of men whose duties were analogous to those of the French “ Infirmiers,” and of our own

Military Train on a field of battle. The duty of these men, who were called “ depotates” and were selected for their activity and courage, was to carry off the wounded during a battle. Posted in small companies of ten together along the rear of the first line, they were provided with horses carrying double panniers (a rude sort of “cacolet”) for the conveyance of the wounded who were unable to walk; and their devotion was stimulated by a reward in money for every wounded man they saved.

A body of military artificers was attached to each legion, who were employed in the manufacture of tools and in the construction of military machines.

Artillery. During the second Punic war we do not read of any field artillery, but at a later period each maniple had attached to it a balista, mounted on a car drawn by mules and served by eleven men of the maniple. The balistæ propelled bolts or darts with great force, and were placed in battery on the field. Besides these a more powerful engine, called a catapult, was attached to each Cohort; it was employed rather in defending the approaches to the camp, than on the field of battle.


In adverting to the manoeuvres of the legion it is only necessary to remark that the formations of line, column, and echellon were in common use.

In modern times artillery is the arm preponderance in which has told most in favour of the army possessing it. But at the period of the second Punic war, cavalry unquestionably exercised the most important effect on the issue of an engagement, and it will be found that in almost every pitched battle fought during this period the contest was decided by the cavalry.

Marches. The length of a legionary soldier's daily march was from twenty to twenty-five miles, and it must be remembered that he carried armour.

An advanced and rear guard of light cavalry and infantry preceded and closed the march, which was always conducted on as wide a front as possible, to enable the line of battle to be formed with the least possible delay.

Encampments. Roman Generals, when within reach of an enemy, invariably fortified their camps. The small range of ancient artillery, about 400 yards, permitted hostile armies to encamp at little more than that distance from each other. In a temporary camp, where the army would not remain more than one or two nights, it was enough to dig a trench sufficient to form a parapet six inches thick at the top, and three feet high. In permanent camps the ditch was usually about nine feet deep, and from nine to seventeen feet wide; the parapet ten feet high, and ten or twelve feet thick, raised on a foundation of trunks of trees, and built up with branches and brushwood. Abattis were frequently constructed beyond the ditch, and a flanking defence for the straight sides of the camp was obtained by throwing out a circular sort of bastion in the centre of each side, as well as at the angles.

It is remarkable that during the second Punic war we do not read of the employment of field artillery by either party, although Alexander the Great used balistæ at the battle of the Granicus 100 years before.

The organisation of the Greek armies, on which that of the Carthaginians was based, was as follows:

The simple or single phalanx consisted of

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The cavalry of the phalanx consisted of two regiments, or hipparcheis, of 512 horses each.

The heavy infantry was of two kinds

1st. The Hoplites, armed with a short sword; the formidable pike or Sarissa, twenty-four feet long; a helmet, cuirass, greaves, and a small round shield.

2nd. The Peltastes, who carried a shorter pike, a light coat of mail, a smaller buckler, and lighter armour generally than the hoplites.

The light infantry soldier, called the psiles, wore no defensive armour beyond a quilted cap and tunic; and

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