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hooks. An old Indian of Ega showed me the most eggs on the human frame. Certainly Van der effective way of proceeding, which was to stupefy Hoeven ("Handbook of Zoology," i.) is inclined to the grub with strong tobacco-juice, causing it to think that the injury is due to this cause, or else to relax its grip in the interior, and then pull it out of some species of Tachina. the narrow orifice of the tumour by main force." Other authorities, however, introduce us to a fly ("The Naturalist on the Amazons.")
whose mode of action bespeaks it a place among Alexander von Humboldt had already published the flesh-flies,-a group very far removed from the an account of a fly with similar habits, which he gadflies. named Estrus hominis. According to his observa One species insests the valleys of Mexico, both tions, the larvæ of the insect are not rare on the North and South, though not found on the high arms, back, and abdomen of the natives, within table-lands. This fly lays its eggs in the nostrils of large tumours, at the top of which is a minute human beings; the larvæ are quickly hatched; and orifice, through which the grab communicates with then follow rapidly ulceration, erysipelas, and the outer air. At a fitting period the larva forces meningitis. The insect gradually eats its way into its way through this hole, falls to the earth, and the mouth, eyeballs, cheeks, &c., until in a fortnight there undergoes its final changes.
or three weeks the miserable victim succumbs to All this is precisely what occurs in the case of his fate. (“Archives médicales Belges," 1867.) the European gadflies. Every resident in the The same or a similar plague is not uncommon country must have noticed lumps or swellings on farther south. Captain Burton does not appear to the backs of oxen, especially of heifers, which are have been himself cognisant of any case in Brazil, called by the rustics whorbles (fig. 27) or wory
ormuls, no but he speaks of hearing * many tales told of doubt meaning worm-holes. With each of these negroes losing their lives in consequence of the swellings lies ensconced a grub, the produce of a grub being deposited in the nose and other places.” large brownish fly, which was named by Bracy ("Highlands of the Brazils.") A more detailed Clark Hypoderma bovis (fig. 28). From August to May account I translate from M. Girard's work, “Les the head of the little creature is plunged in a mass of Métamorphoses des Insectes,” published in 1867. purulent matter, on which it feeds, while the tail, "Since the transportation of prisoners condemned in which the breathing apparatus is situated, is
to hard labour to Cayenne has been in vogue, thrust through a minute hole at the apex, in order to several fatal cases have been traced to the operacome in contact with the outer air. During the tion of a fly named by Dr. Coquerel Lucilia homini.. month of May the larva manages to enlarge the vorax (fig. 31). Other convicts have escaped with the orifice, through which it drops to the ground and loss of their nose; for it is into the nose and cheeks seeks a convenient place of shelter. *
of sleeping men, especially when in a condition of helpThis little bit of life-history points to a close less intoxication, that the insect introduces its eggs. analogy between our gadily and the human parasite The maggot, which is furnished with strong hooked of South America. Moreover, a connecting link is mandibles, establishes itself in the interior of the found in a narrative given us by Don Ramon Paez nostrils, and in the frontal sinus ; from thence it in his “Life in the Llanos of Venezuela," wherein passes to the eyeballs, and causes gangrenous he writes: "Agapito, our host, had an easy time wounds in the eyelids; or it enters the mouth, and as overseer of this domain, his only occupation gnaws away the gums, the palate, and the pharynx, being from time to time to scour the savannah in causing intense anguish. The patient experiences search of young foals which might have been at at first an itching sensation in the nostrils, accomtacked by the 'gusano. This is the larva of a panied by severe headache and swelling of the nose, species of fly deposited in the umbilical cord of the which is soon followed by ulceration of the parts new-born foal, and which, if not promptly removed, affected, during which the larvæ force their way will eat into their very vitals.”
through the skin, and make their appearance on It will not escape observation that the horse-fly the surface. As the evil advances, violent inflamof Venezuela and the human parasite of the neigh
matory action sets in, with all the symptoms of bouring state of New Granada both pass by the meningitis and erysipelas, until death releases the name of Gusano.
victim. The grub in question is known in Cayenne On the whole, we can scarcely avoid the conclu as the ver macaque, and was published to the world sion that some species of ox-fly not unfrequently so long ago as 1735 by M. Arture, physician to the leaves its proper pasture-ground, and deposits its king of Cayenne. It is probable that the der
moyacuil of Mexico, which attacks men and dogs, is
an analogous species. our herds; but we are told by Dr. Bernard Altum, in his lately published work, “. Forst-Zoologie Säugethiere," that in under the name of Idia bigoti, indigenous in Senegal, Germany the hides of the wild deer are often so riddled by these grubs as to render them unfit for the purposes of the
which stings the soldiers on duty near the coast. In all likelihood this stinging is the introduction of
• No great barm follows from the attacks dans an."
Dr. Eoquerel has also made known another fl;
the animal's ovipositor previous to placing its eggs
MEDIÆVAL NATURAL HISTORY AND under the skin. The larva has been met with in tumours in the back, arms, and legs. The negroes
SPORT.* are often attacked by this fly, and are skilled in
THIS extirpating the larva.”
history almost to break one of the ten comFrom what has been related, and from the cases mandments, and so far covet his neighbour's goods. of assault quoted by Moquin Tandon in his valuable
I: presents itself in all the attraction of excellent “Medical Zoology," I infer that at least two species
paper and clear type, with fifteen full-page chromo. of fly, belonging to distinct groups of the Dipterous lithographic prints, and four hundred wood-enorder, are concerned in this kind of parasitism. | gravings. The character of the latter may be best
One, an Estrid, to be ranked with the European | judged of by those which illustrate the present Hypoderma, causes swellings and sores on the legs notice, and for which we are indebted to the kindand arms of the person affected. This is probably ness of the publishers. The work is compiled by the Cuterebra noxialis of Goudot. The other, a one of the best-known students of mediæval lore, M. Muscid, nearly related to our Blue-bottle (Calli- Lacroix, better known as “Bibliophile Jacob,” the phora), attacks; the face of its victim : it is the curator of the Imperial Library of the Arsenal, Paris. Lucilia hominivorax of Coquerel.-W. W. Spicer,
“Manners, Customs, and Dress during the Middle Ages." Itchin Abbas.
Ey Paul Lacroix. London: Chapman & Hall.
In the six hundred large octavo pages which former will thank him for so ably introducing them make up the volume before us, we have the Middle to the habits and modes of life of their mediæval and Renaissance periods brought before us like a ancestors. The book is divided into sixteen chappanorama. Their social habits and requirements, ters, of which the most interesting to us are those their art and science, love and war, homes and prisons, sports and pastimes, are described with inimitable skill, whilst the accuracy of the state.
ments are substantiated by the illustrations, which have been derived chiefly from the art-efforts of the Fig. 36. The River Fisherman, from a 16th century engraving. periods in question. The pictures very effectively tell the tale, and it would not be difficult to infer on the “Private Life in the Castles, Towns, and from them an accurate idea of the life of six cen- Rural Districts," "Food and Cookery," " IIunting," turies ago, even without the aid of antiquarian “Games and lastimés,” “Guilds and Trade Cor
porations,” “Punishments," and "Condition of Persons and Lands.” In fig. 33, we have an illustration of the mediæval mode of cultivating fruit, from which the reader will gather that we have not altered the method very greatly. A little change in the dress and position of the figures employed in pruning the trees, and the picture would stand for a scene in a modern nursery-garden. The illustration is taken from a miniature in the library of the arsenal of Paris. As is well known, Western Europe was exceedingly poor in fruits before the Roman conquests. And although we find from certain statutes of Charlemagne that many of the imported fruit-trees were reared in gardens, no extensive or particular attention seems to have been
paid to them until the fifteenth and sixFig. 35. The Pond Fisher man, from Munster's “ Cosmographie," A.D. 1549.
teenth centuries. Of course, the fable of
the “Goose-tree,” which Mr. Southwell research. The great merit of M. Lacroix's work has already described in the last volume of SCIENCE is that it does not treat of its interesting subjects | GOSSIP, kes its appearance in M. Lacroix's pages, in a dry-as-dust manner. It is written for the in
as we do not see how it could be kept out. The illustelligent public,' not for antiquaries merely; and the tration, however, is of a simple character (6g. 34),
and tells its own tale as to the supposed origin of Barnacle geese, believed in five centuries ago, not only by the ignorant and untaught, but also by the learned. In fig. 35 we have a pictorial description of the mode of obtaining fish from the ponds. In those fervent Catholic times, the breeding and rearing of fish was an important matter, and all large man. sions and religious houses had their fish-ponds. The illustration is a fac-simile of a woodcut from that storehouse of mediæval art, the “Cosmographie Universelle" of Munster (A.D. 1549). The net used by the river fishermen (fig. 36) is identical with that employed in pond-fishing, and the eelbasket seen on the edge of the boat is precisely similar to those
still used for eel-snaring in the eastern counties. In | In figs. 39 and 40 we have two of the methods of the chapter on “Hunting,” we get, inciden- / snaring birds in use during the Middle Ages. Fig. tally, a few glimpses of the natural history of the 40 shows a man hidden in an improvised bower of periods described. We are introduced to animals leaves, attracting the birds by imitating their notes
on a pipe. The other plan is more ingenious. The bird-fowler was covered with clothes of the colour of dead leaves. When he saw a bird he knelt down noiselessly and kept perfectly still. When the bird was not looking towards him he cautiously approached it on his knees, holding tn his hands two little sticks covered with red cloth, which he gently waved, so as to divert the bird's attention from him. self. In this way he gradually got near enough to pass a noose, which he kept ready at the end of a stick, round the bird's neck, so as to capture it. This was the usual plan adopted of taking woodcocks alive, as is shown in fig. 39, a copy of a fourteenth century MS.
The brutal pastime of bull-baiting was preceded by horse-baiting, carried on in a similar manner with dogs, as shown in fig. 42, copied from a thirteenth century manuscript. Old horses were those gene
rally utilized for this kind of sport. The sports most Fig. 39. Mude of Catching Woodcocks, from a 14th
popular with all classes were those which entailed century MS.
torture and suffering on the poor animals which
since rendered locally extinct, or exceedingly rare frnished it. Thank Heaven, we are growing out For instance, in fig. 38 we are introduced to a bear of this degrading practice, and we know of nothing trap, showing how bears were caught and killed with more likely to entirely suppress it than the cultivation a dart. The profuse hæmorrhage which ensues, shows of a love and sympathy for animals ! In propor. how effectively the machine has done its work. The tion as natural history has increased in popularity, illustration is a fac-simile of a miniature in the MS. brutal sports, of the kind referred to, have declined of Phæbus, in the fifteenth century. The part de in favour. voted to bird-fowling is very interesting, as the Fig. 37 introduces us to a busy scene, first sketched illustrations prove. Tricks were resorted to that in Munster's “ Cosmographie Universelle.” A seem to us more of the nature of that infantile whale bas been towed ashore, and the blubber is fowling operation which consisted in putting a pinch being removed, the work going briskly on to the of salt on the tail of the bird, than anything else! | sound of bagpipes. The naturalist will observe