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He is most nearly approached in this respect by the Spider Monkeys (Ateles), while in the Gibbons it is even longer than 1n man.
Comparing the length of the thigh-bone with that of the haunch-bone, we find the short-tailed Indris to be the most human, while Hylobates is more so than are the higher genera of Simiince. ‘
In man the relative length of the thigh-bone to the humerus is enormously greater than in any latisternal ape. The Lemurs approach us most nearly in this proportion, while, as regards the slenderness of the thigh-bone, the Gibbons agree with us much more than do the thick thigh-boned Orang, Chimpanzee, and Gorilla.
The “neck” of the thigh—bone is especially long and well defined in man and in the latisternal apes, but the Gorilla in this respect is the least human of the latter.
The lower end of the thigh-bone of man is distinguished by the much greater projection downwards of its inner part (inner condyle). It is not, however, the Simiinre, but the Spider Monkeys, and some Baboons, which in this character present the nearest resemblance to ourselves.
The length of the shin-bone, compared with that of the backbone, is greater in man than in any of the Old World apes, ex-‘ cept the Gibbons, in which its relative length is even a little greater than in man. Some of the Spider Monkeys resemble him in this, more than do any other Primates. .
The length of the shin-bone compared with that of the thigh bone is much the same in the Gorilla and Chimpanzee as in man. In the Gibbons it is rather longer, relatively, and in the Orang considerably longer. In the Slow Lemur, however, the proportion is almost as human as in the Gorilla. ' _
When the length of the entire foot is compared with that of the back-bone, the Orang appears at much disadvantage (as to resemblance to man) in comparison with all the other latisternal apes; the baboons, however, excel the last-named animals in this respect.
When the length of the foot is compared with that of the entire leg without it, the Gibbons are- seen to take precedence (as to human likeness) not only of all the other latisternal apes, but of all other Primates whatever, except the Nycticebinoe.
If the length of the foot be compared with that of the shinbone, the Gibbons come absolutely to the front rank of the whole order, while the Orang is seen to be, in this respect, the most inhuman of all Primates. The proportion as to length borne by the foot to the hand is more human in the shorttailed Indris than in any other Primate; while, of the latisternal
" apes, the Gibbons are the least human, and the Orang the most so; the last named, however, not being nearly so human as is the short-tailed Indris.
In man the ankle-bones form a larger proportion of the entire foot than in any other Primates except the Galagos. In this point the Gorilla and Chimpanzee are considerably more human than are the Gibbons and Orang. In the man-like slenderness of the ankle, however, some Gibbons much more approximate to man than do the other latisternal apes.
In the relative length of the great toe (hallux), compared with that of the back-bone, man is very closely approximated by the Gorilla, while the Orang falls off greatly. In this preeminence, however, the Gorilla is about equalled by some of the Sakis of America.
In the proportional length of the longest. toe to the back-bone, Man is most nearly approached by the Gorilla and Chimpanzee amongst the latisternal apes. He is, however, much more nearly approached by the Lemurs. Inman the great toe much more nearly equals the longest toe in length than in any other Primate. The Chimpanzee is the most human in this matter, but the short-tailed Indris is almost as much so, and excels the Gorilla and all other latisternal apes. The great toe of the Orang differs from that of every other Primate in that the terminal joint is often absent.
In the proportion borne in length by the great toe to the entire foot, man is most closely resembled by the Gibbons and Chimpanzee, while the Orang is the least human of all Primates. In the diminutive development of the hallux, as compared with the pollex, the Orang is even more exceptional, though an approximation to this is found in the lowest of apes—the Marmosets. In the proportion borne by the hallux to the pollex, man and the Gorilla agree; then comes the Chimpanzee; then the Gibbons, and last- of all the Orang. The Little Squirrel Monkey, however, is almost as human as the Gorilla in this proportion.
Such are the main affinities towards man’s structure exhibited by the different kinds of the higher apes as regards the skeleton. They show that the various species apprbximate to man not only in different degrees, but also in different modes. The Orang certainly diverges more, as regards the skeleton, from man, than does any other latisternal ape.
Thus it has the shortest leg, compared with the arm, of all Primates (hand and foot not being counted), while man has the longest. It has the absolutely longest hand, and the shortest thumb as compared with the forefinger; and it has the shortest thigh-bone, compared with the upper arm-bone, of all Primates. The pit for the ligamentum ter'es * is almost constantly absent, while in man, Gibbons, and the Chimpanzee, it is constantly present. The Gorilla alone sometimes shares with the Orang the condition of having no such pit.
The Orang has the shortest shin-bone, compared with the upper arm—bone, and the longest foot compared with the leg, in the whole order. It has the relatively shortest and most imperfect hallux of any Primate, while in no other Ape or Half-Ape does the length of the second toe so closely approach that of the forefinger of the same individual.
Estimated by the skeleton only, the Orang cannot be said to approximate to man in any supreme degree, although, as may be remembered, several points have been mentioned in which it is more human than in any other latisternal ape.
The Gorilla and Chimpanzee have been seen to show many approximations to ~man as regards the skeleton. In some respects one species has been found to be the more man-like ; in other points the other species has been so found.
We have found that the Gibbons, one or other of them, exhibit various skeletal characters more human than those presented by any other members of the order. Finally, we have seen that even some of the Half-Apes present most remarkable resemblances to man. The teaching, then, of the skeleton, as also of the other parts we have as yet reviewed, seems to be that resemblance to man is shared in different and not very unequal degrees by divers species of the order, rather than that any one kind is plainly and unquestionably much more human than any of the others.
Afiinities seem rather to radiate from man in various directions than to follow one special route. At present, however, the facts presented are not sufficient to warrant the expression of a confident judgment. In order to arrive at such a judgment it will be necessary to survey the other organs of the body; and then, summarizing the results, we shall have material suflicient to examine the third question proposed, namely, the bearing of the facts upon the theory of evolution as applied to man. '
(To be continued.)
' This is a ligament which holds the thigh-bone in its place, passing as it does, like a round cord, from the head of the thigh-bone to the inside of the socket of the haunch-bone, into which the thigh-bone fits.
EXPLANATION OF PLATE XCV. ¢
F m. 1. The Gorilla (Troglodytes gorilla).
,, 2. Skull of the Gorilla vertically and antero-posteriorly bisected, to show the great sagittal crest (a) rising above the brain cavity, and the supra-orbital crest (0) above the orbit.
,, 3. The Squirrel Monkey (chrysothrz'x sciurea).
,, 4. The Potto (Perodz'cticus Patio), showing the rudimentary condition of the index finger.
,, 5. The Angwantibo (Arctocebus calabarens'is).
,, 6. The Tarsier (Tarsius spectrum), showing the foot at its maximum of elongation, relatively, in the whole order Primates.
,, 7. The Aye-Aye (Cheiromys madagascariensis).
THE LOST COMET AND ITS METEOR-TRAIN.
Br RICHARD A. PROCTOR, B.A. (CAMBRIDGE).
HONORARY SECRETARY or THE ROYAL Asrnorvomcar. SOCIETY; Anrnon or “ OTHER WORLDS ram Ouns,” “ THE SUN,” 8w.
HE .meteor-shower which occurred on November 27 last, and the circumstances connected with that event, have not only attracted a fresh interest to the subject of meteoric astronomy, but have afforded important evidence respecting the connection which undoubtedly exists between meteors and comets. I propose in this paper to consider more particularly the events referred to; for, although I have not hitherto in these pages dealt with the progress of cometic and meteoric astronomy, yet it is known to the majority of my readers that elsewhere this subject has been somewhat fully discussed by me.
It has been shown by the labours of Schiaparelli, Adams, Peters, Tempel, and other astronomers, that the meteors of November 13—14 (called the Leonides) travel in the track of Tempel’s comet. The meteors of August 10- 11, or Perseides, have also been shown to travel in the track of a comet. Other such instances of association have been more or less fully recognised ; and now the conclusion has been generally accepted, that in the train or path of comets bodies travel in scattered flights, which, if they fall on the atmosphere of the earth, appear as shooting-stars or meteors.
Until the recent shower, however, the inquiries made in this branch of research has been limited to cases of recognised meteor-systems whose orbits have been found to agree with those of comets. It was a new circumstance in the history of meteoric research when Weiss in Germany, and Alexander Herschel in England, ventured to predict a meteoric display because the earth was about to pass through the orbit Of a known comet. It is true that there were some reasons for believing that meteors which had fallen in various years between November 25 and December 7 were attendants upon the comet in question—Biela’s or Gambart’s. But the evidence was slight, and in some respects unsatisfactory; [so that it may be said that