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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
Acanthodes, Spine of, 253.
Octopus oulgaris, 5.
Odonestis potatoria, 205.
Oolitic Fossils, 244, 245.
Orang, 11, 13. 228, 229.
Fossil Carboniferous Fish, 253, 254. Orthis resupinata, 196.
Otter, the American, 133.
Froghopper, Anatomy of, 53, 54.
Paleoniscus AND SCALE, 253.
Parasitic Flies, 32, 33. Aphrophora spumaria, Anatomy of, 63, GadflY, MOUTH OF, 108.
Peronospora infestans, 99.
Plant-lice, 148, 180.
Potato-beetle, the Colorado, 15, 16.
Potato Disease, Fungus of the, 99.
Prehensile Organs of a Moth, 64.
Proboscis Monkey, 11, 12
17. Belemnite, 27. Blow-fly, 33.
Holman's SyphoN OR "LIFE"-SLIDE, Pygidium of a Moth, 64.
173. Bolesoma Olmstedi, 57.
Pyrameis Atalanta, 220.
Hybognathus osmerinus, 9.
Ranunculus Asiaticus, 153.
Rare Zoophyte, 125. Pale Clouded Yellow, 204.
Rhynchonella pugnus, 196.
ICHNBUMON OF APMIS, 180.
Sarcophaga Sarracenie, 273.
Insects, Mouths of, 108, 109, 156, 157, Sarracenia variwlaris, 272. Callitriche derna, 104.
Saw-fly, the Great, 245. Carboniferous Fish, 253, 254.
Sections of Diatom Frustules, 197.
Sepia, the Common, 5.
Sepiola Atlantica, 4.
Slide, Holman's Syphon or “Life," 173.
Sphinx Convolvuli, 205.
Spider, Diadem, 271.
Spider Monkey, 12.
Spiders' Webs and Spinnerets, 181, 200,
Lophopus crystallina, 269.
TABANUS, MOUTH OF, 109.
Tadpoles of the Smooth Newt, 105. lepturus, Scale of, 254.
Teeth, Sections of Fossil, 75, 76, 77. Colias Edusa, 204. Macroglossa fuciformis, 60.
Tegenaria domestica, Webs and SpinHyale, 204.
perets of, 181.
Terebratula biplicata, 244.
Tarebratula hastata, 196.
Mediæval Cultivation of Fruit, 35, Coryne pusilla, 152.
Fishing, 36, 37.
Thyatira batis, 61. Crane-fly, Mouth of, 156, 157, 158.
Tick, the Canterbury, 121, 122, 234, Ctenoptychius, Teeth of, 74, 75, 76, 77. Mode of Trapping Bears, 37.
Trigonia costatu, 244. Cuttlefishes and Anatomy, 4, 5, 26, 27,
Turntable, Wheel, &c., of, 81, 130. 28.
Uroceras gigas, 245.
Monkeys, 11, 12, 13, 14.
Moor Monkey, 14. Daucus Carota, 242.
WEBS AND SPINNERETS OF SPIDERS, 181, Deilephila Euphorbiæ, 205. Moth, Prehensile Organs and Pygidium
of a, 64. Deilephila Galii, 60.
Wild Carrot, the, 242. Diadem Spider, 271.
the Cinnabar, 204.
Worm-boles in Hides of Oxen, 32. Diatomaceen Typen Platte, Möller's, 176.
Convolvulus Hawk., 205.
Drinker, 205. Diatom Frustules, Forms of, 197.
Spurge Hawk., 205.
Xanthoptera semi-crocea, 273.
Mouse, the Jumping, 84.
Yew-tree, resuscitated, 101,
MEDIAVAL, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39.
ZOOPHYTE, RARE, 125.
Zoophytes, Hydrozoan, 152.
Zvõioca vivipara, 225,
NOTES ON THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SEASON OF 1873. .
HE season of 1873 The Scotch specimens were taken in Aberdeen
has been declared shire, on the banks of the Dee.
As was also the case in 1872, there are no records of the worst for of any captures of V. Antiopa in Ireland during the many years, owing, past season. Besides the number of recorded capprobably, to the tures, it is probable that some have been taken of fact that the heavy which no notice has been sent to the entomological rains in the pre-magazines, so that think we may conclude that ceding autumn de- at least thirty have been seen and captured last
stroyed multitudes year, several of which were hybernated specimens of pupæ, and late frosts in the of the previous season. spring as many larvæ. But This number is considerably less than the "take" even in this season, which of 1872; but the disparity is probably owing to the has earned for itself such a
fact that almost all the individuals seen in that year bad name, there are several were netted, so that few were left to perpetuate the records of the capture of species. very rare insects, and other no The only other very rare butterflies caught in tices of insects less rare having 1873, whose capture is recorded, are one specimen been taken in localities where A. niobe (by some regarded as a variety of adippe), they had not previously been and one M. dia, an insect so rare that hitherto it known to occur; such, for has only obtained a place in our list of "reputed” instance, as northern insects British species. having extended their south Turning to the Nocturni, we find recorded two ward range, and other cases captures of that very ra sphinx C. celerio, one at
which will presently be Southport and the other at Bolton. mentioned.
H. velleda (Northern Swift) has been extending First and foremost amongst the captures recorded its southward range; it has been reported from the in this journal, and in the Entomologist, we find Quantock Hills, Somerset, from Folkestore, and 1 twenty-five notices of the occurrence of V. Antiopa bave heard of its capture in Norfolk. (Camberwell Beauty), distributed over several of Amongst the Noctuæ there are several rarities our English counties, and including two captures that have been taken during the past season, of in Scotland.
which the following may be noticed. In point of numbers the neighbourhood of London P. leucophæa-several specimens captured near stands highest, recording four specimens; viz., Canterbury. one at Hampstead, one at Stamford-hill, one at I. conspicillaris, of which one specimen was Clapham, and one in London itself, at Finsbury. taken at Danbury.
The northern counties furnish us with five cap L. albipuncta - two captured at Folkestone, tures: one in Cumberland, one in Lincolnshire, one where it has previously been taken. in Yorkshire, and two in Lancashire. In the eastern P.alpina-a pupa found by Mr. Allin near Braemar, counties we have four specimens recorded; viz., at a great elevation, produced this rare species. Norfolk one, Suffolk one, and Essex two; while C. gnaphalii, both in the larva and imago state, ten are reported (exclusive of the four captures has again been taken at Darenth Wood. near London) from the southern and midland C. absynthii—one capture is recorded from Ire. counties; viz., Berks two, Worcestershire one, land, where it had previously been unknown; the Surrey three, Sussex two, and Kent two.
larvæ have also been taken near Sevenoaks. No. 109.
A. ophiogramma-one taken in Ireland, where it ! a Gomphonema, under the name of Vorticella is exceedingly rare.
pyraria, and a Fragilaria as Conferva pectinalis, 0. lunaris-a specimen of this insect was taken i and a Melosira as C. armillaris. A much greater near Lewes.
sensation was produced by the discovery of the staff The Pyrales furnish us with one very rare species, animalcules (Vibrio paxillifer) by Müller, and which 4. nemoralis, which has turned up in two or three the discoverer did not know where to classify, but localities; viz., at Willesden, Lewes, and in Surrey. later embodied in the genus Vibrio.
"Sugaring" has been condemned as an utter Gmelin, in the 13th edit. of Linné's “Systema failure during the season of 1873, and yet almost all Naturæ,” corrected this error, and founded a special the rare Noctuæ mentioned above were taken at genus upon this form, and to which he gave the “sugar.”
name Bacillaria, and from this the whole group The uncertain appearance of such species as received the name Bacillariæ, or staff animalcules. C. edusa and hyale, and of C. cardui, &c., has The lower Algæ had, at the end of the last cenbeen repeatedly noticed, but the subject of the tury, very zealous friends (sehr eifrige Freunde) in occurrence of rarities when common insects are Germany, in Mertens Trentpohl, Roth, Weber, scarce, is one which, in spite of the attention paid and Mohr; in England, Dillwyn; and in France in to it, has not yet met with a satisfactory explana Girod-Chantrans and Draparnaud; and several tion.
M. H. forms now distributed among the genera Fragilaria:
Melosira, Diatoma, Tabellaria, and Schizonema, were described by these naturalists as Conferve.
In the beginning of the present century some HISTORY OF THE DIATOMACEÆ.
good figures of Conferva sti pitata (=Achnanthes PROFESSOR H. L. SMITH, in the August longipes); C. obliquata (Isthmia enervis); C.
(1873) part of the Lens, commences a transla Biddulphia (=Biddulphia yulchella), were given. tion of Kützing's “ Historical Preface” (Ge. Although De Candolle, so far as is known, made schichtliche Einleitung) to his “Bacillarien”; and as no special study of these organisms, he was the this preface is of considerable interest to the first to separate the form previously known as student of the Diatomacex, we propose to give a Conferva flocculosa, as a special genus, which he called short résumé of Professor Smith's translation. The Diatoma. Agardh adopted this genus in bis translator remarks in a note, that the introduction "Synopsis Algarum,” 1817, but combined with of Kützing's “Bacillariæ" (Bacillarien) presents it other species-D. Swartzii, D. pectinalis, D. fascioso many points of interest for the student, and is latum, which are now distributed among as many so valuable as an historical summary, that I pro different genera. pose, in the intervals between the appearance of We are indebted to Nitzsch for the most im. the different parts of my own synopsis, to give a portant investigations made by him in the same somewhat free, though accurate, translation of it: year. He furnished in his little work, long since “Already, for four thousand years [Jahrtausend, out of print, “Contributions to the Knowledge of lit. 'thousands of years.'-F. K.] has the mind of Infusoria, or a Natural History of the Zerkariæ man searched the wonder works (Wunderwerken) of and the Bacillariæ," with six coloured copperplates, creation, yet (still) a vast field remained unexplored, the first really good pictorial representations. He closely connected with the numerous forms of that also first recognized the prismatic shape of these endless nature which the unaided eye had recog forms; he correctly observed and explained the nized, and the higher probing mind had arranged, separation into zig-zag chains and the production when in the commencement of the 17th century, a of ribbon-like forms from an imperfect separation compound microscope was invented by Zacharias (incomplete self-division). In 1819 appeared Janson and his son, in Middelburg; and with that Lyngbye’s Tentamen Hydrophytologiæ Danice ; this man ventured upon the unknown, and till then work contained more Bacillarian forms than any invisible, field of smallest organisms, the discovery previous publication. Twenty-five different forms of which opened an entirely new world in minia were distributed among the genera Diatoma, Fragiture.
laria, and Echinella. The name of this last genus Although it is uncertain what particular forms of had been previously given by Acharius, and incorthe Diatom group the first observers found and porated for several years in the systematic handendeavoured to represent by description and pic books, and had even been given by me in my ture, yet it may be taken for granted, with great "Decades of Fresh-water Algæ,” to a form which, certainty, that they must have met with isolated in the following year (1835), was recognized as specimens, since they are so widely distributed. For the first discovery of forms which we are able
In 1820, Link described two new genera, Lisito identify with any certainty we have to thank gonium (not Lisogorium) - Melosira and Hydrolinum O. F. Müller, who, in 1773, described and figured I =Schizonema.
In 1822, Bory de St. Vincent treated on some morning, a very gentle, shy, “Pitchee (pretty) of the Bacillariæ, and described and figured Echi Bobby." He very soon gained courage, and called nella stipitata as Achnanthes stipitata, but placed it out loudly, adding, by degrees, "Sweet Bobbee,” in this genus forms not belonging to it. The genus and “Pretty little fellow." The latter, being his Fragilaria, Lyngbye, he described as Nematoplata. last accomplishment, is not quite so distinct, as In the article Bacillariées (in the “Dictionnaire yet. Classique d'Histoire Nat.”), he constituted thegenus He sings and dances on the floor, and appears Navicula, and in the article Conservées, which ap most amiable and charming ; but if any one (even peared in 1823, he described the genus Gallionella. his own mistress) puts her hand within his reach,
In 1824, C. A. Agardh published his “Systema he perches on it, pecking, and biting and pinching, Algarum," and describes the Bacillariæ as a special i like a spiteful child. He has, I believe, caused the order of Algæ, under the name of Diatomeæ, and death of several canaries kept in his room. He arranged them in a better and more thorough manner has been seen spitefully to twitch out a feather from than his predecessors; he placed them in the ge a tail, when he could reach it through the wires of nera :-- 1. Achnanthes ; 2. Frustulia ; 3. Meridion ; a cage; and one morning I found nearly all the tail4. Diatoma ; 5. Fragilaria ; 6. Melosira (=Gallio- feathers of a goldfinch, mixed with sundry pins, nella, Bory); 7. Desmidium (now excluded); 8. nails, and buttons, collected in a small heap. Since Schizonema ; 9. Gomphonema.
this discovery, he has had his wing clipped, and so Having thus brought down our résumé to this is kept on the floor beneath the cages. date, we hope in future numbers to glance at the His temper is peculiar, and he is easily offended. history of these forms up to the time of the publi If I presume to keep him in a cage for a longer cation of Kützing's work (in 1844). Those who wish time than he approves, when I again let him out to read the entire translation will find it in the he will run away and hide himself, and refuse to Lens, Nos. 2 and 4, vol. i.
F. K. sing or speak for some hours. On one occasion, I
took him to another house, intending him to show
off his accomplishments. He behaved like a wild THE STORY OF MY ROBIN.
bird, refused to be caught, and remained at the top NE morning about the end of May, I saw my
of the room, on a curtain-pole. He was only at ONE little dog in a great state of excitement in the
last driven into his cage by hunger, when the door garden. She was tossing what looked like a small
was rapidly shut upon him. On his return to his ball up into the air, then pouncing on it as it came
home, though at once set at liberty in his own down. I went out to see what it was, and found a
room, he refused to speak, sing, or take any notice poor little frightened Robin at that moment actually
of his mistress for nearly a fortnight.-K. H. in her mouth. I took it from her, and carried it The above statement is communicated to me by into the house, expecting to find it torn and bitten;
“K. H.” I have witnessed the gambols, and heard but not even a feather was ruffled, and the poor the words mentioned most distinctly pronounced by little fellow only appeared faint with fright, opening
the Robin, in a whistle rather than in the manner and shutting his eyes alternately, and trembling
that parrots talk. I have also noticed another matter violently. He soon revived, and began to kick and which seems to indicate that birds can communiscream; so seeing there was not anything really
cate by language. The Robin was lest in another the matter, I made him eat some bread and milk,
room, which contained a window looking out into the only food at hand fit for him. He rebelled
the garden, and, whilst there, was visited by two or against being fed for about a day; and then, appa three Robins, who flew violently against the glass, rently thinking it was not so bad after all, he
as if trying to liberate him from his confinement. submitted patiently, and in a week began to peck On each occasion after these interviews, the little about and feed himself, and even attempted to prisoner refused to be petted, remained silent and sing, in his small way, early in the morning. After
frightened, as if ideas had been communicated to keeping him in a cage for about a month, I turned him by his outside friends which rendered him him loose in a room. He was at this time rather a unhappy and disconsolate. Whatever communicagawky, speckled little fellow, with long yellow
tion took place was through the glass, and would legs. About the beginning of July he began to
indicate the possession by birds of an audible moult, and by the end of August he was a beautiful language.
ALFRED CARPENTER. Cock Robin, with a lovely red waistcoat and pretty Croydon. black legs and feet.
Very soon after his transformation, he began to "A knowledge of science attained by mere readsing, partly his own natural Robin's song mixed ing, though infinitely better than ignorance, is with some notes of a canary, and some whistling knowledge of a very different kind from that which learned from his mistress. At last, I heard, one arises from contact with fact.”-IIuxley's Physiology.