Imagens das páginas

present in the testa of many orders of plants, and very rare lichen Versucaria ochrostoma, found this as constantly absent from the same part in other month by Mr. Davies in the Weald of Sussex. This orders. But though not occurring in the testa of lichen had been lost till now, not having been met Leguminose, the short prismatic crystals are sur with since Borrer first found it in 1850. It was prisingly abundant in the calyces, leaves, bracts, also mentioned that Artomia spadicea, new to Sussex, pods, and liber of this order. In one inch of the was found by the same gentleman, December, 1872, midrib of a leaflet of clover, for example, he counts in Ashdown Forest, near where Calicium septatum no less than 21,000 of the crystals. They are very grows, and that he had found Lecanora Hageni with diverse in form and size, but are commonly about L. sophodes, var. lecideoides, near Cuckmere. xoo inch in diameter. They appear to be composed chiefly of oxalate of lime, and, occurring in


communicated the result of his examinations of a such abundance in the leguminous plants most

large number of samples of ground pepper, as sold relished by ruminant and other animals, we may

in France. He found that the most common adulwell admire one of the several sources by which

terant was one prepared by drying and finely pulnature, as now proved, has so plentifully provided

verizing the parenchyma of potatoes, left as a residue this earth with the very provender on which many

in the manufactureofstarch. Among other adulterants animals most greedily feed. And the necessity of lime in the animal economy, from invertebrates up

were lentil flour, earthy matter, chalk, and linseed

cake. A microscopical examination will always to man himself, has long been known. The short

enable the observer to detect such adulterants prismatic crystals in leguminous plants commonly

present. occur in chains or chaplets of cells, cach cell containing in its centre a single crystal; and the A NEW BEECH BLIGHT.-In Westphalia the chains are most abundant along the course of the beech-trees have been recently attacked by a new fibro-vascular bundles of the leaves and legumes, form of blight, which commences on the bark, and but occur dotted throughout many membranous finally covers the tree with a snow-white down, to parts. These crystals are beautiful microscopic the ultimate destruction of the tree. Under the objects, and make very pleasing and instructive microscope, this blight is seen to consist of fine preparations, either dried or in glycerine. And as threads, among which there occurs a small insect to the view which has often been entertained, that apparently an undescribed species. The threads, such crystals so regularly produced in organized which are secreted by the insect, are of wax, which cells, are merely excrementitious products has a melting point of about 80 degrees, and freaks of Nature of no relation to or value in the the per-centage composition of which is, carbon life and uses of the plant, the author concludes 81-39, hydrogen 13:58, and oxygen 5:03. Both as that such an opinion is utterly untenable.

regards its composition and melting-point, this new PUCCINEA MALVACEARUM.-Can any of your

wax is very near that of Chinese wax. readers explain the rapid diffusion of this and other ASPERITIES OR CALLOUS POINTS IN THE LEAVES micro-fungi? This puccinea first made its appear or BRYONIA ALBA.-At a late meeting of the East ance during the last summer in the grounds of the Kent Natural History Society, Professor Gulliver Marquis of Westminster, at Clevedon, near Maiden. gave a demonstration of the true nature of the head. I afterwards received a specimen from roughness, hitherto but vaguely described by Salisbury; and on niy return to Devonshire, in botanical writers, on the leaves of the Red Bryony. August, found it plentifully on mallows in this He showed that each of these callous points is neighbourhood, more than two hundred miles from 1-114th of an ineh in diameter, and made up of a the spot where it first appeared, and caused such congeries of smooth, shining, hyaline, rounded destruction among the mallows and hollyhocks. granules, having an average diameter of 1-666th of We can understand how the spores of fungi usually an inch; and that they are composed of carbonate abundant may float about in the air, biding their of lime. Hence, he suggests that for them descriptime to attack their favourite plant, but here our tive botany should in future substitute the words conjectures are at fault. Students of micro-fungi calcareous granules for the vague epithets heretofore are now so numerous that if this species had

used in botanical books. occurred in Britain before, it could scarcely have

FUNGOLOGICAL EXCURSIONS.-Late in October, failed to be recognized. Whence did it come, and

the Woolhope Club made a fungological excursion, how ?-J. P. Belmont, Dartmouth.

when four species new to Britain were discovered. THE DISCOVERY OF VERRUCARIA OCHROSTOMA. These were Hygrophorus fornicatus, Agaricus icteAt the November meeting of the Brighton and rinus, Clavariu curta, and C. rufa. After the fungus Sussex Natural History Society, the honorary se. supper held at the close, papers were read by Mr. cretary, Mr. Wonfor, announced the receipt from Plowright, of Norfolk; Mr. Broome, Mr. Renny, Mr. G. Davies, for the Society's Herbarium, of that Mr. Phillips, and Dr. Bull, relating to fungology.


glad to correspond with any one interested in the ZOOLOG Y.

subject, who would send me the names of the speSTENOCEPITALUS AGILIS.

5.- The works on Ento cimens and where described, or any works on the mology” to which Mr. J. 0. Harper (SCIENCE- entomology of India, in return.- A. Stormont. Gossip, No. 106, p. 228) has referred for an account

SNOW-BUNTINGS.-Perhaps it may be interesting of the “ovipositor saws” of this insect, are, judging

to some of the readers of SCIENCE-Gossip to know from the one mentioned in the note to his paper,

that an extraordinary number of Snow-buntings probably of no scientific value whatever. The struc

(Emberiza nivalis) were taken the last week in ture of the rostrum and genital segments of the

November. One man caught 250 in a field of oatHemiptera heteroptera is, of course, noticed in a

stubble near Brighton, some of which are very beaugeneral way by Westwood, in liis admirable "Intro

tiful. To the lovers of the feathered tribe these birds duction;" and in the only work exclusively discussing will be very welcome. They are a good aviary bird ; the Bugs in this country, viz. "The British Hemip- | their food is canary-seed; they are very hardy, and tera,” by J. W. Douglas and J. Scott, published by soon become tame.--Chas. W. Rudd. the Ray Society (of which all naturalists should be

The BREATHING OF FROGS.-Mr. W. Müller members) in 1865, will be found a more recent and ample account of the structure referred to. The

has been comparing the amount of oxygen con

sumed by two species of frog, the Green Edible Frog lancets of the rostrum are simply two of the four setæ representing the normal mandibles and maxillæ

(Rana esculenta) and the ordinary Brown Frog of insects, and which in all the Heteroptera are in

(R. temporaria), in order to ascertain whether the cluded in the rostrum. The "ovipositor-saws" at

amount consumed by the more voracious species the terminal segment of the abdomen, are simply the

was not the greater. From these experiments he

has concluded that the Brown Frog consumes more genital segments, whicli in the description of the

oxygen than the Green Frog. When hungry they genus Stenocephalus (as in the account of all other British genera) are, as to both male and female sexes,

consume less oxygen, but there is still the same

difference between the species. In winter time, fully described by Douglas and Scott, “Brit. Hem.,"

under water, they consume the same amount of p. 141. This structure, in one of the type forms of the order, is also well figured in outline at p. 1 of their

oxygen as when breathing air. Frogs frozen in

ice for eight hours nevertheless breathed at the work.-E. C. Rye.

normal rate after being released. The amount of Helix OBVOLUTA.—In reply to Mr. C. Griffith's oxygen consumed by the common mouse (Mus inquiry respecting Ilelix obvoluta, I beg to say that musculus) is twenty-four times as great as that of the species has an extensive range on the Continent.

the frog. Pfeiffer says (“Mon. Heliceorum,” i. 413), “Habitat

SPONTANEOUS CHANGES IN Eggs.-M. Gazon, in Europa borealis et mediæ terris plerisque.” In

who has previously shown that the putrefaction of his last edition (v. 423), he gives as the habitat

eggs corresponds with the development and multi"Europa media” only. Jeffreys (“Brit. Con

plication of vibrios within them, has contributed the chology," i. 230) states that it occurs in France,

result of some further investigations on this subGermany, Switzerland, and Italy; and I posssess ject. He thinks that these organisms might be specimens from Hungary. Amongst other French

easily introduced into the egg during its passage localities, it is found in the Bois de Meudon, two

down the oviduct. Recent experiments confirm or three miles south-west of Paris. Helix obvoluta,

this opinion. M. Guyon examined the oviduct of in fact, is only one of the many instances of species

a recently killed fowl, and found there both bacteria that are very abundant on the Continent and rare

and spores of fungi. in the British islands. Clausilia Rolphiï is a similar case, and every entomologist knows of many such in his branch; e.g. Carabus auratus, Calosoma

GEOLOGY. sycophanta, &c.-C. P. Gloyne.

SUB-WEALDEN EXPLORATION -At the NoveniINDIAN INSECTS.-As my duties lead me to

ber meeting of the Brighton and Sussex Natural travel a good deal in the districts of western India,

History Society, Mr. Wonfor reported that Mr. H. I have, of course, ample opportunity of obtaining

Willett had sent him for examination the second specimens of insects, &c.; but, having no books of

specimen of Lingula ovalis, found at a depth of reference, am unable to say, as a rule, what are

294 feet, in the Sub-Wealden boring. It was bealready known to naturalists and what not. The

lieved they had reached the Kimmerage clay, and difficulty of preserving specimens in cabinets is

some even thought they were nearing the Palæoalmost insurmountable. I have had the work of

zoic rocks. two years destroyed in one week during the monsoon. I propose in future to send home my gather SHELLS OF THE LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE Lowings in small batches, and with this view would be LEVEL CLAY AND SANDS, BY T. MELLARD READE,

F.G.S.- This was the subject of a paper recently read composed of clay capped and sometimes interstratibefore the Geological Society of London. The author fied with coarse, friable, fossiliserous calcareous commenced by explaining a section in a cutting at strata, from five to thirty feet thick, supposed to be Booth-lane Station, in which most of the beds seen of Miocene age, and all horizontal, or nearly so, about Liverpool are typically represented. He then except at the extreme east and west, where the gave a list of the localities in which shells were strata are inclined at an angle of from 40° to 60°. found, and stated that in all forty-six species had Along the coast there are no distinct traces of been met with, distributed through the clay-beds, volcanic action, but on the north coast of the those found in the sand-seams being rare and gene Persian Gulf a similar formation has been much rally fragmentary and rolled. The shells most com disturbed by the protrusion of recent volcanic monly found entire are usually of small size, and of material ; near Jäshak to the west there is a hot a form calculated to resist pressure,—such as Tur mineral spring, and near Karâchi there are springs ritella communis, Trophon clathratus, and Mangelia of pure hot water. The author described the mode turricula. Fusus antiquus and Buccinum undatum in which denudation is effected in this region by are generally represented only by worn fragments occasional heavy rains, and by the constant action of the Columella, and Cyprina islandica is always of the sea upon the coast, and then noticed the found in fragments. The author thought that the occurrence, within a few miles of the shore, of association of the various species distributed with numerous peculiar mud-craters, forming hills varying out order through the clays shows that they could in height from 20 to 300 or 400 feet above the not have lived together on the same bottom, but plain, of a regular conical form, with truncated tops, that they must have been to a great extent trans and the sides sloping at an angle of about 40°. The ported. He contended that the admixture of shells summits of these bills present a circular cup with in the Boulder-clay was due to the tendency of the a narrow border, filled with semifluid mud, which sea to throw up its contents on the beach ; whence occasionally flows slowly over the margin of the changing currents and floating ice might again re crater. The author considered that the conical move them, and to the oscillations of the land hills have been formed solely by these overflows. bringing all the beds at one time or another within He believed that a small shoal occurring off the reach of marine erosive action. He maintained coast near Jâshak might be produced by one of these that it is in the distribution of land and sea at the craters, and was inclined to ascribe their existence period of deposition of the Lancashire deposits, and to hydrostatic pressure rather than to volcanic not in astronomical causes, that we must seek the action, especially as by the concurrent testimony of explanation of the climate of that period, the con several natives the discharge from the craters is ditions of which he endeavoured to explain by a greater during spring-tides. The thickness of the consideration of the proportions of the species and clay forming the plain is probably very considerable ; the natural habitats of the shells found in the it extends for some miles from the shore, sinking drifts.

gradually to 20 or 30 fathoms, when there is a GEOLOGY OF THE REDESDALE IRONSTONE Dis- sudden and often precipitous descent to a depth of TRICT. - This is the subject of a valuable paper by 300 or 400 fathoms. The author suggested that, G. A. Lebour, F.G.S., reprinted from the Trans

since the deposition of the Miocene beds, the great actions of the North of England Institute of Mining

submarine cliff may have been raised above the sea; and Mechanical Engineers. The author describes

that the land was then depressed to near its present the limits and physical features of the district, the level, causing the removal of the beds to the prestratigraphy, and the ironstone shale, as well as

sent coast-line, and that a further depression fol. the "faults” traversing the strata. He also gives

lowed by upheaval gave origin to the inland cliffs. a detailed account of the various sections passed

Evidence of the last depression is furnished by the through at the different pits. A contour map of

presence of borings of lithodomous mollusca in the the ironstone district at Redesdale accompanies

cliffs considerably above the present sea-level. the paper, which is throughout of an important character.

NOTES AND QUERIES. Mud-CRATERS ON THE PERSIAN Coast.-At POLLEN-GRAIN.-In the botanical column of the the last meeting of the Geological Society, Lieut. October number, “R. H. N. B.”asks as to the proStiffe read a paper on this subject. He stated that

bable plant froin which a pollen-grain is derived the coast of Mekran, extending from near the

of which he gives a figure, numbered 147. It

appears to me that it may be a representation of the western frontier of India to the mouth of the pollen of Passiflora cærulea, of which a good figure Persian Gulf, was stated by the author to be a is given in The Microscope," by Dr. Carpenter, nearly rainless district, consisting of clay plains

figure 189; but that the figure is not perfectly

delineated by your correspondent, or may have been with precipitous tabular hills, the former veined

examined by an inferior lens, or possibly not illuhere and there with crystalline gypsum, the latter minated to the best advantage.-C. M. Major.

SCIRPUS PARVULUS.-In the exchange which you before it had completed the separation, leaving the kindly inserted for me in a recent SCIENCE sufferer, however, quite dead. I have heard that Gossip relative to the above plant, I stated that wasps make war on every other fly, and that even Arklow, co. Wicklow, was "the only British station the spider himself dreads their approach, but I have at present existing,” where it grew. That statement neither heard nor read of anything like the above was erroneous, and I desire with your permission to incident.-G. 0. Howell. correct it at once. The Hampshire station, is, I believe, extinct, but through the kindness of Mr. A.

MOUNTING MICROSCOPICAL MATERIAL.- Is there Bennett, I learn that Scirpus parvulus was discovered

any one who will mount microscopical material sent in 1869 near Poole harbour, Studland Bay, Dorset,

to him? I have a great many lingual ribbons of by Mr. J. C. Mansell. I may add, that although I

mollusca collected in Jamaica, butunmounted, visited the Arklow station twice this autumn for

which, if mounted, would be very useful for exspecimens, only about ten plants were found in flower.

changes.-C. P. G. Thousands occurred in the barren state.-Richard M. Barrington, Fassaroe, Bray.


in a mousetrap I found a mouse with six young CORN-CRAKE. I fancy the birds whose decrease ones (apparently born in captivity). On examinain England during the last few years Mr. Anderson tion it was discovered that all the young mice were and Mr. Warner call attention to, must have mi headless, their heads having been, evidently, de. grated to North Wales ; for I really never heard so voured by their hungry mother. Is it usual, when many crakes in any place, as I did near Beaumaris, pressed by hunger (there being no bait left), for the a small town in the island of Anglesea, where I old ones to devour the heads only of their offspring ? have been living for the last three years. I am sure When taken out of the trap the mouse was nearly there must have been a smallcolony of them in the field dead.-E. S. attached to a house I rented. The rasping noise of their cry often kept me awake a great portion of the

MOUNTING Mosses, &c.-Could any of your night, and directly I had the grass cut they moved correspondents inform me of the best way to mount to other quarters, sufficiently vear the house to be the leaves of mosses, &c., for the microscope ? It heard. I like the wild cry of the Plover and of has been recommended to mount them between slips various sea-birds, as they are borne away by the of glass, so that they can be moistened when it is night wind over the sea, but the note of the corn wanted to examine them; but I find that if this is crake, like the scraping of as late-pencil, puts one's often done they ultimately decay. I have tried teeth on edge.--Helen E. Watney.

balsam, but without good results. Would the

substance called coaguline answer the purpose ?WATER-RAT, OR VOLE (Arvicola amphibius).-One H.W.J. day in August last I noticed a large heap of freshly turned-up earth among growing potatoes in our BRITISH SHREWS.-I think "J. W." will find that garden, and thinking a mole to be the cause, a trap in the new edition of Professor Bell's “British Quawas procured, and next morning the culprit was se drupeds,” now in the press, the "Oared Shrew" will cured. At the first glance I took it to be a common be omitted, as it is now considered to be only a brown rat, but looking at it more closely found it variety of the Water-shrew (Sorex fodicus). I have was a water rat, and the man from whom the trap examined several intermediate varieties, and am of was procured declared that these aquatics burrow opinion that the S. ciliatus of Sowerby (S. remifer quite as much as the mole itself. This I do not of Yarrell) is not a true species (the continental S. dispute, seeing the effect of its industry around, but remifer), as believed by Mr. Yarrell.-T. S. what I consider very strange, is the fact of this lover of water being located in a walled-in garden at a

LOCAL NAMES.- I had a collection of birds' eggs great distance from its more congenial haunts. In

given me a short time since, and among them were Letter 28 of White's "Selborne" a somewhat similar two labelled “Feather-poke” and “Ground-lark.instance is related, the rev. gentleman being ap

Both the eggs are abont the size of the House, parently as much puzzled as myself to account for sparrow's. The names are evidently local, but I such a deviation from regular habits. In that case,

cannot find either of them in Atkinson's “'British the animal was turned up by the plough in a chalky

Birds' Eggs," although it contains most local names. field at a distance from water, and was snugly en.

Perhaps some of your readers will inform me. It. sconced in an " hybernaculum,” well provisioned

would, I think, form a very interesting volume if with potatoes.-W. H. Warner, Kingston, Abingdon. some one were to get the name of each bird, animal,

or in fact anything of interest from each county, DURATION OF BEE-HIVES.—In a mansion in as almost every bird, &c. has a local name, which is Kent, recently renovated, it became necessary to very puzzling in other neighbourhoods.- Arthur disturb a colony of bees which had been known for Smyth. thirty years to have inhabited the roof. A large quantity of honey was procured, and 40 lb. of comb MICROSCOPICAL QUERIES. — Will any of your were removed from between the rafters. Is it an readers inform me what are the best media for unusual circumstance for bees to perpetuate them attaching ebonite cells to the glass slips? I have selves for such a length of time in the same locality ? tried Kay's coaguline, cements, marine glue, &c., -4. L.

but do not find any of them trustworthy, Could

you also inform me where I should be likely to WASPS.—Some time ago, as I was returning home

procure a micro-lantern on hire for a night or two? from a walk, I strolled into an unfrequented lane I want a lantern suitable for exhibiting transparent where I saw the following curious incident. In the

microscopic slides on a screen.--Micro, Hull. middle of the roadway a large wasp seemed evidently engaged in some very important undertaking. Ap; MOUNTING CRYSTALS.-A “ Constant Reader proaching carefully, I found it severing the head (p. 237) will find two very good articles on Microfrom the body of one of its own species. Unfor scopic Crystals in SCIENCE-Gossip for 1866, at tunately, my presence caused the insect to fly off page 33 (February), and page 125 (June).-A. $.

STRANGE COMPANIONS!—That a spider and a four hours they continued to hatch at intervals, until slug should choose a resting place within an inch about fifty in all were born. On first gaining their of each other seemed somewhat singular. Indeed, liberty they were exceedingly active, and their antics when I noted that the slug, which was about an were most curious, whilst they always preserved the inch in length, was reposing under the angle of a praying attitude, as they fought or ran over one wall, close to the spider and its abode, I thought at another, seeking no doubt for the food they could first that, though the arachnid was much less in not find. We tried them with everything we could size, it had made a victim of the slimy individual. think of. likely to attract their baby appetites; but I believe instances have been frequently noticed sugar, flowers, meat, insects, alike remained unwhere suails have returned again and again to the tasted, and we now saw that our vision of bringing same spot after taking their excursions. So it was up a young brood of praying mantises was doomed with this particular mollusk; for he was sometimes to disappointment, as one after another grew weak, to be found at home,” at other times absent, shrivelled, and died. The nest, which is soft and during the few days I observed him. The close covered with a thín horny substance, shows a series was tragical; the spider quitted her web, having of scales or folds, and it is now little changed, exceptattached thereto her bag of eggs, and a human ing that it has shrunk a little in size.-Falmouth. enemy of slugs watched the return bomewards of

WHITE SPARROWS. I observed in a recent the spider's companion, and by the application of a well-adjusted pinch of salt, brought him to his

impression remarks from “W. F. D.” on the mother earth-a slimy mass !-J. R. S. C.

appearance of a sparrow “whose plumage is very

nearly entirely white;" &c. Although a sparrow CAGED BIRDS AND CATS.-It is noticeable that

with white feathers is doubtless a rara avis, yet caged birds of the Finch tribe are very variously they occur more frequently than is supposed. A affected by the approach of a cat. Canaries are not,

few years ago, when living in Hampshire, there was in most cases, particularly alarmed, unless a cat

a white sparrow that bred in the thatch of a bam makes some demonstrations of attack; and I have

close to my house. I shot it, and found it was of known some canaries that will chirp, in a sort of pure sparrow breed, but perfectly white; and there friendly recognition, as a cat passes that they have

were afterwards in the same locality several others heen accustomed to. The goldfinch and the siskin, which were piebald ; doubtlessly part of the pronaturally timid birds, are more fearful of the feline geny of the white one.--T. V. C. race tban are the linnet and chaffinch. But the

STRANGE FREAK OF A SPARROW-HAWK.-I bulltinch exhibits the most excessive and ludicrous

was out with my rod towards the fall of the year, alarm; the sight of a distant cat throws him into

whipping for trout on the higher part of one of the an agitation, and should one appear near at hand, rivers that take their rise in the centre of Dartmoor. the bird will continue peering about for a long time There was plenty of flood tumbling over the grey cven after it has gone; still suspicious that its foe rocks in foamy cascades, and eddying swiftly past is lurking somewhere. It is probable this strong the sharp turns in its course; but the sun shone instinctive dread of a cat is connected with the

brightly; the water was clear, and the wind from natural habits of the bullfinch; the bird being par the east, and whip as I would I could not do much tial to fruit, and frequently found in gardens and with the fish. They sported to the surface but orcbards, where its life is in danger from cats would not take home, jumping over the red palmer, prowling about these places.-J. R. S. C.

and flicking the blue dun with their tails; at last, EUPLECTELLA. A friend of mine has a specimen result

, I reluctantly resorted to a worm, and had

after sundry changes of my fly without satisfactory of Euplectella speciosa, within which is some crustacean, what, I know not, but it measures quite 2 inches

better luck, in spite of the clearness of the water. long, and has somewhat the appearance of a cray,

I had fished up to where a high bridge crossed the fish, minus the antennæ. How could the animal

stream, and had struck my rod into the ground have found its way into the interior of the Euplec- / buttress of the bridge. A worm was on the book,

while I sat down for a short time against the tella, in which there is no opening or fracture of any kind? The prisoner (of course long since dead) is

and dangling by a short line in the air, when detached, and rolls about in its cage, when the latter

suddenly there was a rush from the other side of is moved. Altogether the matter has puzzled me as

the bridge, and a hawk swiftly emerging from under

the arch seized the worm and flew off to the full much as did the apple and the dumpling in the case of "good King George," and I shall be thankful

tether of the line, the jerk pulling the rod to the for an explanation.-W.W. Spicer, Itchen Abbas.

ground, and at the same time pulling the bait out

of the mouth of the bird, which flew off in affright. PRAYING MANTIS.-A correspondent in your

I regretted he had not been hooked, as it would September number asks for a description of the

have been satisfactory to know, whether he could Mantis oratoria, or Praying Mantis. "I have fre

have been held.—7. V. C. quently seen it. Some years since a mantis nest How to DESTROY ANTS.-In answer to your was brought, amongst other curiosities, by one of correspondent “ E. B. F.," I have found that our family, from the south of France. It was boiling water will invariably destroy a whole nest attached to a piece of quartz. For several weeks of ants. Of course hot water cannot be used if the it remained forgotten in a drawer. It was early in ants have taken up their quarters in grass ; but in the summer and the weather was unusually cold, any other locality, I have generally disturbed their and one day, when it was shown me, I remarked nest and then placed a flowerpot downwards, on or that if there were life in it, it would have little in close vicinity to the nest. In a short time they chance of developing without heat of sun or fire, will have reconstructed their home, and large and I forthwith placed it on the mantelpiece. It numbers will have collected under the pot, when had not been there two hours, before we were boiling water will soon put an end to their existence. startled to see a number of little creatures, about Half a pint of petroleum and water in equal the size of the common gnat, but wingless, emerging quantities will also completely extirpate them.from the folds of the nest, and for the next twenty. I 4. P. Howes.

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