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nineteen-twentieths of all our avian fauna, and as Simmonds; no other writer has devoted so much each is figured in bright colours (a trifle too bright, time and attention, or has for so long been regarded perhaps), our readers may form some idea of the as an authority on these and kindred matters. If pictorial wealth of this book. The eggs of eachi we had to find any fault with this most interesting, species are also figured and naturally coloured, and and what we regard as an important volume, it is we must bestow a word of praise on the really that the vast store of material is not arranged under artistic manner with which the delicate tints, and chapters or sections. We feel that such an arrangeshades, and markings are all given. As each is of ment would materially add to the value of the work. the natural size, this part of the book cannot but be of In a great measure, however, this is atoned for by great value to the student. The plan of figuring both a copious index. To the general as well as to the birds and eggs is a good one. The letter-press is scientific reader, to the statesman and manufacturer clear, and the paper good, whilst the authors have especially, this book is invaluable. A word should collected a good deal of sound information, and have be said as to its literary style. It is easy and arranged it in a very distinct manner. By using attractive, and notwithstanding the overcrowding
of facts, interests the reader instead of wearying him.
Mr. Cash's handsome little volume is just the book one would put into the hands of an unfledged naturalist. We know none other better able to speedily develop him. And to older readers it possesses many attractions, in setting before the world the simple but earnest lives of humble workers in the field of science. Here we learn how such “hobbies” can sweeten the most arduous toil, can render interesting the most monotonous of lives. With some of the characters here described, we were personally acquainted, and we can therefore testify to the accuracy of the author's delineations and observations. Some of these lives read like little idylls. Shut out from the great world that roars outside them, we find them looking to Nature for instruction, and studying her great kingdom with nevertiring zeal. The lives of such men as John Dewhurst, George Caley, Samuel Gibson (who went by the name of the “Scientific Blacksmith”), Richard Buxton (the author of the “Manchester Flora,"-a man who never earned a pound a week in his life!), George Crozier, Elias Hall, the geologist, and others of which this little book treats, read ambitious worldlings a lesson as to the real enjoyments they are constantly passing over. Most of the characters are Lancashire, for among the factory employés
there is developed a genuine love of nature, and Fig. 16. Moor Mukey.
there may be found some of our best amateur bota
nists and entomologists. The book is pleasantly and this book, the young ornithologist will save much
earnestly written, and is a credit both to author and time, and gain his end more speedily than from any other similar work that we are acquainted with.
To notice such books as this first volume of the One cannot peruse Mr. Simmonds's book without feeling how truly we are wasting our substance in
Telegraphic Journal is somewhat out of our usual
line. But it is with pleasure that we can mention it riotous living! Here is a work of above five
as a most attractively got-up book, the subjecthundred pages devoted to showing how materials
matter as being various and important, and of a kind may be utilized that we are in the habit of regarding
that must place the readers of such a periodical, not only as utterly useless, but many of them as deleterious. If " dirt is matter in the wrong place,"
au courant with all that is taking place in telegraphy then “waste" is profitable substances in the wrong
in every part of the world. place. No man in Great Britain is better able to deal with the important question of “Waste Pro
“In a man, a nervous or sensory impulse has
been variously calculated to travel at 100, 200, or ducts and Undeveloped Substances," than Mr.P. L.
300 feet a second.”—Huxley's “ Physiology."
1865, not only had it begun to devastate Missouri, A NEW ENEMY.
but it had crossed the Mississippi in Illinois, everyI a
where leaving behind it flourishing colonies. In threatens to lay waste one of Europe's most 1868 Indiana was visited; in 1870 Ohio and the valued esculents, the potato. For a long time confines of Canada were reached, also portions of North America has had to contend against two Pennsylvania and New York; and its entrance into foes, which devoured the early shoots and leaves of Massachusetts was notified. During the year 1871 the potato, and thus destroyed the hopes of the a great army of these beetles covered the river farmer and gardener. These were beetles belonging Detroit in Michigan, crossed Lake Erie on floating to the same family as the Blister-fly, and named leaves and similar convenient rafts, and in a very Lytta atrata (or vittatu) and Cantharis viniaria. short time took possession of the country between They can be kept within bounds; but of late a St. Clair and Niagara rivers. Having got thus far, third beetle has appeared among us which really in spite of all efforts to stay their progress, there
B should fit very accurately, pings in ex is every reason to believe that beand not too tightly, into the curred by fore long we shall hear of them as opening made by the punch hardly bec swarming in the streets of New next smaller in size. Then than about 1
York and Boston (as they already commencing by punching out been resort swarm in the city of St. Louis), the smallest disc, the smallest deeper cell f and then their passage across the guide-cone is next inserted a hole throu Atlantic is a mere matter of time.
and carefully fixed in its place, a very unlik Moreover, the beetle in its different Fig. 19. Punches for making microscopical turning the card over so as of very easy
stages is so entirely unaffected by to use the sharp edge of the curely ceme
the extremes of heat and cold, of aperture; the punch is lastly brass not le
wet and dry, which it has met with. placed over this, which guides it to its place, ness and bal here, that I have no doubt it will when a sharp blow cuts out the portion re the centre
care as little for the changes of quired. The different sized rings being thus cut
climate which ccur in tbe temperin succession leads to the least possible degree of then trim it
ate zone of Europe, and, once setwaste in the material as well as saving in time. be removed, tled, will quickly become naturalIn the diagram the front of the outer punch C has a few hours
ized. been cut away to show the position of the cone
The devastations of the Colorado in its interior and to give a clearer view of the
Beetle are all the greater, from arrangement and its action, DD showing the width cells may be the fact of its propagating itself he varied only he
with extraordinary rapidity, several threatens to drive the potato out of cultivation broods following each other in the course of the year. altogether. It bears the name of the Colorado The first batch of infant larvæ appears towards the end Potato-beetle (Doryphora decem - punctata); and of May, or, if the weather be mild, of April. In fact should it once reach the Atlantic coast, and be scarcely has the potato plant shown itself above the carried unobserved across the ocean, then-woe to ground, before the inscct, which has been hyberthe potato-grower of the old country!
nating during the winter, also wakes to life. The A man must witness the myriad legions of this female loses no time in depositing from seven insect, and the ravages of its never-tiring larvæ, in hundred to twelve hundred eggs, in clusters of order to form an idea of the terrible danger with twelve or thirteen, on the underside of a leaf. which Europe is threatened. For myself, judging Within five or six days, according to the state of from the tenacity of life exhibited both in its larval the weather, the larvæ escape from the egg, and and perfect condition, I have not a doubt that it begin their work of devastation, which goes on for will soon overstep the bounds of North America, some seventeen days, when the little creatures retire and make a home for itself in other lands.
below the soil, in order to undergo the pupal conIts true domicile is in the Rocky Mountains, dition. After a delay of ten or fourteen days, the where it feeds on a species of wild potato, Solanum perfect insect comes into being, and the business of rostratum (or Caroliniana). No sooner, however, egg-laying commences anew. In this way, accordhad the edible potato (Solanum tuberosum) been ing to recent observations, three broods follow each planted by settlers at the foot of these mountains, other; the last, as just stated, wintering below the than Doryphora attacked it greedily; the more surface of the ground. No description can do justice largely its cultivation extended westward, the faster to the marvellous voracity of this insect, especially did its insect foe travel in an easterly direction, and
in its larval state. When once a field of potatoes scatter itself over the land. In the year 1859 it has been attacked, all hope of a harvest must be was located one hundred miles west of Omaha city, given up; in a very few days it is changed into an in Nebraska; in 1861 it showed itself in Iowa; in arid waste-a mere mass of dried-up stalks.
At one time the cultivator indulged in the vain of the Solanaceous order,-the Egs-plant (S. melonhope that Doryphora was a mere passer-by, that he gena), the Tomato (S. lycopersicum), or the Winterwould do his worst, and then move on, without cherry (Physalis viscosa). Indeed, in the northern becoming a permanent nuisance. Others, again, parts of Illinois and in Wisconsin-incredible as it fancied that a hot summer and autumn, followed by may appear—it has established itself in the caba long drought in the ensuing year, tended to bage-garden as readily as in the potato-field. diminish its numbers. But it has been proved State of Illinois.
FR. H. incontestably that the diminution was only due to the circumstance of many of the larvæ perishing, through being unable to enter the ground hardened
CELLS FOR MICROSCOPIC OBJECTS. and baked by the great beat; plenty were left to THE introduction of the Binocular Microscope as continue the breed.
a popular instrument has rendered it desirable to mount objects as much as possible in their natural
of facts, interests the reader instead of wearying him.
Mr. Cash's handsome little volume is just the book one would put into the lands of an unfledged naturalist. We know none other better able to speedily develop him. And to older readers.it
possesses many attractions, in setting before the Fig. 19. a. Colorado Beetle. b. Foot of ditt
world the simple but earnest lives of humble workers ditto. d. Wing-case, enlarge
1 in the field of science. Here we learn how such
"hobbies” can sweeten the most arduous toil, can Of the many nostrums that have b for the destruction of this beetle,
render interesting the most monotonous of lives. shown itself to be of any value. I
With some of the characters here described, we the plants with the highly poisono
were personally acquainted, and we can therefore -a compound of arsenic
testify to the accuracy of the author's delineations
and observations. Some of these lives read like little copper. However, setting aside th inhaling this deadly mixture while spre
idylls. Shut out from the great world that roars out the fields, there is the additional peril of
side them, we find them looking to Nature for in the soil with it,-a peril which experi
struction, and studying her great kingdom with never
tiring zeal. The lives of such men as John Dewhurst out at Washington bave shown to be There remains, therefore, only the Run
George Caley, Samuel Gibson (who went by th. picking, day after day, the eggs, larvæ, and beetle. There are two ways in which paper cells may be But even this operation requires considerable care ; made; one, by coiling it into cylinders and cutting for the juice of the crushed insect and its larvæ off rings in the lathe, and the other, by “punching" produces bladders and blisters wherever it comes rings out of flat sheets. The former serves well for in contact with the skin. If a wounded spot be all depths above the thickness of a sixpence, while touched by it, severe inflammation ensues, which the latter is most convenient for all others that are is liable to pass into ulcers, and an application of it required to be of less depth, and may be adopted to the eye endangers vision to a very serious even for the thinnest writing-paper. The firstextent.
named plan, however, may be dispensed with, as Fig. 17, on page 15, gives an idea of the Colorado
rings of cardboard can be built up to any height Potato-beetle in its different stages.] The eggs with very litlle trouble or loss of time. The great are of a deep orange-yellow. The larvæ on first difficulty hitherto has been in punching out these emerging, are of a lackish hue, which passes
rings so as to get them uniform width, that is to quickly into a dark red, with a slight orange tint. get one punch perfectly concentric with the other; On attaining their full size the colour varies but at length a “bappy thought” occurred, that between orange, reddish-yellow, and flesh. At c, has rendered this dilemma“ a thing of the past.” fig. 18, is shown the pupa; at a the perfect insect, It appeared obvious that, having punched out the natural size; a foot is portrayed at b; a wing. | interior of the intended ring, the placing of a kind case considerably enlarged at d. The ground of button in the aperture with a shoulder projecting colour of the latter is creamy.yellow (rahm-gelb), beyond, and the exact width of the circle required, with five black longitudinal stripes, of which the would guide the outer punch to its proper place and tbird and fourth unite at the base.
give us the hoped-for result, which it has done most Doryphora does not by any means confine itself completely. to the potato. In places where that esculent is The first step would be to provide a series of four wanting, it will support itself on any other member or five punches of certain relative proportions, with
respect to each other. In the annexed diagram the the squares, which then screws the whole up into three outer circles correspond with gun punches of a compact mass with any amount of pressure. Of the respective numbers indicated, but the two inner course any description of sized or unsized paper,
ones are shoemakers' punches parchment-paper, leather, or any other soft sub
of a commoner description, stance, may be cut in the same way, and will serve -18 although answering the pur equally well when only dry objects are to be
pose sufficiently well. The mounted in them; but when required for fluids, next step should be to obtain pure tin will be found one of the best materials for a series of brass cones of the the purpose, especially as it can be cut in the same form represented at A, B, fig. manner and with the same punches. This metal 19, one fitting into each of the may be obtained of Stanton Brothers, in Shoe-lane, punches except the smallest, rolled to any tbickness, at about half a crown per while the projecting portion pound, half price being allowed for the spare clipB should fit very accurately, pings in exchange, so that but little loss will be inand not too tightly, into the curred by waste. As this material, however, can opening made by the punch hardly be cut conveniently of a thicker substance next smaller in size. Then than about the thickness of a new shilling, glass has commencing by punching out been resorted to in all such cases as require a the smallest disc, the smallest deeper cell for the retention of fluids. To “punch" guide-cone is next inserted a hole through a piece of window-glass may seem
and carefully fixed in its place, a very unlikely proceeding, yet it is in reality one Fig. 19. Punches for
turning the card over so as making microscopical
of very easy accomplishment. If the glass be seto use the sharp edge of the curely cemented down with shellac upon a piece of
aperture; the punch is lastly brass not less than an eighth of an inch in thickplaced over this, which guides it to its place,
ness and having a hole in it of the size intended, when a sharp blow cuts out the portion re the centre may be chipped out with a pointed quired. The different sized rings being thus cut hammer, in a very few seconds, and a rough file will in succession leads to the least possible degree of then trim it to the edge of the brass, when it may waste in the material as well as saving in time. be removed, and after soaking in liquor potassæ for In the diagram the front of the outer punch C has a few hours to remove the lac, may be ground true, if been cut away to show the position of the cone
greater perfection be desired. From the thinnest in its interior and to give a clearer view of the covering glass and plates a quarter of an inch thick, arrangement and its action, DD showing the width cells may be readily made in this manner. or the resulting ring, which can be varied only by The last point to be attended to is securing the the relative proportions of the punches, which must ring firmly to the glass slip. If required for fluid, he determined at the outset.
nothing answers so well as marine glue, taking care The next stage in the process will be to saturate
that all parts be sufficiently heated and well pressed them with varnish. Let a thin solution of shellac
together; but if only needed as dry cells, a far less be made in rectified spirit of wine (or if cost be troublesome process will suffice. For the circular more a consideration than fragrance, methylated spirit tin and paper cells I have found no preparation so may be used), and placing the rings in a wide effective, or so little trouble, as "Priest's Diamond mouth phial, let them be covered with the solution Cement.” The parts to be put together should and left so for two or three days closely corked up, be warm and free from grease, and when metal is when they will be ready to be pressed and dried.
being fixed, the whole should be warmed up afterHaving provided a few score pieces of common wards, to about the melting point of the cement, window glass about one inch square, let these be as this keeps secure the attachment of the spread out on the table and the rings taken out one latter. For putting on covers it has too the merit of by one, placed upon them, one in the centre of each not "running in” while it holds the glass most square, and then placing them one upon another effectually and is almost colourless. A thin coating with a spare piece of glass on the top, in a pile just of this upon all insecurely fixed cells, embracing the sufficient to be taken up in the grip of a wooden side and touching the cover at the top and the American clothes-peg, which will thus act as a vice glass slip beneath, renders the whole perfectly seand squeeze them flat, and in which position they cure by tying together, as it were, the cover and the may be left until quite dry. I have a stout wooden slip, with the ring inside as a support. This cement box about one inch deep and five or six inches wide, may be purchased at any chemist's, price one shilling partitioned off into compartments, a little over an per bottle, holding about three quarters of an ounce, inch wide, and these being filled with the glass and is prepared for use by placing the phial for a squares containing the rings, a common wood screw few minutes in hot water. is passed through the side opposite the centre of St. Giles-street, Norwich. W. K. BRIDGMAN,
tween them of the width of the ring of cement.
The method of mounting with it is as follows:-A CRYSTALS OF LIME IN THE PRAWN'S SKIN.
ring of it is made, by means of a “turntable," on a The skin of the Prawn consists of three layers; be slide, which is put aside to dry. When required tween the outer and middle coats the crystals of for use, the slide is again placed on the turntable, carbonate of lime appear to lie. In a cast skin no and a new ring of cement put directly over the old crystals seem to be ever found, nor do any appear one. The specimen is immediately within the cell, in a newly-formed skin. What then becomes of and the requisite quantity of carbolated water these crystals? Does the water dissolve them, or added. The cover, which must be large enough does the new skin absorb them in order to con to entirely or nearly cover the cement ring, is now solidate it? Perhaps some reader of SCIENCE picked up with the forceps, the under-side being GOSSIP may be in a position to answer the above. moistened by the breath, to prevent adliesion of F. B. Kyngdon.
air-bubbles, and placed carefully in position. It is ON PRESERVING AND MOUNTING FRESH-WATER
now to be carefully and equably pressed down with ALGÆ.—The fresh-water algæ are not only beau
some force. By this any superfluous water is tiful but easily procurable, and would no doubt
squeezed out, and the cover is forced down into
the cement, which rises as a little ring around the have received a much larger share of attention from the microscopist were their preservation as per
edge. The slide may now be put aside to dry, or
better, an outside ring of cement run round it in manent objects possible. In the majority of instances, the beautiful colour and arrangenient of the endo
the usual manner. Unfortunately, the author does
not state the length of time he has used this chrome is destroyed by the death of the organism;
method. My experience of soft cements is that in there are some forms, however, which retain a con
a shorter or longer period they almost invariably siderable amount of their pristine beauty after
run in, and I much fear gum-damar will not prove having been mounted many years. The Nostocs
an exception.-F. K. are but little changed when mounted in fluid; and the Desmids, although losing their vivid green colour, ON MOUNTING MICROSCOPIC OBJECTS.—We beg retain their elegant outlines. The plan proposed to draw the attention of our microscopic readers, by Dr. H. Wood * for the preservation of the fresh who are always interested in anything relating to water algæ, according to the author, has given the the mounting of objects, to the sccond edition of best results hitherto obtainable. After cleaning Davies's little book on this subject, which has just them, which he accomplishes in the following way: been issued by Hardwicke, Piccadilly. This edition -“The large filamentous ones may be washed by is considerably enlarged; and, as its author was holding them fast on the slide with a bent needle too unwell to see the sheets through the press himor a pair of forceps, and allowing water to flow over self, this edition has been edited by Dr. Matthews, them freely whilst they are rubbed with a stiffish to wliom Mr. Davies handed over his additional camel-hair brush, or the mass of specimens may be tes, &c. A prefatory chapter has been added, put into a bottle half-filled with water and shaken and such extensions made as will introduce the violently, drawing off the water from the plants, and book to a new class of readers—the medical students repeating the process with fresh additions of water and practitioners. The editor has done his work until the plants are well scoured. I find, after trial well, and we can now considently recommend this of acetate of ammonia and various other media, able little book as the cheapest and most comprethat a very weak solution of carbolic acid is the hensive which the young miscroscopist can obtain. best possible fluid to mount these plants in”. the difficulty of securing effectually fluid-mounted forms induced Dr. Wood to try the following plan.
BOTANY. He makes a solution of gum-damar in benzole, to PLANT CRYSTALS.-Professor Gulliver, referring which previously triturated oxide of zinc is added. to his descriptions and figures of Rapliides, SphæraThis cement should be of such consistency as to flow phides, and long crystal prisms, given in SCIENCEfreely from the brush. It will adhere if washed
Gossip, May,1873, continues his researches in a meproperly when the cell-cover is pressed down, even moir, illustrated with a plate containing ten figures, when glycerine is used as the preservative medium. in the Monthly Microscopical Journal, Dec., 1873. Of Its advantage lies in the circumstance that the
this last paper, the subject includes observations glass cover can be placed upon the ring of it whilst
on the crystals in the testa and pericarp of several still fresh and soft, and that in drying it adheres orders of plants, and in other parts of the order to both cover and slide, so as to form a joint be Leguminose.” These crystals he names "short
prismatic crystals,” in order to distinguish them *“A Contribution to the Natural History of the Fresh
from the other and very distinct forms mentioned water Algæ of America." By Dr. H. Wood.
above. The short prismatic crystals are constantly