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NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS.
E. H.-Your article is in type, and will appear in due
B. BELFIELD.-Your specimen of female fern (Athyrium filix-fæmina) is very remarkable. It answers to the description of the var. trifidum, in Newman's “ History of British Ferns," hetter than to any other, and we have no doubt this is the variety the specimen belongs to.
J. AITKIN.-The white crast which you described as so abundant on the bark of beech-trees, and of which a speci. men was forwarded, is not of vegetable origin, and therefore not a fungus or lichen. It is of animal origin, formed of a species of Cynips, like the “apple-blight.” At one time it was considered to be a fungus, and was then named Psilonia nivea.
R. STANDEN.-Your drawing is that of the Great Saw-fly (Uroceras gigas).
Mrs. W.-You had better consult a practical nurseryman about the roots of your cherry-trees. His experience will at once lead him to say what you had best do to arrest the attacks of the insects and fungi.
C. L.- Read the paper on "The Formation of Chlorophyll," in the November number of 8.-G., for information as to whether sunlight affects a fire. You will there find experiments related which prove that it does.
R. W.-Genuine thanks for your hints as to the matter on our last page.
T. L.—Your specimen is evidently a stunted form of Delesseria alata.-W.H. G.
J. V.-Your specimen of Bryopsis plumosa, with a so-called green parasitic growth attached, was forwarded to one of our best algologists for identification. He writes, " It looks like half a dozen different things, but it is so muddled together and so interwoven that I hardly know what to say of it. I have given what time I had to spare to it, and believe it to be some abnormal or undeveloped filaments of Bryopsis plumosa. I do not think it is a parasite."
J. 'P. GREELY.–The specimen inclosed was one of the wire-worms, the larva of a beetle. It is difficult to prescribe a remedy for its at:acks. Perhaps some of our readers can, and will reply.
J. B. Davies. Your fronds are undoubtedly those of Lastrea cristata, var. uliginosa, now very scarce. Pray, preserve the habitat.
H. G.–They are caused by an insect, a species of Cynips, and are known as “Oak-spangles " and "Buttons." See " Half-Hours in the Green Lanes.” (London: Hardwicke).
E. W.-The fern is Asplenium lunceolatum; the lichen a Cetraria,
W. E. SHARP.-Your eggs never reached us. Perhaps they were disposed of in the transit, unless well packed.
WILSON.-The parasites on the badger were Trichodectes crassus, Denny's "Monograph," plate 17, fig. 3. It is dis. tinguished by the notch on the top of its head.-1. 0. W.
J. P. B.-We are sorry that your notice reached us too late for insertion in the December No. of Gossip.
J. M.-We shall be happy to get your Mosses named for you if you will forward them (properly packed) to our office.
H. W. 1.-Fungus on Pellia from Brazil is Uredo Marchan. tie-I think it is undescribed.-M. C. C.
J. H. S. J. (Lewes).-The fungus on leaves of Smyrnium olusatrum is Trichotasis petroselini,
POLARISCOPE Scales of Sea Buckthorn (S.-G., p. 278) and Vegetable Ivory, for other mounted objects.-Send list to C.C. Underwood, 25, Gloucester-place, Portman-square, London,
I have the following Duplicates :-Blysmus compressus; Campanula patula; Cuscuta europæa; Epipactis grandiflora; Geranium phæum; Monotropa hypopitys; Neottia nidus-avis; Ophrys apifera; Orchis ustulata, o. elatifolia, o. pyramidalis; Orobanche minor; Polygonatum multiflorum ; Thesium linophyllum. Desiderata-other plants.-E. A. Hall, Whatton Manor, Nottingham.
I have an Album (Oppen's) containing 702 stamps, also Lichen Hypnoides. Anything useful taken in exchange.Mr. W. Thomas, Ray Lodge, Lingfield, E. Grinstead.
3a, 16, 31, 46, 68, 122, 259, 286, 977, 1325, 1338, &c., Lon: Cat., offered for 3b. 4 vars., U vars., 22, 24, 33, 36, 45, 47, 2286, 2356, 237, 238, 2406, 242, 243, &c.—John E. Robson, Sea View Hartlepool.
LEPIDOPTERA and specimens of H. virgata, H. caperata, var. ornata, H. hispida, H. arbustorum, H. rotundata, &c., for other Shells and British Birds' Eggs.-W. K. Mann, 17 Wellington-terrace, Clifton, Bristol.
Can any one oblige with living Plants, or Seeds, of Eleagnus, Deutzia, or Hippophe rhamnoides (Seu Buck. thorn) ? Say what exchange.-J. G. R. Powell, Braw.hill House, Leek, Staff.
WANTED, well-mounted slide of Triceratium ; will give a well-mounted slide in exchange.-F. M. Swallow, Blackrod, near Chorley, Lanc.
SECTION of Cuttle-bone, ground-plan (opaque), and of Charob-seed (polar), for other good objects.-Send list to R, H. Philip, 23, Prospect-street, Hull.
Section of Leg of Camel in exchange for other Microscopic objects.-J. M. Hoare, The Hill, Hampstead.
Fossil Diatoms from Isle of Mors, Jutland, in exchange for other good slides or Barbadoes polycistina, uomounted. Apply to F. Lazenby, Sarum-villas, Basingstoke.
British Lepidoptera and Coleoptera, Foreign and British Shells and Limaces offered for Foreign Shells, or British Land, Fluviatile, and Marine.-M. M., Post Office, Faversham, Kent.
“THE MICROSCOPE," by Jabez Hogg (fifth edition), and a good Writing Diamond, for well-mounted Microscopic Objects.-A. C. Rogers, Red Lodge, Bassett, Southampton.
WELL-MOUNTED Microscopic Slides of Marine Algæ, 40 varieties, also some small Star-fish, unmounted, for good Slides.-R. T. Smith, 25, St. Alban's-street, Weymouth.
Good specimens of Helix arbustorum, H. Ericetorum, Clar. silia laminata, c. rugosa, Planorbis vortex, Pupa secale, P. umbilicata, and Cyclostoma elegans for other Shells.-R. Taylor, 6 Everleigh-street, Tollington-park, N.
COLLECTION of 50 Species (160 specimens) of British Birds' Eggs arranged in trays, in box, for Microscopic material or Works on the subject.-R. Taylor, 6, Everleigh-street, Tollington-park, N.
BOOKS RECEIVED. “Monthly Microscopical Journal." December. “Journal of Applied Science." December. “ Les Mondes." December “ Land and Water." December.
“ The Conservation of Energy." By Prof. Balfour Stewart. London: King & Co. “The Telegraphic Journal." Vol. I.
London: H. Gillman.
" Manners, Customs, and Dress during the Middle Ages." By P. Lacroix. London: Chapman & Hall.
“Man and Apes." By St. George Mivart. London: Hardwicke.
“Waste Products and Undeveloped Substances." By P. Simmonds. London: Hardwicke.
"Mind and Body," By Dr. Bain. London: King & Co.
EXCHANGES. Clausilia Rolphii, C. laminata, and Helix Cartusiana, for Olausilit biplicata, Clausilia rugusu, var. dubiu, Helix revelata, Helix lamellata, Limnæa glutinosa, and L. involuta.- Address, J. Fitz Gerald, 10, West-terrace, Folkestone.
PupÆ of H. Pisi, for other common pupæ or ova.-J. Pickles, 12, 13, Warehouse-hill, Leeds.
FIFTY Australian Sea-weeds, named and mounted, for East or West Indian, North or South American Seaweeds, mounted or unmounted.--Address to be obtained from Mr. Hardwicke, 192, Piccadilly.
The First Vol of " Grevillea," unbound, for Land or Freshwater Shells.-T. Hagger, Repton, Burton-on-Trent.
LEPIDOPTERA aud Pupa of P. Bucephula, and H. Pisi, in exchange for other Pupæ or Birds' Eggs; many common species of each repuired.-Thos. H. Hedworth, Dunston, Gateshead.
BRITISH Land and Fresh-water Shells for American Land and Fresh.water'Shells.--David Whitehead, 70, Phæbe-street, Regent-road, Salford, Manchester,
COMMUNICATIONS RECEIVED UP TO THE 12TH ULT. FROMW. K. B.-F. K.-K. H.-A. C.-C. G. B.-E. R.--J. R. 8. C. -J.J. R. B.-G.G.-G.W.V.S.-W. H. B.-E. E.-T, W. W. -J.S.H.-J.A.-S. S.-E.G.-G.R.-H. B.-T. B. K.-J. H. -T. H. H.-J. P. B.-W. W. S.-E. M. M.-J. G.-H. G.W. S.-D. W.-S. T. P.-C. C. U.-J. W.-E. W.-C. E. F. G. -T. O. W.-R. S.-A. H. S. T.-Dr. T. O.W.-C. W. L.-W.T.-H.T.M.-M. W. T.-H. A. M.-J. G. R. P.-J.H.M. -A. A.-H.W.-J.L. H.-A. C. L.-M. A.L.-R. W.-R. T. -A.8.-W. D. E.-C. E. B.-C. P. G.-W. H. W.-R. A. P. -J. O, H.-J. T.-R. T. 8.-F. A. A.-W. C.-R. H. P.E. A, H.-A. 8.-W. S. P.-F, M. 8.-E. B. F.-F. B.-J. C. -H. E. W.-J. P.-C.J. W. R.-J. M. H.-W. K. M.-J. E. R. --G, B, C.-J. E.-F. L.-R. M. B.
HISTORY OF THE
OF THE DIATOMACE Æ.
N the year 1827 Thus, till the year 1832, stood the systematic C. A. Agardh dis labours on these microscopic organisms, most of covered several the writers mentioned considering them partly as diatoms,
animals (the moving forms) and partly as plants which he descri. (the fixed forms). Agardh, Lyngbye, and Leiblein bed in the Regens- advocated; decidedly their vegetable nature; but, burg Botanical beside Schrank, there was none who decidedly adJournal, and men. vocated their animal character; of their life-history
tions for the first nothing was known beyond the thorough communitime the genera Micromega, cations of Nitzsch, and the more superficial obser. Licmophora, and Homcocladia. vations of Gaillon, that might have brought the The same algologist wrote question as to their nature nearer solution. more particularly of this family In the same year (1832) appeared the second in four theses, which
“Contributions to the Knowledge of the Minutest with the title "Conspectus Organisms," by C. G. Ehrenberg. In this the Criticus Diatomacearum;" in Diatomaceæ were considered as decided animal the first and second he descri. forms, and were included with the infusoria under bed a great number of forms, the family of “staff animals” (Stäbthierchen, inpartly already known and
cluding Desmidieæ); in the class of “stomach partly new, under the genera animals.” (Magenthiere). But, at that time, sto
Cymbella, Schizonema, Micro machs were as little recognized by the author as mega,' Berkeleya (this genus was constituted by mouth, entrails, or rectum ; but a bivalve shell and Greville in 1827), Homcocladia, Gloeodictyon, Hy a changeable foot (veränderliche Sohle) (like the drurus, and Gloenema. In the third part (1831) heGasteropods) and said to stretch out the longitudinal gave the genera Gomphonema, Styllaria (=Podo. cleft of both valves, was mentioned. Another comspheria, Ehr.), Meridian, Licmophora, and Frustulia ; munication from the same author followed in 1834, in the last part (1832) Isthmia, Odontella, Desmi in which were described sixteen newly observed dium, Achnanthes, Striatella, Fragilaria, Grammo forms. The descriptions communicated in these nema (belonging to the Desmidieæ), and Melosira. observations are of the greatest importance, and (Kützing was wrong in referring Grammonema to are given with a care hitherto unknown in this Desmidieæ. This form is probably an imperfectly field. The author had this advantage over his presiliceous Fragilaria, and it is, moreover, a marine decessors, that in his investigations he could make species.-F.K.) In the whole the author describes use of the best microscopes. (The best microscopes about 116 species of Diatomaceæ. Greville had of this period probably did not equal in performanee already described (1827), in the "Scottish Crypto- such as may now be obtained for four or five pounds. gamia Flora," vol. v., the genera Exilaria, Monema, In 1834 Messrs. Goring and Pritchard published and Berkeleya.
the "Micrographia,” in which is a dialogue beIn 1828 Turpin founded the genus Surirella, and tween Tobias Oldbuck, Esq., naturalist, and Mr. Gray, in 1830, the genus Biddulphia, from Conferva William Putty, optician, on the comparative merits Biddulphiana and C. obliquata of the Eng. Bot. of the old-fashioned simple microscope and the
newly-invented engiscope (or aplanatic microscope), to Europe in the transportation of lumber (Pflanzenthe performance of metal reflectors (amician reflect transport), so that he obtained a view of the forms ing engiscope), and achromatic objectives are also from forty-four different localities in America, from discussed.-F. K.)
the Falkland Islands to Kotzebue Sound. Within Navicula Amphisbæna he considered the In the same year in which Ehrenberg's great coloured substance as an ovary, and took the lighter work on the Infusoriæ appeared, A. de Brebisson cysts appearing therein as polygastric stomach-sacs. had diligently studied the Algæ of his neighbour
In the year 1838 appeared the great work by hood (Falaise), the results of which he published in Ehrenberg “Die Infusionsthierchen als vollkom his “ Considérations sur les Diatomées,” in which mene Organismen," in which he still adhered to he introduces the genera Cymbophora and Epithemia. the animal nature of the Diatomaceæ, and fancied About this time Greville (in Hooker's “British he saw openings or mouths, stomach-cells, sexual Flora”) and Harvey (in the “Manual of British organs, and foot-like projections. The filamentous Algæ”) became co-workers among the Diatomaceæ. forms he compared to Polypi stems.
The latest discoveries appeared to have been quite Since the first attempts to bring the Diatoms unknown to them; at least, they have no influence into several genera, the outward form of the shell on their labours. covered body, the manner in which the single indi Ralfs has furnished the most recent work on viduals are united, and the presence or absence of British Diatoms in a single monograph, which is stipes whereby they are attached, have been prin printed and accompanied with figures in the twelfth cipally taken as the foundation of classifications vol. of " Annals and Magazine of Natural History." since Ehrenberg introduced also the presence or Ralfs excels his predecessors in the correctness absence of shell-openings for the distinction of of his descriptions; but his figures are mostly crude genera; but the main groups were arranged accord (with the exception of those of Amphitetras, Bid. ing to the presence or absence of stipes, a mistake
dulphia, and Isthmia). which caused the author to mention Lyngbye's
F. K. Diatoma arcuatum not only as two different species, but also under two different genera, viz. as Tessella catena, * and Striatella arcuata. His 154 species,
CHAPTERS ON CUTTLES. contained in the work already mentioned, are
No. 3. mostly accompanied with very carefully drawn
By W. H. Booth. figures. In 1839 he published, in the Proceedings of the Berlin Academy of Sciences, “The Formation
E have now arrived at the last family of secof the European, Libyan, and Arabic Chalk Rocks, tion B, the Spirulide. The little Spirula, and the Chalk-marl from Microscopic Organisms." or Ram’s-horn, is a shell familiar to most of us, In this communication he described the new genera though we may not be acquainted with the anima. Coscinodiscus and Dictyocha. [The latter genus is that formed it. Many of these shells are brought now removed from the Diatomaceæ, with which it by the Gulf Stream and strewed along the coast of has no affinity.-F. K.] In 1840 Ehrenberg discovered that many of the fossil forms were still living in seu-water (also published in the Proceedings of the Berlin Academy). He also published the new genera Amphitetras, Ceratoneis, Grammatophora, Lithodesmium, Podosira, Triceratium, Tripodiscus, and Zygoceros. In the same year a further communication contained a description of about 100 new species ; and the genera Amphipentas, Campylodiscus, Discoplea, and Himantidium. He also published, in 1840, his work on the extent and influence of microscopic life in North and South America. Professor Bailey had already, in 1838, given the outlines of American Bacillariæ in Silliman's “ Journal of Science and Art,” and had also especially reported on the fossil forms of North America.
Ehrenberg received abundant material from North Fig. 20. Ammonites amaltheus, showing foliation of chambers, America, and at the same time he received contributions from South America through his brother, the Peninsula, whilst a few find their way to our Carl Ehrenberg. He also obtained earth from own coast. For a long time the animal to which various parts of the Continent, which was brought this shell belonged had not been discovered, and it
was generally supposed that it was an exterior two halves, appears to be divided into a number of shell very much like that of the Nautilus in its cells (septa), which are connected by a small tube, function. Such, however, was found not to be the the siphuncle. All the four-gilled cuttles have case, for a living specimen was lately procured by shells similarly partitioned off, although in some the Mr. Percy Earl on the coast of New Zealand, which
shell is straight, in others only slightly spiral, and proved that in this cuttle the shell is contained
others often coiled. The Nautilus is furnished with within the mantle, and is in no part external.
a number of tentacles, which are of two kinds, those There are three different species of Spirula, differing about the mouth being of a different description to from each other but slightly; they are all divided those which serve as arms. It occupies the front into separate chambers connected by a siphuncle. cavity of the shell, and can shut itself in by means
of two arms, to which is attached a leathery sort of
pericardium, which compresses the air
already contained in them, and so the
centre of gravity is changed. By thus, We now come to the second order of cuttles, the so to speak, shifting its balance, the Tetrabranchiata, or "four-gilled." The animals of
Nautilus rises to the surface or sinks this order are all protected by an external shell,
down to the depths at will. Owing they progress in exactly the same manner as other to the paucity of living specimens cuttles; but their arms, which are very numerous,
examined by scientific men, but little are not furnished with suckers. Three families is positively known about the habits only, the Nautilida, Orthoceratida, and Ammonitide,
of the Nautilus. Mr. G. Bennet, I are contained within this order, many hundred dif
believe, was the first man of science
Fig. 23. the shell raised above water, and kept
Belemnite, in a vertical position by means of the (restored). included air, and, in the words of the sailors, looking very much like a dead tortoiseshell cat in the water. On being captured the upper portion of the shell got broken by the boat-hook, as the animal was just sinking when caught. The shell is so well known that a descrip
tion of it would be superfluous; but a few remarks Fig. 22. Clymenia, from Devonian limestone, showing zig on its ingenious structure, formed so as to resist zagged chambers.
the great pressure it would have to encounter when
at the bottom of the ocean, may be of some interest. ferent species of shells belonging to these three The shell is constructed in every way on the prinfamilies are known, but of these three only are ciple of the arch, so as to offer the greatest resistrecent, all the rest being fossils. We are all well ance to pressure, by making each part bear its acquainted with the shell of the Pearly Nautilus share of the weight. In some fossil species the (Nautilus pompilius), which will serve as a type for strength of the shell is greatlyğincreased by its its family. The shell of a Nautilus, when cut into being formed into ribs, thus fortifying it in a man
ner similar to that by which iron is strengthened by being corrugated. And, last of all, the divisions between the chambers serve as supports, acting as cross-beams, and enabling the shell to resist all lateral and inward pressure. Probably more of the living animals have been lately observed, as they are by no means rare in the Indian seas, their favourite haunts being along the coral reefs. The Fiji Islanders are said to catch them by letting down large wicker baskets of the same construction as ordinary crab-pots, baited with crayfish, and loaded with stones to make them sink. After catching the Nautili they broil them, when they are reputed to be very good eating.
The good people of Whitby went farther than this, for they made plaster heads of snakes and fixed them on to the Ammonites; alleging that they were found in that condition. Ammonites are occasionally found of a great size, almost as large as a cartwheel, and in some parts are so plentiful as to be used for mending the roads. They are very generally distributed, most numerous in portions of the Politic system ; two species found in England, at Whitby, have also been discovered at an elevation of sixteen thousand feet on the Himalayas.
Fig. 24. Goniatites sphæricus, from Carboniferous formation,
showing angulated chambers.
Of the second family, the Orthoceratida, we have no examples, save in the fossil state. In the typical genus, Orthoceras (õp os, orthos, straight, and képas, keras, a horn), the shells are straight, and, as their name implies, very like a straight horn. Like the Nautilus, these shells are multilocular, and have their chambers separated by transverse plates, concave externally, convex internally, and connected by a siphuncle. Some species of this genus attain to a length of nearly six feet; their shells are found in great numbers in blocks of marble of a dark-red colour, from the limestone of Oeland. Of this marble many pavements of our public buildings have been constructed; amongst them part of that in Hampton Court Palace, and that in the Hall of University College, Oxford. Several other genera belonging to this family possess shells of very pretty and varied forms; of these, the genera Cyrtoceras and Gyroceras, are good examples. We now reach the last family, the Ammonitida, contain: ing the well-known Ammonites and other kindred forms, which must have existed in great numbers during the Secondary epoch, as testified by the number of their shells which have been found. They are very similar to the Nautilus in most respects, and are far too well known to require description. The name of Ammonite is said to be derived from the Romans, who called it the " cornu Ammonis," or Ammon's horn. Another name is that of St. Hilda's beads, so called from a supposition that they were snakes turned into stone at that saint's prayer.
It now only remains for me to notice a class of shells which, from their structure, might be supposed to be closely connected with the Ammonites and other chambered shells ; I allude to the Foraminifera, and more especially the Nummulites. These beautifully sculptured little shells, existing as they do in countless myriads on our coasts, the delight and great pleasure of the microscopist, are of much lowlier rank. They appear to be more closely allied to the Amæbe, animals (very nearly vegetables), nothing more than a piece of mucus, colourless, plastic, and just retaining voluntary motion. When one of these creatures approaches any minute plant or animal that cannot get out of its way, it so contorts itself as to send out branches or arms of its body, which clasp the prey all round, and make it embedded in the living mucus until quite absorbed. Thus, of very much lower organization than the Cuttles are the Foraminifera.