Imagens das páginas

latter is the Xanthium spinosum, introduced from thought it probable that the latter (was enly the Europe, the achenes of which cling to the wool agent in bringing them to the surface, a large prowith such tenacity that it is almost impossible to portion of the diamonds found consisting of fragdetach them, and render it almost unsaleable. It ments. At the same time he remarked that each spreads with such rapidity that in some parts legis. pipe furnished diamonds of a different character lative enactments have been passed for its extirpa from those found in other pipes. tion; and where this is not done, it almost usurps the place of the more useful vegetation. The

THE MINERAL WEALTH OF VIRGINIA. - The President (Mr. George Bentham) stated that the recent opening of the Chesapeake and Ohio railway Xanthium has in the same manner deteriorated the

from Richmond, on James River, to Huntington, on pastures in Queensland; whilst in the south of

the Ohio, and the consequent laying open of a large Europe, where it is equally abundant, it does not

tract of country hitherto almost inaccessible, has

directed much attention in the United States to the appear to cause such injurious results. Though generally distributed through Europe, the plant is

resources of a district perhaps the richest and most probably of Chilian origin.

valuable in mineral wealth of any in America. The

railway crosses, at an oblique angle, several parallel VEGETATION OF BERMUDA.-Mr. H. N. Moseley, belts of useful minerals. Near Richmond is a triassic one of the naturalists to the Challenger expedition, coal-field long known and worked, though the coal is has recently communicated a paper on this subject not first-rate and the expense of getting is considerto the Linnæin Society. He states that about 160 able. To the west of this belt is a large deposit of species of flowering plants were gathered on the iron pyrites, much of it auriferous. Still further island, but of these not more than 100 were cer west is Charlottesville, where the C. and O. rail. tainly native. Those of West-Indian origin were way is crossed by another of older date, abounding probably brought, as Grisebach had suggested, by on both sides with some of the purest and finest the Gulf Stream or by cyclones, there being no magnetic oxides of iron known. These ores are winds blowing directly from the Ameriean coast very free from all injurious mixtures. A little which would be likely to carry seeds, which might, further west there are several bands, or rather one however, be conveyed from the continent by mi band presented in several folds of exceedingly pure gratory birds. A note by Professor Thiselton-Dyer and rich brown hematites. Parallel with these is appended to the paper stated that 162 species sent another line of railway, partly opened, connecting over by Mr. Moseley had been determined at the with the north. After an interval of 100 miles we Kew Herbarium, of wbich 71 belong to the Old come upon the coal

measures. The lower part conWorld, while two, an Erythræa and a Spiranthes, tains a few good seams, but the middle part is were plants hitherto known as confined to single exceptionally rich and valuable. There is here localities in the United States.

about 60 feet of coal in several workable seams, and a thickness of less than 300 yards of measure.

The seams are intersected by the deep and picGEOLOGY

turesque gorge of New River and the Kanawha

and reached by numerous tributaries. They can be MODE OF OCCURRENCE OF THE DIAMONDS IN

worked with great eașe at small cost, and no coals South Africa.-In a paper on this interesting in the world can be better adapted for the coalsubject just read before the Geological Society of cutting machine. Some of the seams have been London by E. J. Dunn, the author stated tliat the opened and are in moderately active work, yielding diamonds of South Africa occur in peculiar circular three kinds of coal, -splint, a hard variety, well areas, which he regards as “ pipes,” which formerly adapted for steam and marine engines ; cannel constituted the connection between molten matter greatly valued for enriching gas; and a moderately below and surface volcanoes. The surrounding rich bituminous coal, good for household use, and country consists of horizontal sbales, through whieh believed to make excellent coke for iron-making these pipes ascend nearly vertically, bending up and locomotives. All these minerals are capable of wards the edges of the shales at the contact. The being worked as soon as the coal-fields are open, rock occupying these pipes was regarded by the and it is satisfactory to know that measures are author as probably Gabbro, although in a very being taken to do this, and that English capital is altered condition. Intercalated between the shale- being diverted in this direction. One English beds there are sheets of dolerite, &c., and dykes of company has already started, and a branch rail is the same rocks also intersect the shales at frequent being constructed to enter the coal-seam and carry intervals. Within the pipes there are unaltered the mineral to the main line of the Chesapeake and nodules of the same dolerite. With regard to the Ohio railway. The coal is here about 150 miles relation of the diamonds to the rock of the pipes in from the iron ore, and iron can certainly be made wbich they are found, the author stated that he for a price not exceeding 60s. per ton, either where

the ore occurs or where the coal is worked. Be beautiful woman; and its hinder parts like a goat. sides coal and iron, there are valuable deposits of

This is said to be the creature mentioned as the kaolin and china clay; brine-springs that have been

Lieliath in the 34th chapter of Isaiah and the 4th

chapter of Lamentations. So runs the old chronicler. used for a century to make salt; important deposits

Never having heard of the monster I was amused to of corundum used in making emery; exceedingly read of a legend existing in modern Abyssinia regood mica in large plates, and a great deal of steatite garding it, which seems to require some explanation, or soap-stone. The development of these minerals

as it is so very circumstantial. Mansfield Parkyns

says, in his very interesting work entitled “Life is likely before long to alter very materially the

in Abyssinia," published by Murray in 1868 (on relative importance of Virginia and West Virginia p. 404): "There is an animal, which I know not among the States.-D. T. Ansted, F.R.S.

where to class, as no European has hitherto suc.

ceeded in obtaining a specimen of it: it is supposed “MISSING LINKS.”—The researches of Professor by the natives to be far more active, powerful, and Marsh in the tertiary strata of the neighbourhood | dangerous than even the lion, and consequently held of the Rocky Mountains promise to yield some of

by them in the greatest possible dread. They call

it 'wobbo’ ormantillit,' and some hold it in the most important results to palæontology that superstitious awe, looking upon it more in the light have yet been laid before the public. Most of the of an evil spirit with an animals form than a wild generic forms are intermediate connecting groups

beast. Their descriptions of this animal are vague that are now widely separated, and therefore are to

in the extreme : some say that its skin is partly that

of a lion, but intermixed with that of the leopard be regarded as veritable "missing links.” Among and hyena; others, again, assert that its face is them is a six-horned rhinoceros, that undoubtedly human, or very like it. It appears in the valleys, connected the ruminants and the pachyderms. An

happily only rarely; for they say that when it takes other interesting form is a small horse, no bigger

its abode near a village, it pays nightly visits, enter

ing the very houses, and carrying off the children, than a fox. Prof. Marsh is engaged in preparing and even occasionally grown-up persons. One had his already great store of material for publication, been killed some years ago on the river Weney, and although the beds have not yet been half investi

its skin presented to Oubi (king of Tigre); but I

could never discover what became of it. I heard of gated. The investigations had to be carried on at

a village which had suffered considerably from its great risk, an account of the Indians.

depredations, and for several days watched every New SPECIES OF FOSSIL DEER.-Mr. Randall

night in the neighbourhood, but without success."

F. A. A. Johnson has described a new species of fossil deer in the “Annals of Natural History" for January,

SOLUTION FOR PRESERVING SEA ANEMONES.under the name of Cerous latifrons. He obtained

I find in my note-book the following recipe, extracted

from the “Manual of Scientific Enquiry” (p. 361, the specimen from the Norfolk Forest-bed. This

published by Murray & Co.):-Take bay salt 4 oz. makes the ninth species which has been obtained alum 2 oz.; corr. sublimate 2 grs.; rain or distilled from that interestipg deposit.

water 1 quart. Place the actinia in sea-water until

fully expanded; then add the solution slowly and HORNBLENDE Rocks. - Hornblende rock may quietly, when the animal will be killed and fixed in in some places be schistose, or nodular, or con

the expanded state. It should then be transferred cretionary. Some of the schistose portions of this

to a bottle containing fresh solution.-J.P. Belmont,

Dartmouth. kind of rock, from Iar-Connaught, Ireland, have been proved by Forbes to be derivate rocks; con.

IPSWICH SCIENCE-GOSSIP SOCIETY.—This flourishsequently such portions must be metamorphosed ing society, founded several years ago by readers of tuff. Where hornblende rock is nodular or con

and contributors to our magazine, held its annual

conversazione on the 10th December. About 750 cretionary, it may have spheroids from the size of a of the principal inhabitants of the town were preman's head to four or five feet in diameter, irregu. sent, who evinced their interest in scientific matters larly heaped up together, with the interstices filled

by discussing the various objects exhibited. Among

the principal exhibitors were Messrs. W. Ladd, J. with schistose-looking stuff, that has a foliation Wiggin, B. Edwards, Powles (with a patent sandrudely curling round the nodules; or the interstices blast in full action), Dr. Drummond, Messrs. W. may be occupied with a felsitic rock, or even with Vick, Howes, Garratt, Budden, and others. Physical a quartzitic stuff, or perhaps with two or more of

science was especially well represented, and natural

history by collections of mosses, shells, fossils, butthese substances mixed together. -Kinahan's Handy terflies, Aint implements, &c. A collection of picBook of Rock Names.

tures, by the late Henry Bright, a local artist, added to the variety; and the performances on two of Whight & Mann's magnificent pianos (an Ipswich

manufacture) lent a charm to the evening. Great NOTES AND QUERIES.

credit is due to the chairman, Mr. W. Vick, and the

hon. sec., Mr. Henry Miller, for the successful A MYTHICAL MAN-EATER.-In SCIENCE-GOSSIP

issue of the meeting. for June, 1867 (p. 128), in an article upon an old natural history more than a century old, I described SHORE-LARK.-It may be of interest to note the a strange beast called the Lamia. This creature is occurrence of the Shore-lark (Alauda 'alpestris). said to be bred in Libya; to decoy men to it by ex The bird, a fine male, was observed in a birdposing its bosom ; to have a face and breast like a seller's window in Bristol. The man had it brought

to him with several yellow-hammers, caught within seem at all injured. I should wish to learn more a short distance of the city. I had the pleasure of of their nature and habits.-S.T.P. seeing it, and noting its characteristic markings. The yellow head, elongated feathers, and black

THE SNAKE AND THE TOAD.-One hot summer's patches on top of head, side of beak, and breast afternoon—it was a Sunday in August, - I remember, being specially prominent.-E. Wheeler.

and a good many years ago-my father called us all

out into his melon-garden. There was something PINE-APPLES.-At a meeting of the Royal Horti for us to see,” he said. In a corner of a pit, coiled cultural Society, held at South Kensington, very up and fast asleep, lay a full-grown snake, evidently recently, I was much interested at some re digesting a large meal, for his stomach was enorremarks made by Mr. Liggins, F.R.H.S., upon the

mously distended. A toad, which was kept in the great size which the pine-apple attains in the cele pit to destroy the vermin, was nowhere to be seen.brated Pitch Lake of Trinidad. This gentleman's The snake had eaten him up!-M. A. Livett. observations are reported in the Gardener's Chronicle of December 6th, which also, in a foot-note, quotes

THE POSTAL MICROSCOPICAL CABINET CLUB.Canon Kingsley, from vol. i. of his work “At Last;

In the first box of the Northern circuit of the a Christmas in the West Indies," which corroborates “P.M.C.C.” (Postal Micro. Cabinet Club), Mr. R. Mr. Liggins' statements. The lake appears to con

Harris Philip, of Hull, inclosed a slide of “Sting of sist of soft powdered pitch and reddish brown sand. Scorpion," to which he appended the following Could not the attention of gardeners be drawn to

note: The beastie' from which I prepared this this (to me) novel culture of pine-apples in this

slide was caught by a friend amongst some cotton country? I seek advice of some practical geologist

seed imported from Tahiti. I kept it for about two or chemist on this matter, who, perhaps, would be

months, at the end of which time it died--for want good enough to recommend some artificial sub of food, I suppose; for, though I tried it with all stance, consisting of bitumen and brown 'sand in kinds of insects (which books say are its usual certain defined proportions, but which should an

diet), yet I could never induce it to eat anything. swer all practical purposes of horticulture. It would Indeed, one small larva I put in, finding the be an immense boon conferred upon English garden

scorpion's back easier for walking on than the sand ers, if, by a happy combination of pitch and sand, they

at the bottom of the jar, used to make a regular should be able hereafter to grow the most luscious of promenade of it, without molestation, so long as it fruits to a much greater size than it bas hitherto

kept off the head; but Scorpio evidently considered attained here. I may also remark, that, at the same

touching his head too great) a liberty, and used to meeting of the society, the Rev. M. J. Berkeley project the trespasser to the other end of the jar alluded to some splendid Cayenne pine-apples as

with a fillip of the tail, apparently, however, not having been grown in the Royal Gardens at Frog

using the 'sting." Mr. B. would be obliged to any more, under the influence of heat obtained from

one who can tell him what they would eat, in case oak-leaves (decayed); the plants standing on about

he should have the luck to find another. Since six feet of this material.-John Colebrooke, F.R.H.S.

sending you copy of rules, which appeared in the

December part of SCIENCE-Gossip, I have received THE QUEEN BEE.-Major Munn was the first to

letters from several gentlemen wishing to join the put bar-frames into (not with a box or case in 1834,

club: these, as we have now our {full complement of the same as the modern bar-frame hive, which has members, I have been obliged to refuse; but have raised bee-keeping to (not in) such perfection, &c.

since determined that, after the 1st of January, the The fructification of the queen bee is always the

president and myself will be pleased to conduct a death of the drone. (This is what your correspon

SECOND CLUB (if agreeable) under the same rules as dent on p. 262 (1873) wants to know.)-Wm. Carr.

our present club. I shall be glad to receive all

applications for membership as early as possible.A VORACIOUS PERCH.-- Fishing a short time since

Alfred Allen. in a mill-pool, I hooked a perch weighing threequarters of a pound. Just as I was on the point of

RARA Avis. - During December, 1873, three

Hoopoes were observed in the parish of Freshwater, landing him, my hook snapped in the middle of the

Isle of Wight. One of them was seen by the Rev. bend, and the fish escaped. An hour or two aster, a friend, who was with me, landed, on the opposite

C. Bowen, of Heatherwood, Freshwater, to alight

under the verandah of his house. Several years side of the pool, a perch, which on examination proved to be the one I had lost, as we found the

ago a pair of these birds were shot in this neighbroken hook securely fastened in his mouth.-The

bourhood; but they have not again made their perch was plump, and evidently a well-fed fish ; and

appearance until the present time.-4. G. Weld. the pool, I have no doubt, abounds in food, from the MARKINGS ON LEPIDOPTERA.-In reply to J. W. fact that twenty roach taken in one afternoon from the same spot, with the rod and line, weighed, to

Russell, I cannot find, on reference to Stainton's,

Newman's, Wood's, or Morris's works, that there gether, over thirty pounds.-J. Henry Vaughan. is any difference in the markings between the male

and female of V. Urtica or C. Phleas. But in C. MUSCA FORMICIFORMIS.—This is, I believe, the

Pamphilus, according to Morris, the brownish markname of a small fly resembling a winged ant, which ings at the edge of the wings are darker and more I have, now and then, seen in great numbers in hot, decided in the ó than the specimens.-W.L. dry, summer weather, but at no other times. They Sarjeant. crowd as close together as they can find room on the branches of low bushes, and on blades of grass, SIGNS USED TO DENOTE SEX (p. 261).- The sign within the space of a few feet square. They move has no connection with the goddess Ceres, or her a good deal among themselves, but do not seem to sickle either. Your correspondent will find the whole take wing. They remain in the same spot for many matter treated of in Mr. Rodwell's " Lectures on successive days. I have noticed a peculiar odour the Birth of Chemistry.". Suffice it here to say from them. The plants, on which they stay do not that the sign is the symbol of the planet Venus,

and the corresponding metal, copper, of the ancient and find that they will eat all animal substances planetary worship of the East. It is apparently freely-slug3, beetles, meat, either fresh or high (so closely connected with the emblem carried by the called), also skin, and the softer feathers of birds ; Assyrian goddess Astarte and the crux ansata of the and they will take bread or oatmeal soaked in Eyptians, and the figure itself occurs abundantly milk, as cats are taught to do. If well tamed, among the hieroglyphics of the papyri. It has they will come when called to be fed, in the day. been thought by some to represent a looking-glass. light, but they are nocturnal in their habits, from -R. A. Pryor.

twilight to dawn foraging about, seeking whatso

ever feeble or imprudent animal may be captured, ANCIENT TREES (p. 237). — "On an oak in

or whatsoever animal substance may be found on Hampton Court Park, perhaps the oldest in

the ground; and eating in this way they act as England, see 'Jesse's Gleanings,' pp. 153-4."

scavengers. On account of the nocturnal habits of Flora of Middlesex, p. 425.

the Hedgehog, this animal is a capital destroyer of SUCKED EGGS. – A friend of mine was look cockroaches. A jackdaw will pick these creatures ing over a recent number of SCIENCE - GOSSIP, up with much more activity, but, unfortunately, and saw the paragraph headed “Şucked Eggs,' Jack begins to blink and falls asleep when the sun when he informed me that he had discovered a goes down, so that he is of no use when all is still blackbird's nest in a tree in his garden, containing and dark, and the Blattide are out seeking their three eggs which had been similarly treated. food. I may mention that hedgehogs die occasion. James J. R. Bate.

ally from scrofulous glandular disease. Some years SUBSTITUTE FOR A WATER-NET.-I have used

ago I met with a large male hedgehog, which, from occasionally of late, instead of a net of canvas or

some cause, could not coil itself up when alarmed. other material, a metal culinary implement (called,

It shortly died, and on examination I found that

the lymphatic glands of the neck were diseased, and I believe, technically, a small colander), which answers well for securing some insects and larvæ,

that, on account of the great thickness of the skin being fastened to a long handle. Its shallowness is

of the animal's neck, the matter from the glands

could not reach the surface of the body, and so disone objection; but the water runs off more speedily from the débris brought up, and the metal does not,

charge itself; hence the poor animal's sufferings of course, wear away, while ordinary nets are soon

and death. In Norway the Hedgehog is named Pin

Swin.-John Harker, M.D., &c. frayed or torn.-J. Ř. S. C. EU PLECTELLA.- Mr. Spicer, in last month's num

A WASP AND SPIDER BATTLE.-In last month's ber of SCIENCE-GOSSIP, expresses his surprise at

SCIENCE-Gossip, Mr. Howell mentions having seen some crustacean having gained admission into the a wasp decapitate a brother. A precisely similar interior of the Euplectella speciosa. Attached to

circumstance took place in my presence a few weeks the case containing my specimens is a printed de

since. That spiders are most afraid of wasps I

infer from a circumstance I witnessed many years scription, which states that the Spaniards in Manilla regard them as formed by the soldier crab,

ago. A wasp became entangled in the web of a which must take up its place in the tube before the

spider, located in the upper corner of a window,

when the spider rushed out to secure his prey, and network in the upper end is formed.” Whether this is a correct explanation of the formation of

a battle of some minutes' duration occurred, ending this beautifnl sponge may be open to grave doubt,

in a dear-bought victory by the spider, the wasp but the presence of the crustacean in question

falling dead on the floor, and the spider dying a would seem to favour the supposition.-W.R. T.

few minutes afterwards.-4. Nicholson. THE COMMON HEDGEHOG.-In your Notes and Queries for November a correspondent, who signs himself “L.,"gives some interesting facts respecting “ Animal Locomotion.” By J, B. Pettigrew, F.R.S., &c. a captive female hedgehog, a mother, with four young London: H. S. King & Co. ones. He states as follows:-"I fear that the “ Journal of Applied Science." January. mother died from exhaustion, as she suckled her

Popular Science Review." January.

“ Monthly Microscopical Journal.” January. young, and I did not know what to give her except “Grevillea,” January. bread and milk.” The writer further says, as to

" Land and Water." hedgehogs, "I should like to know more about their Les Mondes."

“ Evenings with the Microscope." By Philip Gosse. food and habits.” Very much has been written as

London : Society for Promoting Knowledge. to the food and habits of the hedgehog, but, never “ The Garden Oracle," for 1874. theless, no writer with whom I am acquainted has “ Insects of the Garden." By A, S. Packard, jun. Boston

Estes & Lauriat. at all indicated the amount of sustenance really

“ Christian Evidence Journal," No. 1. needed and taken by these comparatively small "The Argonaut," No. 1. mammalia; and a delusion prevails, that a very “ British Marine Alge," No. 5. By W. H. Grattann. small quantity of food, a few slugs and beetles, will suffice to feed this animal. The Hedgehog belongs

COMMUNICATIONS RECEIVED UP TO THE 12TH ULT. FROMto the order Insectivora, its teeth clearly indicating

T. B. W.-W. S. jun.-C. B.-C. P.-J. L. L.-C. C.U.that its food is entirely of an animal character. F.H.-A. W. L.-S. T. P.-J. 8. jun.--F. T. M.-T. R.

F. B.-W.R. T.-H. M.J. U.-M. B.-H. B. T.E.C. L. Hedgehogs require a large amount of food. In

W. J. B.-R. H.-E. C.-R. H. N. B.-F. W. H.-A. F. B.your journal, of two years ago, “L.” will find, under

E. E.-J. H.-E. F. E.-J. W.-D. H.--T, Q. C.-A. G. W.the heading Common Hedgehog, a communication J.S.-H. G.-J. A. jan.-J. J. V.-J.A.-F. M.-W.L.W.E. signed "J.H., M.D.," in which it is stated that a -E. F. E.-A. N.-R. H.-W. C.-J. L. H.-H. E.T.-F. H.

-JE, T.-E. L-M. M.-W. W, S.-W. R. W.-J. R. S. C. hedgehog, after an evening meal of six drachms of

-J. G. M.-G. G.-J. H. L.-A. A.-W. L. S.-S, A.S.cooked mutton, actually contrived to capture and J. L. C.-W. 0.-H. G.-C. J. W. R.-O. B.-E. S. B.devour a redbreast which roosted in a small fernery D. T. A.-T.J. E.-J. D.-R. M. G.-E. D. M.-J. F. C. within the reach of the thorny-backed marauderer.

C. C. U.-R. H. N. B.-H, C.-K. P.-A. G.-F. I. B

W. G. P.--W. W.-E. L.-C. P. G.-R. D.-E. B. K, W.I have frequently kept hedgehogs, small and large,

W.A.T.-E. A, H.-R. T.-A. S., &c.


W. L. W. E.-We are very sorry to remark that, though we got your note, the bees have not yet “ turned up"!

ORIGINAL SUBSCRIBER.-We are not aware that you can purchase collapsible tubes ready filled with Canada balsam but it is not difficult to get the tubes first and to fill them afterwards. You had best inquire at a good chemist's. The cheap perfumery is sold in the collapsible tubes. 2nd. You had better apply to any good microscope dealer for the material you desire, and we doubt not he will be glad to send you his catalogues. 3rd. For the purpose of studying the dissection of animals, you cannot do better than obtain Hulk & Henfrey's "Anatomical Manipulation." London : Van Voorst. The second edition (just issued) of Davies “ On Mounting, &c." (London: Hardwicke) is still cheaper.

NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS. A, F. BUXTON.-Carbuncle is the name given to a variety of the precious garnet (Pyrope). It belongs to the cabical system, and it is composed principally of silica, alumina, protoxide of iron, with lime, magnesia, and protoxide of manganese. It is found in Bohemia, Saxony, and Ceylon.

H. T. M.-The following are the names of the moths sent:- No. 1. Lesser Broad.border (Tryphena ianthina); No. 2. Large Mallow (Eubolia ceruinaria); No. 3. Cabbage Moth (Mamestra brassicæ); No. 4. Marbled Minor (Miana strigilis); No. 5. Small China Mark (Cataclysta lemnalis).

JOHN DAWSON.-The Testacella Maugei is of a dark brown colour, sometimes mottled or speckled with black, red, or white. Jts shell is larger and more cylindrical than that of the nearly allied species T. haliotideu. The Black Slug ( Arion ater) is carnivorous, and devours earth.worms. Tne Testacella haliotidea also preys upon the earth-worms, and will follow them up inio their burrows.

W. K.-The name of the Horse-eye Nut is Mucunu gigantea, a native of the East Indies, but extensively grown in the West Indies. The Calabar Bean is quite distinct from it, being oblong, round, slightly curved, and of a deep mahogany.colour. The Horse-eye Nut is round, compressed, gregish in colour, with a black band round the margin. J.T.

A. STORMONT.-Will you kindly communicate your address to us, as it was not given in your note ? “WHEN THE SWALLOWS HOMEWARD PLY.'

."We received several scores of notices of the late stay with us of the Swallows, all testifying to the extraordinary mildness of the present winter up to Christmas. We thank our correspondents for their trouble, and this reference to the number sent will be an apology for not publishing them all!

W.H. W.-Your description of the animal answers exactly to that of the Barbastelle Bat (Barbastellus Daubentonii), given in Bell's “ British Quadrupeds." It is well known as a native of France, but only of late years discovered to inhabit this country. It is in the southern counties that one would expect to find it most commonly in England.

W. BENNET.-It is the Pellucid Limpet (Patella pellucida), of deeper water habits than the common limpet, and known by its pellucid shell and pretty bright blue lines radiating from the apex.

J. A., JUN.-The only trustworthy work on Exotic Butterfies that would come within your means is Hewitson's, published in parts, by Lovell Reeve, at, we believe, 2s. 6d. each.

J. L. H.-Exchanges of Natural History objects are inserted gratis, if not more than three lines in length.

E. L.-You will by this doubtless have seen that the announcement of the Dodo being still alive has been contradicted. It was a bird called by Prof. Owen a “ Dodlet."

R. P.-Your sketch is that of the fossil root of the Sigillaria, one of the commonest of the coal plants. It goes by the name of Stigmaria ficoides.

P. Thomas.-It is the Hair-worm (Gordius aquaticus), usually believed by schoolboys and others to be the transformation'of horse-bairs by immersion in running water. The larval stages of these worms are usually passed parasitically in insects,

S. A. S.-You bad best obtain the volume of Labels for the Herbarium, by Robson, published by Hardwicke, Piccadilly, last year. It is the completest list yet issued, printed on one side for herbarium use. The generic names are, if we remember right, given as you desire.

BELEMNITE.- For preserving your Gault fossils, first gently brush them with a weak solution of common glue. This will prevent them falling in pieces. Afterwards, when this has dried, brush them over with copal varnish, to produce the shiny appearance you desire. We think, however, you had better omit the latter, as it warms in summer and gets sticky, so that the dust adheres to it.

J. P. GREELY.-A correspondent has kindly recommended us the following receipt as an antidote to wire-worms: Sprinkle the ground well with soot, and then plant it with potatoes; when the potatoes are taken up, the wire.worms should be taken out and destroyed. If this be done for a year or two, the ground will be entirely cleared from them. If the land is heavy and clayey, a beavy dressing of lime, at the rate of 30 tons per acre, will prove beneficial.

ERRATUM.-On page 13 of last No. of 8.-G., and in 22nd line, for “terrestrial," read “arboreal.”

E. C.-You will find a note respecting the connection of the Eagle with St. John, offered as an explanation of the “Liver" on the seal of the Liverpool arms, in the February No. of SCIENCE-Gossip for 1872. For St. James and the Scallop, and other hagiographical matters, consult Husenbeth's " Emblems of the Saints,"

EXCHANGES. WANTED: Clausilia biplicata, C. dubia, and Bulimus mon. tanus. Offered: B. montanus, C. laminata, Cyclostoma elegans, and others.-Miss F. Hele, Ellenslea, Redlands Grove, Bristol.

Phalaris paradoxa, Sisymbrium pannonicum, &c., for grasses in general, particularly of genera Bromus, Festuca, and Panicum.-J. Harbord Lewis, 180, Mill-street, Liverpool, s.

From eighty to a hundred Foreign Land Shells all duly reported, for which should be pleased for Northern English, Irish, and Scotch Algæ.-Henry Goode, 13, Clarence-street, Penzance, Cornwall.

A STAMP ALBUM containing about 650, open to offers.Address, J. L. Copeman, 12, The Walk, Norwich.

I SHOULD like to exchange Bird Skins with some British reader of the SCIENOB-Gossip.- Franklin W. Hall, 14, Parkstreet, New Haven, Ct., U.S.

WANTED, good mounted Injections. I will give Stained Tissue.-Send stamped envelope to Wm. Sarjeant, jun., Caverswall, Stafford.

WANTED, good slides of Isthmia nervosa, good Naviculæ, and Cuxhaven Mud Diatoms for first-class Slides.-H. B. Thomas, Boston, Lincolnshire.

WANTED, Storm-tossed Scraps, Marine objects of interest, &c., dried and named. Can offer Slides, Fossils, and other objects of natural history. - E. Lovett, Holly Mount, Croydon.

WANTED, Larvæ of P. crategi, 0. Darus, E. Medea, L. Sibylla, A. Iris, and ova of any hairstreak except Quercus, for Microscopic Slides, or other Lepidoptera.-W. L. Sarjeant, 6, Dagnall.park Terrace, Selhurst, Surrey.

Achimenes, Gesnera, and Euconodium bulbs, for well. mounted Slides, Diatoms, &c.-Address, 135, St. Owen-street, Hereford.

BONE SECTIONS, long and transverse, Camel, Horse, Ox, Sheep, and Pig, mounted or unmounted, for good Slides or material.-W. Officer, Wilmington, Hull.

Scalks of Bream unmoun'ed, for other good objects.Stamped envelope to Miss Watkins, 15, Union-street, Deptford, S.E.

Microscopic FUNGI, Ecidium rubellum, E.urticæ, Clustercaps from Coltsfoot, Pilewort, and Goat's-beard, all mounted, for well-mounted objects-Anatomical or Polarizing subjects in preference.-G. Garrett, Harland House, Whersted-road, Ipswich.

I HAVE the following duplicate Nos. in the London Cat. of British Plants :-752,746, 929, 1036, 1052, 1037, 732, 418, 229, 676, 957,867, 881, 698, 472, 1165, 187, 125, 1179, 1168, 1234, 897, 180. Desiderata sent on application.-E. A. Hall, Trinity Hall, Cambridge.

WANTED, Papilio Machaon. Will give Pamphila Acteon.R. M. Glazbrook, Lower Caversham.

Hare from tail of Indian Elephant (trans-section), part of Wing of Locust, and many other good objects. Shell sections preferred.-Send list to C.C. Underwood, 25, Gloucester-place, Portman-square, London.

DIATOMS from Litcham, cleaned.-Send stamp and address to W. White, Litcham, Norfolk. Any material acceptable.

FORAMINIFERA and other Microscopic Shells, and Diato. maceæ well mounted for other mounted objects.--H. Cock. son, 24, Rodney-street, Liverpool.

BEAUTIFUL Crystals of Spinel Ruby and rough Amethysts, Topazes, and other precious stones, for Microscopic Slides. G., 20, Maryland-road, Harrow-road, w.

ALGA from the Channel Islands, North and South Devon, and Cornwall, for any or all of the following Sea-weedsgood specimens required :-Callithamnion fioccosum, pluma, and Brodiæi, Fucus Mackæii, Delesscria angustissima, Phyllophora Brodiæi, Rhodymenia cristata, Punctaria tenuissima, Sphacelaria plumosa, Arthrocladia villosa, Sporochenes peduncalatus, Polysiphonia parasitica (very fine in Scotland), Nitophyllum laceratum (very fine in the Orkneys).-Henry Goode, 13, Clarence-street, Penzance, Cornwall.

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