Imagens das páginas

colossal dimensions that the largest form hitherto they might bave done in other parts of England known sinks in comparison with it into utter insig. where the climate is warmer and milder. I hope nificance. In one specimen the Hydranth was 9 in. cultivators and others will give any information in across. Whilst the Hydrocaulus was 7 ft. 4 in. their power, both as to the flowering and the ripen. high. A short time afterwards, during another ing of the fruit; and whether the fruit has the dredging at a depth of 2,900 fathoms, another spe ornamental appearance of our common spindle-tree, cimen was brought, of equal proportions. The Euonymus Europeus.-T. B. W., Brighton. length of the tentacles was about 4 in., and they were of a transparent pink colour.

MALVA BOREALIS.-In last month's number of

SCIENCE-GOSSIP is a notice of the discovery of SPHINX CONVOLVULI.-I have captured several

Maloa borealis on the Sussex coast, and I hear it fine specimens of Sphinx convolvuli this season at

was found between Boxhill and St. Leonard's. As Ore, near Hastings. They were all taken at one

I am particularly interested in the flora of the bush of honeysuckle. The greatest numbers I

district which includes that portion of the coast, I captured in one evening were seven and five; at

should be very much obliged if you could ascertain another time I took two at one stroke of my net.

from your correspondent C. H. O., the exact locality Having more than I require, I shall have some to

in which it was found; and still more so if you offer in exchange as soon as they are off my setting.

could procure for me even a small specimen to add to boards.-William Low Sarjeant.

my herbarium of East Sussex plants.-J. W. Roper. ASTINOMUS ÆDILIS IN CARDIFF.-On the 29th of November I had the good fortune to take a fine

Coco, Cocoa, or Cacao: WHICH IS WHICH?male of this beetle upon a lady's dress in a tram

I had occasion lately to have some dealings with a car.-T. L. Howe, Cardiff.

firm of English manufacturers of coir (fibre) matting. They described it, however, in all their invoices and other printed documents as

“Cocoa BOTA NY.

matting.” In correspondence I took the oppor. RAPHIDES OF ASPARAGUS.- Mr. Glasspoole's

tunity of suggesting that “Coir matting” would be a

better designation-less objectionable in every wayhistories of our cultivated vegetables are so valu.

than "Cocoa.” Their defence was well founded, so able as to make us wish that he would increase

long as the same confusion of terms—which should their interest by some account of their internal

properly be restricted to very different substances, structure. Thus, in his last paper, he might have told us that the asparagus abounds in rapbides ;

from very different sources—is used in our most imand that they form beautiful microscopic objects, the husk of the “Coco-nut,” the fruit of the Cocos

portant works of reference. “Coir” is the fibre of whether examined in the fresh plant or in cooked fragments of it from the table. The raphides are so

nucifera, a palm-tree of the natural order Palmacea. beautiful and easily examined as to afford a pleasant

The term "Cocoa” has no proper meaning or appli

cation to this tree or any of its products. On the microscopic amusement after dinner. And full instructions, with many illustrative engravings, are

other hand, “ Cocoa” is obviously a popular English given about Raphides, Sphæraphides, and Crystal

corruption of the South American word “Cacao,”

than which it is certainly softer or more euphonious. Prisms, in SCIENCE-Gossip for May, 1873.

The name

Cacao " is applied by the South Amer. CLADIUM MARISCUS.-One of the finest of our ican Indians both to the bean and to the produce Cyperacea is the Fen Sedge. It is in several re- 1 of the bean, of the Theobroma cacao, a tree of the spects a remarkable plant, and one not easily over natural order Byttriacea. To this tree, or its prolooked. Can any correspondent kindly inform me duce, the words “coir” and “coco" have no as to its distribution in the southern counties ?

proper reference. But, in “Chambers's Encyclo7. H. Arnold.

pædia” (Ist edition, vol. iii. 1862), Theobroma cacao EUONYMUS (SPINDLE-TREE) IN FLOWER. — To and its products are described under the heading the surprise of nurserymen and others in Brighton, “Cocoa, Cacao, or Coco”; Cocos nucifera and its this shrub (both the narrow and the broad varieties) products under that of the “Cocoa-nut or Cocowas in two or three situations in flower, one in great and the husk-fibre of the latter as “Coir, or profusion, at the beginning of August. As an orna. Cocoa-nut fibre.” Now it seems hopeless to prerail mental shrub it has been cultivated here for many on Englishmen to give up the use of the term years, and thousands upon thousands may at all 'Cocoa” in favour of “Cacao.” But the absurdity times be seen. On tbe Ilth of October I found it of using the word “Cocoa” in reference to matting in fruit; the capsule, the size of a small pea, was made of the fibre of the nut of Cocos nucifera might perfectly green, but hard; the arillus, lapping the easily be avoided if only manufacturers would stick seed, was orange-coloured: the season was, no to the synonymous and appropriate term “Coir." doubt, too far advanced for the seeds to ripen, as W. Lauder Lindsay.


in our old Irish annals, if they could give me inforGEOLOGY.

mation on the subject, but always unsuccessfully.

I would therefore be greatly obliged to “C. A. 0." SEDIMENTARY BASALT (DOLERYTE).-In the co.

if he would put me in the way of getting authentic Antrim, between Portrush and the Giant's Cause information about this early immigration of Jews to way, there is a series of thin-bedded dolerytes under Ireland. There are records of various immigrations

to Ireland given by the different English writers on the great massive sheets. These beds have all the

Ireland and the Irish; but unfortunately most, if appearance as if they were originally sedimentary not all of these, are imaginary, and will not bear rocks. I however do not believe that they are now investigation. On this account any statement of the in their normal condition, but that originally they

kind should be carefully examined into. I hope

there are good proofs of a Jewish immigration, as it were basic tuffs or tuffose rocks; that is, they were

would be most interestioz to know the origin of either ejected as tuff, and afterwards sorted and these handle-like projections from some of the arranged by water, or they were made up of the churches. — The Writer of Sketches in the West of detritus of disintegrated doleryte, and were arranged water in their present bedded condition; while “CRABS OUT OF WATER.”-I notice that in last subsequently they were invaded and altered by the month's Gossip there is a paragraph on “ Crabs same metamorphic action as that which metamor

out of Water.” A curious instance of how long

crabs can live out of water came under my notice a phosed the Lias rocks at Portrush. It seems im.

short time ago. A fisherman baving to remove his possible these rocks can be normal dolerytes, as no but, which stood about a hundred yards from highoutburst of igneous rocks, no matter how fluid, water mark, discovered hidden beneath the flooring could form such widespread, thin, and even sheets ;

and the beach a crab (Carcinus menas) in wbat

appeared to be a very healthy state, for it made off neither is it likely that their present bedded appear. at a most rapid pace to an adjoining building. On ance is due to a system of horizontal jointing. ) joquiring I found that none of the fishermen had Furtherinore, we know that metamorphism has been out crab-fishing for three weeks. It would,

therefore, seem as though this crab had either lived changed felsitic tuffs and tuffose rocks into a rock

beneath this but for so long, or that it must have undistinguishable from felstone; therefore it is found its way there after having been thrown up by probable that the same action is capable of changing a storm. I ought to state that under the but there basic tuffs into rocks undistinguishable from do

was a quantity of damp seaweed, &c., wbich might

have supplied it with tbe necessary quantity of leryte. If this is the case, we have a doleryte

moisture for its gills.-C. P. 0. (not normal however) that originally was a sedimentary rock.-G. H. Kinahan.

ON THE TADPOLES OF News, &c.—Your cor

respondent “G. S.,” in the November number of FOSSILS NEAR WATFORD (p. 263).-The chalk-pit

SCIENCE-GOSSIP, says that he has never reared the

tadpoles of newts. As I have done so, I write these in Berry Wood, Aldenham, about which “W.H.G.”

remarks for the benefit of “G. S.," and any one else inquires, is still accessible, but I fear the geologist who chooses to read them. I one day set out, armed who visited it in expectation of finding it “abounding with a pickle-bottle and net, to a pond where I bad in well-preserved fossils of various kinds ” would be

seen some (as I thought) frog tadpoles just hatching

out from the spawn; but these afterwards turned disappointed. The fossils referred to are preserved

out to be the tadpoles of the Triton aquaticus, the in the cavities of flints, and are mostly microscopic; common smooth newt, or åskěl, as it is called in and their abundance is merely due to these hollow Shropshire. They were slippery little animals, and flints being more frequently met with here than in

eluded my grasp as if they were oiled; however I

procured some at last, and secured them in the other places where the chalk is exposed in the

bottle. When I got home 1 put them into my neighbourhood of Watford. The heaps of chalk aquarium, where, by swimming about in a very lively from the new tunnel will be found better worth manner, they soon attracted tbe notice of puss, who searching for fossils.-J. H., Hon. Sec. Watford and gobble them up. In less than a week there

managed somehow or other to catch one or two History Nat. Society.

appeared two small tubercles, one on each side of the neck (or, at least, where the neck ought to be, for it was har to say where the head ended).

These grew very soon into a pair of front legs, NOTES AND QUERIES. which were followed, about a fortnight afterwards,

by the appearance of the back legs. Up to this WHITE WOODCOCKS.-Was the bird mentioned time the tadpoles possessed external gills, consistby Mr. Wolstenholme a pure white or a yellowish

ing of three branchial processes on each side of the wbite (pale-fawn colour) ?-as yellowish white wood head. These were visible to the beginning of Sepcock and snipe are not so very rare in Ireland, a

tember, and were gradually absorbed into the animal, good collection being in the museum of the Royal

but were not dropped off. The Rev. J. G. Wood Dublin Society.

says that the newt always wraps its spawn in the

leaf of some water-plant. Now, this is certainly THE SIXTH CENTURY IRISH CHURCHES AND THE not always the case, as I have frequently found the ARK OF THE CUVENANT.-To me it always seemed spawn in the ground under water, partly covered likely that the early Irish churches were copied with clay, but peeping out here and there from its from the Ark of the Covenant, on which account I covering. I have reared both frogs and toads, also, have made inquiries from different persons learned from the spawn; and I think that the following are


the points of difference between the spawn and tad having seen any answer, 1 extract the following poles of the Frog, Toad, and Newt. Spawn :—The from “ Westwood" :-"The young caterpillars, spawn of the frog is disposed in irregular masses when first hatched, have the tails remarkably long, generally under water. The spawn of the toad is the bodies very rugose; but they become smooth at disposed in regular strings

under water. The spawn the final moulting. By the end of August or middle of the newt is disposed in small lumps, sometimes of September they are full-grown, and become of a separately, and is generally covered with earth (or dirty-red colour, when they descend into the earth leaves ?)." Tadpoles :—The tadpole of the newt has and change into a dark brown chrysalis. The moth gills, and a tail during part of its life, and develops appears the following June or July. Sometimes, its hind legs first. The tadpole of the toad re however, the insect will remain two or even three sembles the former, but never possesses gills. The years in the chrysalis state, and then become tad pole of the newt has a tail permanently, gills winged as perfectly as if it had appeared at the during part of its life, and develops its front legs ordinary period.”—C. M. C. first.-H. E. F.

VERONICA.-By the bye, would any of your readers Warty News. I have made newts and diving tell me what is the connection (if any) between the water-spiders subjects of special observation among botanical name of the Speedwell and the Saint other inmates of the aquarium. In May, 1873, I Veronica who figures in the Stations of the obtained a number of warty newts froin a pond near ? Northampton, and decided to try the practicabilty of keeping newts through the winter with great suc.

SPROD, OR SALMON-TROUT.— The Wype, a tidal cess. After the stock, owing to some being given

river in Lancashire, drains that part of the county away and others escaping (none died), had been

which lies between the watersheds of the Ribble reduced to three in October, I placed these in a

and Lune, and empties itself in the Irish Sea at large bell-glass with two inches of water covering a Fleetwood. In the summer months great numbers bottom of sand. A large island of stones, sur.

of the salmon-trout ascend this river in order to mounted by a sod of grass, occupied the centre. deposit their spawn in its higher reaches, many of The newts continued taking very rare baths till the which are caught in their passage, and sold as middle of November, and eating occasionally a lively salmon, being little inferior to that king of fishes; worm. As there was a fire in the room, I suppose the flesh, however, is not so intense salmon in colour. they delayed their hybernation. From November Within thirty years the fish bad no other name in till the end of February they lay apparently torpid

the district than that of “sprod,” and is still so desig. under the stones, taking no food, and moving lan

nated by the old people. I have examined all works guidly if touched. They then gradually became more relating to English river-fish within my reach, but lively, and were often found lying under water, and

have failed to find the name of "sprod." It woula occasionally took food. A very slight growth of the

be very interesting to me if any of your many readers dorsal crest was now to be noticed. The newts could give instances wbere, in other parts of the were all males; and the depth of water was in. country the name "sprod” is applied to the salmoncreased to about six inches, leaving still a small

trout. I have an opinion that the word is of Danish island in the centre. These three newts again

or Norwegian origin, as there is evidence that this passed the winter of 1874 in a similar manner, in

part of the county was formerly an extensive Norse London; but one died this spring, and another

colony.-James Pearson. escaped, owing to a heavy shower of rain causing the aquarium 10 overflow. The one still retained,

STRUCK BY LIGHTNING.- I have been much who now goes by the name of " Billy,” shows an

interested in a letter under this title in the number attachment, which I should not have expected in

of Nature for March 25th, p. 405, and I now send such a low order of the animal kingdom. This winter

you a similar account, which may interest some of

the readers of SCIENCE-GOSSIP. The occurrence to he is spending, with other newts, in a small garden, and I hope will present himself again in the spring.

which I refer took place on the 11th of June in the The colony are hybernating under the doorstep.

present year at Swefling, near Saxmundham, in During his aquarium life be always came to the

Suffolk. In order to render my account intelligible, surface to take a worm from my fingers, and, when

I must briefly explain the position of the buildings hungry, would ask for food by swimming up from

which were simultaneously struck by the lightning. the bottom. I have often taken him out, and he

The Church and Rectory are distant about}150 yards has made a meal of three worms while walking

from each other; while at a distance of 200 yards about my study table in a most fearless manner.

from either stands an old-fashioned wooden windmill would just add before closing, that the Rev. S. A.

supported on brick piers. About 12 o'clock on the Brenan may be quite sure that his newt's tail was

day I have mentioned I was walking along a road in eaten off by the sticklebacks-Experto crede, and

front of the Rectory with my back to the Church, that a newt in fair health will seldom, during its

from which I was distant about 80 yards, when I aquatic life, refuse a lively worm.-F. H. Wood.

felt a sudden shock and what seemed a smart stroke

across the calves of my legs, with a very loud and FAUNA AND FLORA OF THE NEW FOREST.-I shall sharp report. My first impression was that the feel greatly obliged to any one who will inform me lightning had struck me, and also some iron hurdles if there is a book published on tbe fauna and flora which were close to my left hand. On turning of the New Forest or South Hants; and, if so, the round I saw at once that the church-tower had been title, date, and price; also, whether there is a struck by lightning; the weathercock had disnatural history society or field club at Ringwood, appeared, and a jagged portion of the flagstaff alone Christchurch, or Bournemouth.-E. D. M.

remained, while the churchyard was filled with a

grey smoke or haze. I was not hurt, though for a PỤPA OF PrivET-MOTH.-In your November few seconds feeling a numbness in the calves of my number for 1874 there is a query regarding the legs. I therefore hastened forward, and on reaching pupa of the Privet Hawkmoth remaining in the the Rectory was much surprised to find that the same state-still alive--for the whole year: and not | lightning had entered the house. The servants de

clared that a fireball had passed through the kitchen A friend of mine suggests that this was caused by and exploded there. I could not trace the whole the “return shock." Being highly electrified by course of the lightning within the Rectory, but found the induction of the cloud overhead, we were disit had ,

charged to the nearest good conductor-in my case,

to the

is in piece or two of stone in the stone steps. On pro which the stones, &c., were cast from the tower. ceeding to the Church, the course of the lightning None of them could have made a greater angle with there was easily traced. After striking the flagstaff the face of the tower than from 10° to 15°; they it had passed down inside the tower to a point a were cast in the direction the lightning was passing, little above the nave. A small window had been

or very nearly parallel with the face of the tower. blocked up exactly above the ridge of the roof; As I know nothing of the theory of electricity, I through this it had made its exit, the bricks, mortar, cannot give explanations, but I have taken con. and stones being cast very obliquely into the church siderable pains to get at the facts.-E.N. Bloomfield. yard without injuring the roof of the nave. From this point the electric fluid had appareutly passed CRICKETS. I have lately been studying the along externally where the tower and roof of the Acheta domestica ; and with reference to the sound nave meet, and had then torn off the slates in its made by this insect, although I am unable to show progress to the iron water-trough, along which it how this is produced, I know that it is not made by then passed. At the north-east end of the nave was rubbing the legs against the elytra, or against each a buttress; and, at a lower level, along the eaves of other, as some assert, as I have watched the insect the chancel, ran another iron water-trough, the closely when it has been “chirping,” and have been head of the buttress partially intervening. This top unable to detect the slightest movement in any part of the buttress was entirely torn away, the pieces of of its body. That the legs did not move in any way stone being scattered around and in some cases cast I am certain. If there was any motion of the elytra, to long distances. The lightning in its course then it was so very slight that I could not perceive it. passed along this second water-trough, doing no On the wings there is a formation very much resem. damage except loosening the joints and blowing off bling a ladder, running from the base of the wing the copper elbows, and passed down the up to the apex. Some observers, I believe, hold that right iron tube to the earth. It did not enter the the sound is produced by rubbing this ladder-like earth, however, at this point, for it ploughed a portion of the wing against the under side of the shallow horizontal furrow along the ground in the elytron. This, however, I think could not be. direction of some iron palisading round a tomb, and Firstly, because the wing being longer than the came out on a level with the upper surface of a elytron, is folded in such a way as to leave only a gravel walk, where all trace of it was lost. At the part of the ladder (as it were) in contact with the same time that the Church and Rectory were struck elytron, part being folded under. If (as everything the Windmill was struck also. The miller was looking in nature is formed for a special purpose of its own) out of a window in the opposite direction from the this ladder had been intended to produce the song Church when he was struck and for a time lost all of the cricket," it is natural to suppose that it consciousness : he was so injured as to be unable to would be placed in a manner the most advantageous do any work for six weeks afterwards. The shock

for the performance of that purpose, whereas part was severely felt all round the Church and Rectory. being folded under, and not in contact with the A man who was in the stable at the Rectory was so elytron, that part would be useless, which is not stunned that he had to be led home, but in a short natural. Further, the construction of the ladder is time quite recovered and felt no further ill effects. such that it would only be able to produce sound Another man who was in his garden near the Church by being drawn against the elytron vertically. This told me he was turned quite round. He says the is impossible, as, if the wings can be moved at all rush of the stones and mortar from the church when closed, and covered by the elytra, this cannot tower was a wonderful sight, and that the dust and

move any way but laterally. Clearly then, I think, smoke caused by it was so dense that he thought the this particular formation cannot be for such a purChurch was on fire. The miller saw nothing of the pose. Secondly, the structure of the wing is so lightning, nor did I see it. Tbis I attribute to the

slight and gauzy, that I do not consider that it shock we received. The most remarkable feature of could possibly bear the friction. Thus I arrive at this account seems to be, that the Church, Rectory, the conclusion that the sound of the Achetas is not and Windmill were all struck by the same flash of produced by external means. And in support of lightning. Of this there could be no doubt, as there this view I would refer any one interested in the was only one discharge anywhere near. Previously subject to the formation of the tongue, which is to this "I had not noticed that it was a thunder water-lined as it were like bank.notes). These cloud at all, and I only observed one flash aster lines, I imagine, being parallel ridges, and thus wards, which was evidently at some distance. eminently calculated, in my opinion, to give a Bearing on this point, I have it from a very intel thrilling and vibrating tone to any sound issuing ligent man, that at the time mentioned he was at a from the mouth of the insect. I shall be glad to distance of half a mile or more, and saw a flash correspond with any of “ours” on this subject, and of lightning descend, which separated when at a between us we may, perhaps, arrive at some condistance of about 50 yards from the earth, into clusion satisfactory to ourselves at least.-F. E. three streams. One stream descended straight on Fletcher. the Church, the other two, be should judge, went in about the directions of the Rectory and Windmill. BANDED BEAUTY.-In answer to “W. E. S.'s" He told me also he had often watched thunder

query, which appeared in your September number, storms, but he had never seen so vivid a flash. The

regarding the Banded Beanty (Nyssia zonaria), I same remark was made by several persons who were find in Westwood's British Moths” that “the at much greater distances. Another remarkable

larva feeds on Achillea millefolia, and other herbapoint is the number of persons who felt a shock.

ceous plants. The perfect insect is found in Fete

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ruary, March, and April, and again in June and admits of their extension forwards for a considerable July, in various situations on the banks of the distance, and the thigh being thick, grooved on its Mersey, especially near the Black Rock, where it inner edge, and armed with a double row of strong occasionally appears in great numbers, and where it spines, upon which the tibia, which is likewise was first discovered in 1829. The chrysalides are spinous on its interior edge, closes like tbe blade of buried two or three inches in depth below the a pocket-knife upon its handle, and so secures the surface of the sand, as I am informed by Mr. Greg. smallest object that may be witbin, whilst in the son, of Liverpool.-C. M. C.

combats which take place between those creatures,

it is a formidable weapon, one blow from which will PARASITES IN CATERPILLARS.—Is it known that effectually decapitate an adversary,

These raptoother flies beside the Ichneumon deposit their eggs rial legs, of which the tarsus is short and weak, in the bodies of caterpillars, as I have had an osten equal, and in some instances surpass, the instance of such an occurrence this summer? In entire length of the body, and being usually borne the autumn of last year I had some caterpillars extended before the insect, and frequently raised, brought me of the Painted Lady butterfly; one of and as it were clasped together, have invested those them I soon observed to be full of larvæ, which I insects with an ideal power of divining the course of supposed to be that of an ichneumon, and from future events, and consequently in many places they what I could see of them through the skin of the are regarded with a kind of religious veneration. caterpillar they appeared to be of rather a large In the south of France M. religiosa has the character size. Having witnessed the development of four of pointing out the way to lost children and travel. different species of ichneumon, I anticipated seeing lers. The Hottentots venerate another species, and a fifth. In time I observed they had gone into the any person upon whom it alights is supposed to be chrysalis state within the body of the caterpillar; a special favourite of Heaven, and the recipient of they were of a reddish brown colour, and very simi a peculiar degree of sanctity; and these fancies have lar in shape to the chrysalis of the large common suggested to systematic authors such names as, house-fly. They remained in this state until the end “oratoria," " religiosa," "precaria," “ pater-noster, of June in this year, when there issued from them &c., titles not very appropriate when we cousider eight flies, but they were not the common house the fierce and gluttonous character of these creafly. Their colour at first sight was very dark, tures, which are continually capturing and devouring owing to their being covered with long hairs of a all the suitable insects which come in their way, deep purple colour; the body below and between closing one armed joint upon another, so as to those long hairs was covered with a beautiful silver transfix and secure the victim; whilst their pugnagrey tint; the margin of their eyes and front of the cious disposition leads them to indulge in frequent head was covered with the same, which gives the contests with each other, their manæuvres during eye the appearance of being set in silver; the legs which are described as resembling those of hussars are also covered with the same silvery tint; the fighting with sabres, and when the battle is decided, wings are somewhat iridescent; they are not in the the victor devours his late antagonist. This love of least like the Ichneumon. On referring to West war, which surely must command our sympathy, wood on Insects, I find, at page 570, vol. ii., in causes them to be kept by the Chinese, who delight speaking of the species Anthornia, he refers to in the exhibition of their warlike proclivities. page 569, fig. 132, 3, 4, 5, and 6, which answers Europe contains only a few of the smaller species of exactly to these produced from the caterpillar ; The Mantidæ, one of which is found as far north as but those, he says, undergo their transformation in Frankfort-on-the-Maine, the tropical and temperate rotten vegetable matter, or in manure, excrementa, regions of the globe being their habitat. The eggs of &c. Perbaps some of the numerous readers of these insects are very numerous, are of an elongated SCIENCE-GOSSIP have seen something of the same form and yellow colour, and are disposed in two sort take place. I have by me the flies, chrysalis, rows, being inclosed in a soft substance which and skin of the caterpillar.-J. Fullagar, Can hardens by exposure to the air. The is terbury.

attached to the stalk of a plant. “As a generic

designation, the term Mantis is now limited to such PRAYING Mantis (Mantis religiosa).-Inforna members of the family as bave the antennæ simple, tion derived from the "Naturalists' Library,” sub head without an angular projection in front, eges ject, Entomology, vol. i. pp. 227-234.-The charac- hemispherical, anterior legs long and falciform, the teristic features of the family Mantidæ are as others slender and without spines. Many of them follows:-“The head is long, triangular, and verti are of considerable size, and with a very few excepcal, furnished with large eyes (sometimes having tions, extra-European. Mantis religiosa is about a triangular prolongation in front), and three dis two inches in length, of a light green colour, inclining tinct stemmata; antennæ long, filiform, and slender, to brown in some places, and occasionally almost composed of numerous joints, sometimes pectinated entirely of the latter hue; thorax elongate, particu. in the males; terminal joint of the palpi ending in a larly in the female, and smooth on the surface ; point; ligula quadrufid; tegmina thin and reticu. tegmina as long as the abdomen, green and unlated, usually covering the wings, legs unequal, the spotted, each of them with a strong longitudinal anterior pair elongated, thickened, and armed with nervure, at some distance from the anterior border ; teeth; tarsi five-jointed.". In this tribe is in- under-wings of an elongate triangular shape, green cluded a variety of very singular forms, familiarly anteriorly, and of a firmer texture than behind, known as walking leaves, from the colour, shape, where the colour is pale white; the abdomen and general appearance of the insects, which have and legs are also green; the anal spines, as well been made familiar to all by the pen of the author on those on the anterior legs, deep chestnut. On and the pencil of the artist. The Mantidæ are car the inner side of the coxæ of the fore-legs there is nivorous, and prey upon weaker individuals of their a yellow spot bordered with black, -a peculiarity own class, being enabled to seize their prey by the which, according to Latreille, serves to distinguish great length of their fore legs, which being situated this species from one nearly allied, which is a native near the head, and the thorax being very long, of the Cape of Good Hope. This species appears

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