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Poole's Hole is a natural excavation as they appeared to deem it prudent to viderneath an hill, about half a mile explore. Having now conducted you from Buxton, into which the curious vi- out of this dismal place, I shall for the sitor is conducted by some hideous-look- present take iny leave of you, and reing old women, with farthing candles main, my dear friend, your's, with esteem stuck betwixt their fingers, and when the and regard, Tue WANDERER, fele lights gleam on their haggard countenances and tattered garments, they For the Monthly Magazine. really appear most disgusting figures, OBSERVATIONS on the PRESENT STATE of " so withered and so wild," that even

the COTTON COLONIES. the witches of Macbeth might be ac- (Concluded from p. 5, of our last.) counted beautiful upon comparison, U This dark and disinal cavern is reported vious to 1808 (the two succeeding to have been the abode or hiding-place years being omitted on account of the oba noted robber, of the name of Poole, American decrees and the unusual shortwho must have lived many centuries ness of crops) the plantation expeuces or ago, and whose rocky bed, parlour, and those incurred before shipment came to kitchen, widely differing from the lux- ?d. per lb. The mercantile charges, uries and conveniences of modern times, including the duties (or those between are pointed out to observation; as like the shipment and the sale,) amounted to wise an huge column of rock, called the 78d. per lb. So that the whole expence Queen of Scot's Pillar, in honour of that upon every pound of cotton, which must unfortunate princess, who' visited this be deducted from the gross proceeds of cayero on the way to her confinement at the sale, is 15. 24d. Chatsworth, a seat of the duke of De- But during the same period the aves Forshire, and distant from Buxton about rage sale price has never exceeded 1s. sixteen miles.

11d. per 1b., which leaves after all deduoThough the entrance to Poole's Hole tions, only 84d. as the receipt of the is low and inconvenient, it is yet visited proprietor. by all the gay and fine-dressed folks who Now it will readily be granted that, resort to its neighbouring baths; but I in speculations in which there is scarcely have rarely seen any person who apo any risk, 10 per cent. upon the capital, peared to be much gratified by a view of after payment of all expences, is the its dismal recesses, or thought theinselves reward expected, and usually received, repaid for the trouble of exploring its Mercantile people know this too well damp unwholesome cavities, by any to require conviction from argument, thing they saw in them. The various Whenever the hazard is increased, the colours of the spar, or congealed waters, premium to the advantages is proportithat hang on the roof and sides, are seen onably augmented. Mr. Love, in his to great advantage from the exclusion of excellent pamphlet, has well insisted on external light, and the uncertain blinke the point. It will not be denied that ing of the pitiful luminaries within. In speculations in transatlantic properly. admiring these, one may however pay are precarious in an eminent degree, dear for the gratification of his curio- The uncertainty of crops, risk of health sity, as they may chance to have a tum- from climate, of property from the ble and a severe bruise in consequence, enemy, and various other causes, all from the slipperiness of the rocks, which render it so. Ten per cent. then, as the are constantly moist by the wet drop, "lowest reward of speculation, may be pings from the roof; and it behoves the assumed, as the minimum of return due admirer therefore to take good heed to to the cotton-planter. This will be more his

ways, ere he ventures to look around easily conceded, as it is the general ppon the beauties of the place, if, in fact, admission that this is the proper per he can discover any in this chilling re- centage of the sugar-planter, and it is gion, where I was benumbed with cold well known that sugar crops are much and damp, and with pleasure hailed a less affected by contingencies of weather, return to the scorching rays of the sun, &c. &c. than those of cotton. in one of the warmest days in June. Assuming then ten per cent. as the This cave is said to be about half a mile reward of the planter, the value of each in length; but I am of opinion it is not acre to be 140l

. sterling, and the quanto much. It is also said that it commu- tity of cotton produced, to be 200lbs., nicates with other caves, at many miles the net receipt of the planter on each distant, but this too I imagine is an ex- pound of cotton wool should be 18. 5d. asgeration ; for the guides took me, and but the actual sum he receives is 81d. Hampersun who accompanied me, as far a certain loss to ljun of 8fd.; for if it be

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ouce granted, as it , undoubtedly must, the value of the produce. The limits of that 10 per cent. is the fair premium, all this essay do not permit further details; below it may be considered as taken out but should circunstances allow, they of the funds of the proprietor.

may perhaps be laid before the public. Such is the state of the British cotton- At present, it inay suffice to state that planter. That of his North Americ if the North American planter nets 6l. can rival is much superior. Situate in per 1b., he can afford to cultivate cotton, the midst of the necessaries of life, he Now the expences of cultivation, of nadepends on himself or his neighbours for vigation, &c. are very trifling, Hence he support. He purchases land at a can always undersell the British planter. cheaper rate, and imported his negroes Similar local adventitious advantages at an inferior expence. Every thing operate in favour of the Brazil planter, diminislies the imtrinsic cost of cotton and his receipts from the greater fineness properties in the United States, and the of his produce, are still higher. regulations of Great Britain increase TABLE of the prices of the best COTTON wool, per lb. Those of inferior quality sell from 28.

to 3d. per lb. less. (A.)

PRICE. Year Low. High. Aver. Year Low. High. Aver. Year Low. High. Aver. $. d.

S. d. S. d. $. d. S. d. s. d. s. d. 1781 2 2 4 4 2. 731791 1 5 2 6 1 931801 2 2 9 2 7 -2 2 31 3 10 2 104 -2 1 11 2.421 -21 91 2 5 2

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July, 1808.

20 57

33 101 16 10

16 109 Ib the present Time

25 2 or 21 11 or 25 31 In British ships it pays the same as British produce. + 11.5s. when direct, 211, 1d. indirect,

I 11. 55. 3.d. in British bottom. $ Turkish cotton pays the same. TABLE

"Table of cotton'imported annually into GREAT BRITAIN, from 1797 to 1810.



-101 The condition to which the cotton- but was very unsteady. The average of

average planter is reduced, as well as the nature the whole term, was a fraction more than of his claims, having been already ştated, 1s, 6d. per Ib. the next object of attention is his former The horizon of the planter seems to situation, which is best learnt from the have been illumined for the next five preceding tables. The inost superficial years (until 1801); for the minimum of observer must be struck with the first the annual average was, during that time, of these, containing the prices of cotton. 2s. 7d. and the maximum 3s. 1d., and Hond from the year 1781 to 1809. the total average 2s. 744.

Although the annual average fluctu- In the year of peace it fell to the ated very considerably froin the com. average of 2s. From that year to 1807, mencement of that period to the year it fluctuated between 1s. 10.1d. and 2s. 1788, it never was less than 1s. 11d. 24d., averaging, upon the whole, 25. per lb. while, on a majority of years, it per lb. exceeded 2s. making a total average of The prices during 1808 and 1809 were 2s. 23 d. per lb.

better, but cannot be admitted into a During the next eight years, (from general statement, as they originated in 1788 to 1796) the political deiangements causes so novel and unnatural, that a reof Europe produced serest consequences currence of thein cannot be expecied to the colonists. In 1789, cotton-wool during another century. fell to an average of 1s. 5d. In the The average of the current year is subsequent years it rose as high as 23. below 15. 10d. and wil probably be

This head comprises East Indian colton, of which considerable quantities have been iin. ported likewise in the years preceding 1805, and in 1810, but we have not any documents at baod, shewing the quantity in each year.

+ The extraordinary diminution of these two years, arose from ihe cession of the colonies of Demerary, issequido, Berbicc, and Surinarn, to Huilarid; and from the war, which confined the importation to our own produce. On the re-capture of the above-named colonies, the quantity imediately increased. ,


still less, as the quantity imported of expence, and by the non-imposition of foreign cotton is rapidly encreasing. duties, as the gross proceeds of sale

The natural consequence of which, is a averaged a fraccion mure than is. 8d, diminution of price.

per Ib. The clear receipt was therefore During the first term marked out, about nine-pence. Had the planter nos (from 1781 to 1788, inclusive) cotton been favoured, as he fortunately was, the wool, as has been already remarked, fate which now seems to inpend over sold on an average at 23. 2d. At that tum, would have been then accomplishtime, no duties were levied. Every arti-..ed, and with less destructive effects to cle required by the colonies was much the state. It has been his lot to have cheaper. Navigation charges were his hopes raised to the highest pitch, and equally smalt; and the peace, which then, by a refinement in cruelty, to have then existed, favoured the manufac. thein dashed away with the rudest tories at hoine, which benefited the violence. planter.

The expences were somewhat en. The actual expenditure was, of course, creased during the third series (from much inferior to what it now is, while 1796 to 1802) about the middle of which the price was higher.

(1u 1799) a duty of 8s. 9d. per 100lbs. It may be assumed, as a broad and or of a fraction more than id. per Ib. incontrovertible fact, that the price of was imposed on British culton wool; every article is double what it was in while, strange to tell, 6s. 6d. per 100lbs. 1781. The plantation charges may or about 1d. per lb. was laid on American therefore be stated at one-half of what produce in American bottoms. The they are according to a preceding stale- average price was 2s. 74d. If the ment, that is at 31d. per lb. of cotton whole expence amounted to 1s. 2d. which wool; 'and supposing the mercantile it certainly did not, the plantes netted charges to have been the same as they 1s. 5fd. which was quite equal to his now are, they, after deduction of 2d. for wants or his wishes. the duties, are 5 d. per lb. Thus, the The diminution of charges during the gross charges upon every pound of cotton short-lived peace of Amiens, remedied, wool, would then have been 9d. which to a certain extent, the smallness of the leaves 1s. 5 d. of actual receipt to the price, which was only 28. per lb. They planter of that time.

were about 10d. per lb. which left 1s. 2 d. Lest this mode of estimating be not for the proprietor. admissable, let another be adopted, and Froin the renewal of hostilities to the results will be found nearly the 1808, while 2s. per lb. has been the same. Among mercantile people, four. average price of cotton wool, every thing pence per lb. was generally supposed has happened to diminish the planter's sufficient to cover all the difference funds. For, immediately on the breaks between war and peace charges. This, ing out of the war, a duty of 10s. Od. it must be remarked, was previous to the per 100lbs. or 14il. per lb. was laid on present war, since which the duty has British, and 7s. iud. per 100lbs. or fd. been nearly duubled on British cotton, and a fraction, on American cotton iu About one-penny per lb. ipay therefore American bottoins. be added to the estimate of the mer. In 1805, this highly iinproper distincchants, which increases it to 5d. per tion in favour of the latter ceased, and Ib. When this is deducted from 1s. the duties were increased to 16s. 8d. 2.4. the present expences, 9td. will re- per 100lbs. or 2d. and a fraction per lb. nain as the real expeuce of the former on British, and 175. 8d. per 100lbs. or period; and the additional half-penny about 21d. per lb. on American produce. anay be considered equivalent to the Both, however, are on equal terms enhanced price of every necessary for when the latter is imported in Britisha the estates, though it is in fact be- bottoms. The duty on British produce low it.

was in the following year raised to 16s. The cotton-planter of these eight 10d, and has continued steadily the years received is. 524, which, from the same; that an American cotton was diminished value of money, was equal first (in 1808) raised to 175. 10d. per to at least one-half more than" it 100lbs, or 21d. per lb. and lately to 20s. now is.

5d. per 100lbs. or about 21d. per Ib. The second period, though less favoured when imported directly, and 215. 144. in point of actual receipt, was equally so per 100lbs. or a fraction more than 21d. by the inferiority of every description vt per Hwuca indirectly. The forner



inequality, when imported in British dismantled viches that were once decoshipping, is still retained.

rated with the sepulchral memorials of The Brazilian cotton growers enjoy the noble family of Chandos, are still similar privileges, when they employ visible, in one of which, the mutilated British vessels; but pay 11. 53. ed. per trunk of a female figure yet remains. 100lbs. or 3d. per lb. in their own On the left, a large block of alabaster shipping.

points out the probable situation of the The British cotton proprietors have monument of Katherine Parr. therefore been receiving only 10d. per lb. The page of history presents few para ! dering that period, which, however in. ticulars respecting this exemplary woman. adequate, is superior to his present A dreadful detail of intrigues and faca receipt, and would not have been so tions, of rapine and slaughter, allows high, had the average been made only for but small space for the delineation of the three last years, excluding 1808 and characters that have added to the lustre 1809 for the reasons already assigned. of eminent stations--the practice of vira It has been shewn, in a preceding page, tues that ought to have endeared their to have been no more than 1s. 11d. memories to the latest posterity. I shall

Before this part of the subject is therefore refer to my portfolio, and colo closed, it may be worthy of attention to lect, for your perusal, such brief notices refer to the Table C. in which a state of her life, as my desultory reading may ment is given of the quantities of cotton have casually furnished. imported into this country. From 1804 It is hardly necessary to premise, that to the present time, the British have Katherine was the eldest daughter of sir Steadily averaged about 204 millions of Thomas Parr, of Kendal, in Westmorepounds, while America vacillated from land, who carefully heightened her per104 to 47{{ millions, as caprice dictated. sonal attractions with the irresistible The increase is going on; and early in charm of a well-cultivated understand. May, it was fith more than it had been ing. At this period, the learned lane last year.

guages were the only avenues to literary The Brazil cotton has suddenly increa- knowledge, and an intimate acquaintance sed from 74 inillions of pounds to about with the writers of antiquity was the 231 millions.

most fashionable female accomplishment. That from India, &c. from about 44 to The fine talents of Katherine, thus hap. 144 millions of pounds.

pily improved, shone conspicuously forth These facts need no comment; they at an early age, and she soon acquired speak for themselves on terms too unequis considerable celebrity, both for the supucal to be misunderstood.

periority of her sense, and the extent of

her learning. Indeed, the sixteenth cen. For the Monthly Magazine. tury produced more women eminent for LETTERS DESCRIPTIve of CHELTENHAM, erudition, than any subsequent period; and its VICINITY.-No. V. and I most cordially agree with the ele

Cbeltenban, August 10, 1808. gant author of the Persian Letters, " that U NA Thich

we had already taken NSATISFIED with the cursory in a country where women are admisted

to a familiar and constant share in every of Sudeley Castle, I eargerly hastened active scene of life, particular care should thither on the following inorring to take betaken with their education, to cultivate a. solitary survey of this beautiful pile. their reason, and form their hearts, that The dilapidated' remains of that exqui- they may be equal to the part they have site piece of Gothic architecture, once, to act ;” and 'I think it may fairly be alas! appropriated to sacred uses, soon questioned, whether the solid attain. rivetted iny attention, and while I mused ments of the old school are not better on the instability of all earthly things, I calculated to produce this desirable end, bestowed a tributary sigh upon the ashes than all the superficial frippery of mo. of the illustrious dead, that even now re- dern accomplishments. pose within its shattered walls. · I en. Katherine is said to have been twice tered it with an indescribable feeling married before she was advance to the of reverence and of indignation; and as throne. Her first husband was the son I lingered with pensive pleasure over the of Edward lord Borough, who died vinlated grave of the hapless Katherine, young, and of whom littie, is known, the melancholy aspect of the surrounding Her second was John lord Latiiner, objects insensibly diffused over my mind who had been previously married, and its gloomy influence. On the right, the of whom I only know that he was seMONTHLY MAG, No. 203.


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