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the Sepiada. The Sepia (Sepia vulgaris) may be aware of its origin, asked where he could procure
(To be continued.)
(Hybognathus osmerinus, Cope.)
BY CHARLES C. ABBOTT, M.D.
TE never pass by a group of urchins fishing, disporting itself amidst a crowd of its fellows. In
but we examine their "strings,” and, at a places on the sea.coast, the cuttle-bone is often
penny a piece, cut off the few golden minnows they given to canaries and other cage-birds, who seem may have looked; and to be honest about it, when to take a delight in drilling their beaks into the soft, chalky substance. It is also used as a denti. frice, and may frequently be purchased at perfumers' shops for that purpose. Forbes says that about the shores of the Eastern Mediterranean the common Sepia is so numerous that the “cuttle. bones” may be seen in places heaped up by the waves into a ridge which fringes the sea for miles. Other peculiar belongings of the Sepia are its eggs, which may be found on the shore sometimes, after
Fig. 9. Golden Minnow. (Hybogn thus osmerinus.) stormy weather. The eggs are strangely like a bunch of purple grapes, both in shape and colour; children of a larger growth have been catching they are connected in bunches by a sort of footstalk. pickerel bait, in the way of cyprinoids generally, The ink from this species is of a more intense which they wouldu't sell, why the writer has colour than that from other cuttles. From it was "hooked” the golden minnows from the mass of originally manufactured Indian ink, and the colour roach, shiners, and dace. We admit a weakness so largely patronized by Claude,-sepia. This ink for preserving them from such common uses; they has been found preserved in the fossil sepias, when seem to be all our own, for if Prof. Cope is right, none of its qualities were lost. A drawing of a we first detected their peculiarities, and submitting fossil species, together with a description of it, was the fish to him, he named it. Then we only knew made out of the ink found therein ; and a celebrated it as “as a new species”; but now, as the months painter, on trying some of the ink, and not being have rolled by, we have learned something con.
cerning it. Curiously enough, our collecting cr and the voracious appetite of the "Pirate” (Aphreperience shows it to be most abundant in the Dela dodirus soyanus) may have much to do indirectly ware and Raritan Canal. With abundance of with the eight or nine cæca attached to the alinatural watercourse all about it, it nevertheless is mentary canal of that fish; but so far the golden best pleased with the artificial stream, the tame, minnow's diet is not sufficiently known to explain even banks of the canal, that have just grass enough why so enormously long a digestive tract is a about them to shelter such small fishes. We once necessity. left the realms of science and wondered if the fact Speaking of cyprinoids generally, Prof. Cope of their own alimentary “canal” being five times remarks, ** “Differences of habit are associated with the length of their whole body, and so a prominent peculiarities of food and of the structure of the feature of their anatomy, made them prefer a canal digestive system. Few families of vertebrates to live in, on the principle of "a fellow feeling, &c. embrace as great a variety in these respects as the &c.”; but enough of this and more of the zoology present one. There are carnivorous, insectivorous, proper.
and granivorous genera, which are distinguished as Popularly, i. e. with juvenile anglers, this pretty among mammalia, the former by the abbreviation, fish is known as the “ Golden Mi ow," and it is a the last by the elongation of the alimentary canal ; very correct description of the fish's general ap in the former the teeth are usually sharp-edged or pearance when living. The back and sides to the hooked, in the latter truncate, hammer or spoonlateral line are dull golden-yellow, while down the shaped.” Guided by this, we should be led to beback, on a line with the insertion of the dorsal fin, licve that the Hybognathus, with its alimentary is a very beautifully bright line of polished gold. canal five † times the length of the body, fed exWhen taken from the water, these metallic tints clusively upon vegetable matter, but we do know are too noticeable to be overlooked, even by boys that this is not the case; nor is our common roach I intent only on capturing a "big string"; and they a vegetable-feeder, in the strict sense of that term, show to great advantage in an aquarium.
as stated by many writers. We have generally A lover of deeper waters than cyprinoids usually found the whole length of the intestine filled either prefer, they appear to be rare, judged only by the with mollusca entire, or, as the bowel nears the few that wander into the shallows and seek the vent, with the emptied shells; the juices of the company of the “red” and “silver fins." To find stomach and bowel having dissolved out the body them abundantly they must be sought in waters of the animal. The Golden Minnow is an exception of considerable depth, and resting on or very near to the law (?) governing the regulation of diet with the bottom, close to the shore generally, in patches regard to the length of the alimentary canal. of grass ; but the shore must be a steep bank, with Like the majority of our cyprinoids, this little the current moving at a fair rate, keeping the water lish becomes brighter in all his tints, and more clear and cool.
active in all his movements, in the early spring; If, while fishing for other kinds, we chance to and the silvery sides putting on a ruddy tint, that drop the hook near them, they pounce upon it; and in contrast with the permanent but now brighter thus is explained the fact that these little fish are golden, make our little pet second to none in geneoften caught by anglers who are aster cels, catfish, ral attractiveness. and such larger kinds as frequent the bottoms of Prof. Cope has given this species, as we have the streams. Just what particular kinds of food seen, the specific name of osmerinus, which refers they prefer, we could never determine; but, judging to the fact of the specimens first submitted were from the length of the intestine, it must be some found in company with the Frost-fish, or Smelt thing slow in digesting; and this brings up the (Osmerus mordax), that ascend our rivers in immense question, was the bowel made thus so very long for numbers in February. The Golden Minnow does the food, or did the food cause, by its presence, the not, however, remain with them long, or follow them lengthening of the bowel ? Cyprinoids generally again to the sea. Indeed we think the association have an alimentary canal of ordinary length; all our is occasional and accidental, rather than a habit of New Jersey species lave, except this golden min.
the species. now, and we incline to the belief that a predilection Trenton, New Jersey, U.S.A. for some peculiar article of diet has lengthened,
RAINBOWS.—Some years ago I remember having folded, and refolded this canal, until its present scen three distinct rainbows. Of these two were length suited the time required to take up the concentric, but the other one intersected them. nourishment of the favourite food. Rather
Will any of your numerous readers kindly explain this than extra intestine was given to this one
the cause of the phenomenon ?-Theophilus Bates. species, that it might live on something not suitable
* Cyprinidæ of Pennsylvania ("Trans. Ainer. Philos. Soc.," to a short-bowelled species. The known food of the Gizzard-shad (Dorosoma čepedianum) explains the
† Prof. Cope gives the length as four times, but it is fully
five times in the Hybog. osmerinus. strong muscular stomach possessed by that fish; Stille americana, Linné.
vol. xiii. p. 353).
dishes, and garnished with all sorts of attractive
surroundings. Nor can the most captious complain YCIENTIFIC readers of all classes cannot com of the weak nature of the material supplied. In
plain for want of intellectual pabulum. It is this respect it is unequalled in the history of literaboth varied and abundant, serred up in all kinds of ture.
Dr. Ross, whose work we bave placed at the head of our list, modestly states in his preface his indebtedness to the great leaders of modern science, and seems to put forth his volume rather too tentatively. We assure him he need not be ashamed of his production. It is a valuable evidence of the not distant utilitarian application of the theory of evolution. Dr. Ross has proved sufficiently that what many regard as nothing but airy speculations, chiefly fruitful in their waste of time, may result in a more thorough knowledge of zymotic diseases, and there fore lead to the alleviation and possible extinction
of the direst diseases to which poor humanity is liable. In this essay the author has quoted freely from the most distinguished of modern writers, so that, in this respect alone, the student will find it a valuable digest of opinions on the subject discussed. Dr. Ross is opposed to the theory that contagium particles are parasites in the zoological or botanical sense. On the contrary, he holds that contagium particles are living, in the sense of being portions detached from a living being : that they are not germs capable of giving origin either to higher forms of life, or to organisms like themselves, but that they are anatomical units modified and individualized by a diseased process, and capable of impressing upon the healthy organism with which they come into contact a succession of changes similar to that which preceded their own modification in the body from which they were detached. In short, the Doctor has applied Darwin's hypo. thesis of “Pangenesis” (which he shows is as old as Hippocrates) to the explanation of the phenomena of zymotic diseases. The last chapter, which deals with the probable mode in which zymotic diseases have been differentiated, is both valuable and
highly interesting. The author contends that con This: "International Series," as they are fitly tagium particles will differ in properties according termed, is now in due course of publication. The to the kind of epithelial structure from which they two volumes on our list are good examples of the originally descended. These correspond to the nature of these productions. They are handsomely three great tracts into which the tissues may be and attractively got up, so as to make one's library divided—the skin, the respiratory, and the digestive look a trifle more cheerful than hitherto. Who mucous membranes; and therefore we have the could better write on the physiological and psychothree groups of zymotic diseases-epidemic, pul- logical relations of mind and body than Professor monary, and intestinal. The clear and spirited Bain? Or at whose hands could we expect a more style in which this book is written is a great advan- thorough and exhaustive knowledge of the “Contage to the reader, to whom we can conscientiously servation of Energy” than from those of Balfour recommend it as a genuine treat.
Stewart, the popular Professor of Owen's College,
Manchester ? These works possess the rare value of being strictly popular and strictly scientific, and indicate that such a combination is not impossible. The limits of space forbid us to do more than 10 bring this series before the notice of our readers with our strongest recommendations.
Those who read Mr. Mivart's articles in the pages of the Popular Science Reviero, on “Man and Apes,” will be pleased to see them appear in the handsome volun.e form in which the publisher has now issued them. The articles have been considerably enlarged, and sully illustrated. Jr. Mivart, as the author of that charming work, the “ Genesis of Species," will always obtain a hearing, not only from
scientific men proper, but also from those Fig. 1.. Trubesc s Monkey.
who do not profess to be scientific, and yet who are deeply interested in the leading theories and discussions of the day. The present volume is especially valuable to students as containing by far the fullest and completest comparison of man with the Quadrumana that has yet appeared. It has been the custom to compare the human frame with what was considered the bighest member of the ape family, but Mr. Mivart clearly shows the fallacy of such a method. Of all the monkey tribe, the Gorilla is believed to be that most nearly approaching man in its structural peculiarities to be, in short, the veritable “missing link.” Although Mr. Mivart seems inclined to grant the generally high zoological position of the Gorilla, he argues that the nearest approaches in structural pecu
liarities to man's frame are not to be Fig. 13, Chameck Spider Monkey.
found in any particular species, but are It was indeed “a bappy thought” to conceive scattered throughout the entire series of Quadruthe idea of giving to the world a complete library of mana, not even excepting the half-apes. After devot. scientific books on every department of modern ing some space to the zoological position of the Gorilla, science, each to be written by the most distinguished the author proceeds to notice the various degrees of writers on the screral subjects, English and foreign. resemblance to man which the different kinds of
apes exhibit. The Chimpanzee is universally ac the doctrine of evolution as applied to the human knowledged to be "anthropoid," especially in its 'race. juvenile condition. It and the Gorilla represent the “The Smaller British Birds” is an édition de luxe, highest apes of Western Africa, just as the Orang got up in the most attractive style of green and is the highest quadrumanous representative in Borneo and Sumatra. The figures of the latter we have borrowed from Mr. Mivart's book give a good idea of the generally more human likeness seen in the younger stages of the anthropoid apes. This is seen again in the face of the baby “Moor monkey” (fig. 16). Of all the monkey family that which approaches man most nearly in the conformation of its nasal organ, is the “Proboscis Monkey,” a native of Borneo. In the attenuated form of the limbs, the monkeys furthest removed from humanity appear to be the “Chameck Spider Monkeys,” whose prehensile tails and slender legs show how truly they are adapted, not to a ground, but to a terrestrial life. Mr. Mivart compares every part of the human frame with that of the monkeys in general, and finds some point of near resemblance in one
Fiz. 14. Young Orangs. or another of this numerous group, but never all the points in any one member. Nay, some of the species, as the Orang, for instance, diverges more from man, as regards its skeleton, than does any other latisternal ape.
The author concludes that the teaching of the skeleton, as well as of all the other parts, seems to be that resemblance to man is shared in different and very unequal degrees by different species of quadrumana, rather than that any one kind is plainly more human than any of the others. In cerebral development, the Gorilla is inferior both to the Orang and the Chimpanzee; the difference between the brain of the Orang and that of man being one of degree, and not of kind. On the other hand, the author shows that the difference between the mind of man and the psychical faculties of the Orang is a difference in kind, and not one of mere degree! These facts, the author believes, militate against the supposition that man has been derived from the monkey family by the Darwinian process of “natural selection,” but he does not think they are antagonistic to a belief in man's origin by the larger and more comprehensive process of evolution. The latter part of the book is devoted to
Fi;. 15. The Chimpanzee. this question, and there the reader will fiud abie arguments for considering this fact of man's | gold, and gilt edges, and having an interior worthy physical peculiarities being shared among so many
of the exterior as regards artistic effect. Our members of the Quadrumana, advanced in favour of "Smaller British Birds” in point of fact comprehend