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had its contents differentiated in a necklace-like, flies, &c. I am quite prepared, therefore, to conmanner, and gave birth to the zoospores far re sider Mr. Renny's plant, if not the same, some close moved from the original vesicles. The same thread ally with mine, even if it should turn out to be a also produced two true oogonia on the water. true Pythium, and its oogonia produce zoospores in

4. At the meeting of the Scientific Committee of water, especially after what is known of the nature the Royal Horticultural Society, held on July 21, of Cystopus, the close ally of Peronospora. Two Mr. Renny showed a species of Saprolegnia which, strong points in favour of this view are these : he said, might be mistaken for Peronospora. But (1) The resting spores of Pythium are unknown, if reference is made to my original paper, it will be but if I find Pythium inside potato stems and leaves seen from the first that I have perceived the in mixed up with the Peronospora, and the same Prtimate connection between the new condition of the thium in the very centre of the tuber of the potato potato fungus and the Saprolegnieæ. On my side (as I have done), there maturing itself and forming I have the high authority of Thuret and Berkeley its resting spore; then the identity of the two may for similar alternation in the diseases of silkworms, reasonably be assumed, and the resting spore of the

Pythium, as well as the Peronospora, is found. hock parasites have heen restrained, it certainly (2) The same cells in the Saprolegnieæ will alter. does not seem impossible that means may be found nately produce, under the same (or different) con to mitigate the damage done every year by the ditions, zoospores or resting spores; therefore, if potato murrain. zoospores are produced in Mr. Renny's oogonia in water, it is reasonable to assume that under dif. ferent conditions resting spores would be formed by ON SETTING AND PRESERVING similar cells. I have, from the first, believed the

HYMENOPTERA. Saprolegnia condition of the fungus to be widely diffused, and when in that state it quite possibly MY attention having been attracted by an article grows on diverse plants and substances in watery under the above heading in your October places, as was explained by me. The Saprolegnia number, I trust I may be allowed to make a few is the caterpillar condition (belonging to the water, suggestions thereon. In the first place, to my mind like the larva of the dragon-fly), the Peronospora the method pursued by Mr. Bridgman in killing his somewhat analogous with the perfect butterfly, and specimens is far too complicated. He first stupefies the resting spore with the dormant chrysalis. the insects with cyanide of potassium, then pill.

5. I find by experiment, when badly diseased boxes them. When they have revived, he doses haulm, fruit, and tuber are partly submerged for them with chloroform; and then, lest they should from one to four days, the Peronospora changes its survive this treatment, he subjects them for the character, and produces the Pythium or Saprolegnia space of three hours to an elaborate sulphur-bath, like growth on the submerged parts. On examina. whence they are transferred "into a damp box for tion of the plants, this may be easily overlooked, as twelve or more hours.” Cyanide of potassium has the Saprolegnia commonly frees itself and floats on two objections. It is apt to turn the colour of some the surface of the water, and must be carefully insects. Sulphur has the same objection; and the taken off (invisible as it is) with a camel-hair pencil. vapour it evolves is unpleasant to inhale, causing If the oogonia now produce zoospores in the water, headache and nausea with some people. Chloroform as in Pythium, which is possible and even probable, is expensive, difficult to keep, on account of its rapid it in no way invalidates my views, or makes the evaporation, and dangerous. The plan I have found connection less probable between Pythium and most efficient, and I believe there are few I have not Peronospora.

tried, is as follows:6. The aërial spores of the Peronospora never be Ou a fine, dry day collect some couple of dozen come globular in water, whilst the oogonia and or so of the common green laurel-leaves : be sure antheridia are always so.

they are perfectly free from all external moisture, 7. A superabundance of water excites the growth or they will be likely to turn mouldy. Then procure of the mycelium, but it retards the proper produc a wide-mouthed bottle; cut the leaves into small tion of the resting spore, just as a superabundance pieces, and fill to within two inches of the mouth. of water in most plants makes leaves and retards Cut also some paper discs, the size of the bottle, flowers.

and press them flat on the top of the leaves; two 8. In my calendar of the weather I find we had will be sufficient. In a few days the leaves will here only five wet days from May 7 to June 10 (no turn brown, when it is ready for use. wet between May 8 and 20), and it was during this This is my Store-bottle. dry weather that the potato fungus this year lived [ For the sum of one shilling you can purchase at inside, and at the entire expense of the plant, and any entomological “naturalist's"

one of the zinc there perfected its resting spore3. With the pocket collecting-boxes Mr. Greene recommends. twenty-two wet days after June 10 the Perono Fill the chamber beneath the perforated bottom spora put on its usual shape, and came to the sur. with equal parts of camphor and ammonia, and then face.

you will have one of the most powerful killing-boxes 9. I have got my most abundant materials from extant. When out collecting, it is as well to have the tuber when soft and almost transparent, like two of these boxes in your pocket; and when you painters' size. In this state the starch is utterly have some fifteen or twenty specimens in one, use the destroyed, and, what is most curious, there is no other for a time. Then you can empty the contents offensive smell. The tuber frequently decomposes of the first one into a pill-box, and it is ready for with a horrible fetor, and turns whitish inside; the use again. There is one disadvantage in connecstarch is then present, and more or less injured, and tion with the box; viz., the inside surface of the very little can be seen of the fungus.

overlapping part of the lid requires oiling now and 10. The season is too far advanced, and the fun. then, to prevent it sticking; and, if not kept dry, gus has already caused too much destruction to the ammonia is apt to deliquesce. I generally think of grappling with it this season, but when it renew mine once a month, soaking the box in hot is remembered how the vine, the corn, and holly. water.

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When you return from a day's excursion, turn out absolutely impossible. The term hermaphrodite is your spoils into the Store-bottle, where they may now used to designate an individual possessing an remain until you wish to set them; and if that admixture of the two sexes. In all cases the should not be for months, they will still remain just malformed individual being of one or the other sex, as you put them in, -as pliant as the day they were and related to the opposite sex by some few caught. If your readers will kindly turn to fig. 140, characters only. I will endeavour to explain my mode of setting. The origin of this hermaphrodism has been con

Having pinned your insect to the sheet of cork sidered somewhat obscure, but it may in most cases as described by Mr. Bridgman, first set out the legs be referred to some arrest or excess in the process (a most important part of the business, as in Hymen- of development, because, in the early stages of optera they are most conspicuous). The great art embryonic life, there is found a very close resem. of setting is to set naturally. If you have ever blance between the generative organs of both sexes. observed a fly or a bee walk, you will at once see that the insect represented is in a very unnatural position. The front pair of legs are natural enough. The hind pair should be where the middle pair are; and the middle pair should be exactly in the centre between the first and second pair of wings, if any. thing slightly inclined forward.

Having arranged this to your satisfaction, take two oblong pieces of cord, and through each end pass a pin. Stretch them so that they are on a level with the wings above the middle pair of legs;

Fig. 167. Specimen of Hermaphrodite Female of Lasiocampa then fasten the wings upon them with braces, as in

Quercus. the cut. You will perceive that the only difference A great deal of light has been thrown upon the is that the legs are under instead of upon the card, matter both by Haeckel and Darwin, who show that as represented. I acknowledge that to do this well, a far greater number of hermaphrodites belong to especially in the case of small insects, some trouble

the female rather than to the male sex, and this must be taken; but when we remember the fact fact is explained by the theory that the reproductive that an insect once set well is worth all the trouble

organs in both sexes were originally female, and bestowed upon it, and remembering that, if the

that many hermaphrodites remain of that sex by Store-bottle be used, we may utilize the winter arrest of development, who would, if further de. evenings, I think your correspondent Mr. Bridg-veloped, have become males. man will admit that my plan is at least worth a





'N the October number a correspondent mentions

that “Bazier” is the name given in some parts A

MONG a great number of larve of this moth, of Lancashire to the Auricula, and suggests that

which I have reared in my breeding-cages “Bazier” may be a corruption of Base Ear, Sow, this year, one has turned out an hermaphrodite. It or Little Ear. is a female, the reproductive organs, however, being As Auricula Ursi is an old scientific name, and but imperfectly developed.

“Oreille d'Ours” is the modern French vernacular Differing from its sisters of the same brood, it name for the Auricula, it can, I think, hardly be failed to attract any males by “sembling," although doubted that “Bazier” is simply a corruption of favourably exposed for that purpose.

The con

“Bear's Ear.” These phonetic corruptions, as stant occurrence of hermaphrodism among insects they may be called, are a fruitful source of local is worthy of remark, as it illustrates in a measure, and vernacular plant-names, and are sometimes very one of the most interesting questions of the day. An amusing and almost always instructive. hermaphrodite was despised by the ancients as an At the entrance to Covent Garden are some stalls, individual capable of fulfilling by turns the repro at which the humbler members of the horticultural ductive functions of both sexes, or as one which at fraternity dispense roots and plants to the owners the same time possessed both the male and female of London suburban gardens. These good people organs fully developed. Such a condition of things, have some one who prints their labels for them, in a however

, not only does not obtain among the very showy style; but the spelling is occasionally authentic details of anomalies, but is in nature somewhat loose. Once, in passing

one of these

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stalls, I saw a label marked RecKLESS, My curi nurseryman got his name from, and elicits the osity was excited to know what plant bore this following reply :vernacular name; and I accordingly asked for a

“ I found this flower in the Road beside us, specimen, and found that the label was intended to

So christened it the Rhodum Sidus." designate “ Auriculas"! Similarly the “Geum

C. B. coccineum” becomes “Scarlet Gem." “ Potentilla" figures as "Fortune-teller,” &c.

One of the most interesting of these phonetic corruptions is the “Primrose.” Originally, and SKETCHES IN THE WEST OF IRELAND. properly, the name of the daisy, the old Italian

No. 10.-ARAN. word for which is "la Primaverola,” the flower

(Post-Christian Antiquities.) of spring (Primavera); this becomes in French "Primverolles," and first appears amongst us as THE crosses and pillar-stones next require conthe Primrolles," the perversion of which into sideration. The erection of pillars is a very “Primrose” (meaning, as some instructive school ancient custom, which the Christians adopted; on books tell us, the Prime Rose--the first rose, or the pagan pillars cutting crosses, and thus sanctify. flower, of the year) is easily accounted for. In fact, ing them. Subsequently the carved massive crosses, it is an illustration of the way in which many of not uncommon in Ireland, seem to have been introthese phonetic corruptions are brought about. A duced. The crosses in Aran are varied in character, foreign or scientific name is introduced, which to some being plain, cut on liagān or pillar-stones ; the uneducated is simply unmeaning; but it hap- others are elaborately carved out of blocks; while pens to bear a similarity in sound to some ver some are incised on flat slabs or flags. The large nacular word, which has a meaning, and although carved crosses have been disgracefully used. Of the meaning word has no conceivable connection some only a few pieces can be found, and all are with the thing, the commune vulgus prefer to use it, broken. The accompanying figures (figs. 168, 169, and rather than one which is to them vox et præterea 170) represent some common/West of Ireland forms nihil. Instances are afforded by such words of crosses observed in different places, cut in or

Jerusalem Artichokes ” (from Girasole "); raised on monumental slabs or pillars. Fig. No. “Sparrow-grass” for “ Asparagus,” as well as the 169 is the form of the cross that usually was inScarlet Gem and Fortune-teller above referred to, scribed by the bishop while consecrating a and innumerable others. It is to a similar principle building for sacred purposes. It has been called that we may trace the practice of the French of by the late G. V. du Noyer, M.R.I.A., The planting a poplar as the “ Tree of Liberty"; under Cross of the Redemption,” because, as he pointed the impression that “populus," "le peuplier,” out, it is a rude representation of the Holy Ghost means the tree that represents "the people descending in the bodily shape of a dove to light on (populus), and the supporter of the people's rights. our Saviour. The typical Irish cross, which is often I was once very much amused by a fly-driver at most elaborately carved, like those at Clommacnoise, Ilfracombe, who knew the whereabouts of all the Moristenboise (fig. 172), and many other places, is a specialities in the fern way, telling me of a cave combination of the Cross of the Redemption with where I should find some fine specimens of the the Cross of the Passion. In pagau times the Irish Serina.” Not being acquainted with any plant of

had their Tiodh Neimheadh, or sacred groves, this name, I betook myself to the cave in question,

to which criminals fled for refuge: tbese were and there found several fine plants of Asplenium marked by liagān. The early Christians adopted marinum, the Sea Spleenwort. So that my friend, many of the pagan temples and other sacred places, or some one who taught him, had by tacking on the and, among others, the sacred groves, which by tail of the botanical name to the head of the ver them were called “Tearmons”; crosses being innacular, made up the not ill-sounding word of scribed on the liagān, which they afterwards called “Serina," or “Sea-riner” (I am sure I do not

“ Terminal crosses

(fig. 171). Such a tearmon know how he would have spelt it).

seems to have existed at Monasterkieran, on AranI remember in one of the early comic annuals more, and is thus described by Kilbride :-"Four some amusing lines of Hood, describing how a tall pillar-stones formerly surrounded the buildings. country nurseryman had made a large sum out of One now stands within few paces of the souththe sale of a simple little flower, which he sold under east gable of the church, another in a wall a few the name of the “Rhodum Sidus.” This charming feet west of the church, while the other two have name had proved quite an attraction to the ladies, been dug up, and now lie in an adjoining field. and the flower had become the rage of the season. These two, and probably all four, have been removed At length a pertinacious botanist, who found that from their original sites. Each pillar is about five the flower was a not uncommon weed (say the feet long and a foot in breadth. The usual cross · Erythræa Centaurium), insists on knowing wbere the cut on these pillars is two circles about a foot



apart, with horizontal lines drawn through the were excavations in which babitations were built, centres of the circles; also a vertical line. Such which afterwards were covered up with clay. Some crosses, in some cases, are fringed with tracery, and of them are most ingeniously constructed, and herepresent a handsome appearance. The cross near after will be more fully described. In some cashels the gable of the church has a hole of more than an stones to build the surrounding wall seem to have inch in diameter pierced through it (fig. 171). Such been quarried in their interior, the hollow afterwards holes are looked upon as a mark peculiar to the being turned into lusks. In Aran there are strucpillar-stones used in pagan times for the double tures partaking of both the nature of lusks and purpose of commemorating the dead and also as cloghāns, as they are partly below ground like a lask,

objects of worship, but are roofed like the latter. The post-Christian
while after the in cashels had massive stone doorways that have been
troduction of Chris. mistaken for cromleacs when the adjoining wall was
tianity they were removed. One of these detached doorways has
adapted for reli already been figured in Chapter V. (fig. 52). Other
gious use, and ap- habitations were the lauras and cænobiums : some
propriated to its of the lauras were inside cashels. Petrie, while
service by the cross writing of the anti.
being incised on quities on Aranmore,
them.” This kind describes a laura as
of pillar is called a building containing

Clogb-a-poul, or many cells divided
Fig. 168. Common Irish Cross.


from each other,

Some of the where every monk churches and their appendages were inclosed provided for himself, within massive walls, or cashels, evidently for

and led a solitary the purpose of defence. These are very similar

life under the autho. in construction, and evidently were built after the

rity of a bishop or cashels.

abbot ; pagan

while Caiseal (pro

cænobium nounced cashel)

house in which the is derived from

monks dwelt, lived, the same root as

and ate together, all
caisiollacht, the being provided for Fig. 170. Common form of Irish

from a common purse.
pot or caldron,
and originally was

place for the saints, it is teeming with the ruins of applied only to a

ecclesiastical structures and other objects that perround inclosing

petuate their memory, while on the other islands stone wall or fewer are met with. On Inisheer, or the south fortification,

island, is St.Gobuet's church, a small cyclopean strueFig. 169. Cross inscribed by Bishop although subse

ture; and St. Caomhain's, or Cavan's church, wbich when consecrating a church.

quently it is nearly imbedded in the sand. The latter is supsometimes applied to the more modern square

posed to be a twelfth-century church, and is divided castles.

into a nave and chancel by a beautiful arch. Imme. Each ecclesiastical cashel contained within its

diately north of the church is the saint's tomb, nor wall churches, a well, and habitations; the latter

called Labbacaombain, which is supposed to be very seem to have been wall-cells, cloghān, and luscas.

effective in curing the sick, who visit it in great The wall-chambers are commonly found in cashels

numbers on his day, which formerly was the 3rd of that were built on the solid rock: they are very

November, but it is now changed to the 14th of common in the cashels in the counties Kerry and June. The saint died A.D. 865. There are also Galway. They were constructed in the thickness the ahala of the daughters; Cloghānavillaun; and of the wall, may be of any length, from five to seven Cloghān Eany, or St. Eude's house. or eight feet wide, and usually are four and a half On the middle island are three churches, an or five feet high. The cloghāns have been described aharla, and a holy well. One of the churches is previously. A lusca, or lusk, is a cave, crypt, or called Teampull Seachtmicrigh, or the church of subterranean habitation, and is explained by the seven sons of a king; and a second Teampull O’Cleary, “Teach talmhan," a house in the earth. Crannanach, or Kenanack's church. It is after this Some lusks are simply caves, scooped out in drift saint, whose original name was Gregory, that Greor such - like accumulations; others evidently gory's Sound is called. This church is a very com.



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