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buried on the promontory of Rhætium, to write Latin iambics. Others have once celebrated for the sepulchre of considered him merely as a writer of Ajax Telamon. Returning from Bithy- epigrams; while a few have dignified him nia into Italy, he necessarily passed with the title of a I yric poet. But, Rhætium; where, in love and veneration perhaps, to neither of these in particular, for the memory of his brotber, * he does Catullus belong; it is probable, stopped at his tomb, and offered a so- that he wrote many poems whose lemn oblation. I
nature even is unknowit to us, of which The learned character of Catullus is we have been deprived by time and acknowledged by writers, both ancient accident, and which very possibly conand modern. Tibullus, Ovid,ş and ferred upon him the distinction of Martial,ll give him the appellation of learned, which we have alluded to Doctus. The elder Scaliger alone, f above. Speaking of hinself when among the moderns, disputes his preten- young, he says, multa satis lusi;t from sions to that title, and asserts, on the which we may infer that his Muse exhicontrary, that his poems are vulgar, his bited herself in various kinds of poetry. thoughis low, and his expressions trivial. It may be collected from Pliny the elder, But he seems to have changed his opi. that he composed a something on incantanion, when he pronounces his galliambic tions, of which we liave now no remains ; poem a noble composition; and de- and according to Terentianus Maurus, clares, that the epithalamium on the he wrote an Ithyphallic poem,
and marriage of Peleus and Thetis almost there is still left a specimen of the rivals ihe majesty of the Æneid. On Priapeian style in which it was written, what account he more particulariy Asit is, the poems transmitted to us, and obtained the epithet ductus, is uncertain; generally received as belonging to Caperhaps from being well versed in the tullus, though some have doubted the Greek language, then considered a great originality of all, have been divided by accomplishment, and the proof of a many of his commentators into three learned education, We know how classes: the lyric, the heroic and elegiac, neatly he has imitated an ode of Sappho, and the epigrammatic. The voluine, in and an elegy of Callimachus; indeed, general, includes a few others attributed all his compositions appear to be formed to the same poet, of a more suspicious on the Grecian model. Perhaps the character. Of these, it may be doubted distinction arose from the various metres whether the Pervigilium Veneris be in which he wrote his poems; or else genuine. This beautiful piece, which from some peculiar literary talent, with ought rather to have been called A Hymn which we are unacquainted, or some to the Spring, has been attributed to a other works now lost. To those who variety of authors, whom it would be have been accustomed to consider bim tedious to
Ausonius, I only as a trifling amatory poet, the know not how justly, puts in his claim epithet, no doubt, appears singularly to the honour of having composed it; applied.
but it is, most probably, the production Catullus died some years after the of some pen more modern than that of age of 40, as Vulpios lias satisfactorily Catullus, or even of Ausonius. Gyraldus • proved.*
asserts that he had never seen it, and Scholiasts have not agreed in what only heard that it was ainong the MSS. class the poet of Verona ought to be of Aldus Manutius. placed.
Quintilian has placed him Whatever were the various walks in among the lambics; though Horace which Catullus exercised his muse, he boasts of having bimself been the first was successful in all. In the voluptuous,
ness of amatory verse be excelled; in Carm. 62 and 65.
the galliambict he was unique, and his + Carm. 96. | Eleg. 7, lib. 3.
* Epist. 19, lib. 1. Amor. Eleg. 9, lib. 3.
+ Carm. 63. Epig. 62, lib. i.
| This was the metre in which the Galla, Poetices, cap. 6, lib. 6.
or priestesses of Cybele, are said to have sung; See Vulp. Comment. on Carm. 50 and hence it received its name.
It is composed 108; though Eusebius, in his Chronicle, of six feet. The Atys of Catullus, which is affirms that he died at the age of so, about probably of Grecian origin, will give the tbe cime that Virgil was a student at reader the best idea of this singular versifi. Cremona.
cation. MONTHLY MAQ, No. 202.
satire was keen, well-pointed, and vigo. the despoiling prætor Cn. Calpurnius
A vein of sharp and provoking Piso; the retid Virro, if such be the real irony, sometimes smooth, and at others
name of the person intended;* Rufus, caustic in the highest degree, runs through who had a siinilar infiriniiy, and was most of his smaller pieces; and we can- most probably N. Cælius Rufus the oranot but admire the perfect indifference
tor; Silv, a pander; Vitennius and bis with which he fearlessly applies it, with. şon, the one a thiet, and the other unnaout distinction of persons. Even Cæsar turally infamous; the lascivious Auflehiniself felt the severity of his
urus, brother of Aubilena, the mistress of was too magnanimous to resent it. Whieu Catullus; Rufi, of Bononia, wife of Meupon a visit at the house of Cicero, who
nenus, and the mistress of Rufulus; Postrecords the circumstance in a letter to
humia, a lady of bacchanalian l'ame; his friend Atticus, that poein,* areternal Balbus, Posthimius, and other obscure stain upon his reputation, wherein the characters mentioned in the poem io a poet censures bis ill-applied liberality harlot's door. $ All these were exposed towards the dissolute favourite Mamurra, to the lash of an injured, and sometimes was shewn to bim while he was at the exasperated, poet; particularly those who hath, as the topic of public conversation. presumed to rival kim in the affection of Cæsar affected to disregard it, and either his mistresses, lle pursues them with to display an ostentatious moderation, keen and unreinitting severity; he deor to conceal his indignation, he accepied rides their pretensions, and exposes their the submission of Catullus, and soon personal infirmities, with a freedom of after invited him to supper; he also con- pencil and a broadness of expression, tinued to make a home of his father's which compel us to consider him as one house as usual.I Next to Cæsar, and of the wittiest, and, at the same time, one to Mamurra, whose sumptuous posses- of the most indecent, poets of antiquity. şions proclaimed his ravages in Transalpine Gaul better than all the verse of To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, Catullus, the principal objects of his
SIR, satire were Gellius, Gallus, Vectius, Ra
Cadix, Nov. 1809. vidus, Cominius, Nonius Struma, aud ARRIVED here atier a passage of Vatinius; all of them men whom he ap
cighteen days from Falınouth, which, pears to have cordially bated. Mein- at this season of the year, is not a long mius, the avaricious prætor whom he at
one;, while at sea we experienced fair tended into Bithynia, of course, does not and foul winds, calms and storins, lle ruticules the incontinent
o'er tempest rollid." foul-breatbedş Emilius. He plays upon I was comfortable on board the packet Volusius, a wretched writer of annals ;ll so far as related to socialility, there Egnatius, his execrable poetic rival; Sut being above tiventy passengers, some of fenus, a conceited scribbler, with whom whom are proceeding to different parts he includes Cæsius and Aquinius, two of the Mediterranean; but the crowded literary pests; and lastly the weak orator state of “each in his narrow cell," was Sextius, at the recital of whose cold occasionally uncomfortable. compositions, he ludicrously says that he
We were prevenied from making Cape took cold himself. Catullus also makes Finisterre by a strong easterly wind, satirical mention of other charac'er3, less ibat blew just as we came into inat latiimportant and less conspicuous in his tude; but in a day or two the wind verses: such as Sulla, a grammarian; the changed, and light airs carried us gently 'pompous poèt Antimachus; Arrius, a along the coast of Portugal to the rock violent aspirator of words,** whose uncle of Lisbon, as we call it, but the PortuLiber had the same defect; Fuffitis, an guese call it Serra de Cintra; for it is old secretary of Cæsar's, together with not an insulated rock, but a vast prumon• Otho and Libo, wlose dirty feet are no
tory, “whose haugfity brow" marks the ticed;tt Porcius anxi Socration, tools of
* Carm. 26
See Carm. 92.
Carm. 41. * Carm. 82. ++ Carm. 51.
# Carm. 68.
+ Carm. 64. Tlis singular piece is a dia. logue between a passenger and the .cgr of a ceriain brothel; but as the nim of the infamous woman who kept it is not mentioned, and the various personages aliudet to are unknown to us, the stig or the satire is quice lost to us.
rear approach to the Tagus. On the The intention of the other passengers top is a convent, whose white walls was to mount their mules, and make an glitered in the sun; and a few miles in excursion hither; but their disappointe a valley to the leit, we planly saw the ment was great when they learned that tost of Cina, so lately made famous to travel about seventy miles would cause by the convenuon between the British them a tirésome ride of three days, if it aud French cuinmanders.
were eren possible for them to proceed Although this is a winter month, we at all, ww to the rains, and the consealready felt the delightful soft breezes of quent had state of the roads. They, this climate. He setting sun formed a therefore, reluctantly relinquished their charmning object, where we saw its gol- Scherre, and had the iooni'ying fatigue den rays spreading over an horizon af turto of rocking two days and a bizht in an hooned extent on the “ vast Atlantic:" open diniy fishing-boat, 'o cuene here in it was an evening picture which may in time to liok at the place for a few miFal te songht for in England.
nutes, and then make sail after the pacWe continued our course in-shore, ket, which is allowed to wait only tienana sin came off Cape St. Vincent, ty-four hours, and had just weighed aito where the rocks seem to protect the land chur to pursue her voyage. in a sort of detiance to the waves of the Immadiately on our anchoring, we ocean. We stood in suficiently close to were surrounded by boats with fruit, &c. see the inhabitants of the country walk. The men wore the national cockade, ing to the convent, it being on a Sun. (which I have already fund requisite to day. This is a large irregular building, adopt, in order to avoid insult;) and we alu.o-t on the edge of a bigh range of soon landed at the quay, amid the noise, rocks: and the end of it towards the sea confusion, and curiosity, of hundreds of exhibits a large cross on the walls. Near dirty boalmen, porters, &c. which was it is a fort, wiere the Spanish colors were truly offensive. hoisted 10 us: we, of course, returned the It was necessary that our baggage compliment.
should be examineri, and for this purpose When we came near Ayamonte, some it was carried 10 an office; the inspectors of our passengers went ashore, in conse- appeared inclined to give the trouble of quence of the indisposition of a larly we opening every package: but a dollar obhad on board, and hose lite might have viated this ceremony. On coming howleon endangered had she iemained lon- ever to the Barrier, another exhibition was ker at sea. A Spanish buat came along, to take place; and here, each trunk was side us; and un informing itie sailors of opened and submitted a wareh by the the "jert wished for, they expressed hand, before we were suffered to proa dislike to receiie the invalid, and feared ceer. that their gwernor would not permit A porter then conducted me to the them to land her under the apprehensioni largisi, and, as it is terved, the best inn that a contaginus disorder might be in- in the place. I did not expect to meet trocluced into the place.
with the conforts of an English inn, but Ayamonte is a frontier-town of Spain, was much surprised toobserve the absence on the river Guadiana; opposite to it is of almost eiery decent convenience. a frontier-town of Portugal, founded by My lodging-rooni resembles the cell of a the marquis de Pombal, during his pros. prison; the floor is of brick, the window perity as minister of what country, in the small
, with iron bars, and no glass, but a year 1752, and called Villa Real. They wooden shutter closes it at ni ht have both a handsome appearance from matress of wool is lan on a wel), which is the sea.
stretched by a wooden frame, and a chair Much opposition was made to the serves for the wash-hand stand. I could lady's landing. After this was overcome trot refrain reinarking the nature of our a most serious obstacle occurred, for no accommodation to the landlord, whose person was inclined to recene hier into a reply was, “ Why, sir, this is the same house ; and two bours pas-ox before they hotel that my lord and lady I real could find a shelter, which was at last sided in while they were at Cadiz." in an uninhabited hovel. The object of The smell of tobacco-smoke, oil, and her landing was to procure medical as• garlick, is predominant in almost every sistance, honever bad, rather than to re- thing; the oil is such as is used in manuanain longer in the packet, which was factories in England, and the fish, poultry, unprovided with so requisite a part of its and beef, partake of it, unless it is boited equipment.
The coffee at breakfast is excellent, but
it is brought to us in a kettle from a theatre, or at the card-table; the actors neighbouring coffee house.
and music are tolerably good, the house I shall change my residence so soon as is spacious, and has three tier of boxes, I can meet with a more comfortable one; but they are all private; so that unless a but furnished lodgings, such as are in friend is known who rents one of them, England, cannot be procured easily: the there is no getting a seat. The pit is Spaniards are not partial to this kind of then only open, or a heuch which is in accommodation, and every article of front of the first tier of boxes, and cona furniture must be purchased, or hired tains about a hundred persons. separately from the apartments.
To enter the theatre the expence is December 1, 1809. trifling, but troublesome; having to pay Having been here a few days, I have at two doors for tickets of admission, at length found out a French hotel, where where you are pestered by persons the table is chiefly surrounded by Eng. stationed to solicit money for charities; lishmen. The expences of board and these tickets, being delivered at the en. lodging are two dollars a day, for which trance, another must be procured in order we have a breakfast of tea, coffee, and to get a sitting; this will cost one or two chocolate, a dinner, and supper. The shillings; it has the number of the seat you hour of dinner is generally two o'clock, can cccupy and no other; the pit will con. among persons of all ranks; but the tain only a certain number of persons, so Spaniaris begin to complain of an en- that without having such ticket you have croachment in this regulation, in con- no claim to a seat. The pit is appropriated sequence of so many English being here, exclusively for men; some of them rent who rather exténd, or wish to extend, the their places for a certain time, to which time.
they have a lock and key; the gallery The heat of the climate is the reason over the boxes, is filled entirely by fefor adopting this custom; in the summer males, and guards are stationed in the season, the scorching sun does not allow passages leading to it to prevent improper people to take much exercise in the access to them. afternoon: they commonly recline on the A ludicrous circumstance occurred the sofa, and enjoy the sięsta or nap, and night I was there; in the midst of the pers do not walk out until the evening breeze formance of a comedy, I was surprised ta springs up.
observe on a sudden a profound silence, Our dinner usually consists of a great while the actors and the audience fell on number of dishes, the Spaniards liking their knees, remaining in this posture a to please the palate with every variety of few minutes! I was naturally desirous cookery. Soup is always at table, made to know the cause, and was informed either of pulse or animal food, which is that the "host" was carrying to the house boiled so long as not to retain any flavor of a dying person, in order to administer of the meat; this is eaten with vegetables, the sacrament. such as cauliflower, cabbages, &c. which The procession on these occasions is is plentifully seasoned with rancid oil, formed of a great number of clergy, garlick, &c, and is called an olio; a dish preceded by a warning bell, and a blaze much esteemed. Poultry, wild fowl, fish, of torches at night; the "holy wafer" and game, forin the remainder of the cour. being borne by a priest, who sits in a ses; fruit, of various sorts, succeed before chair. On their approach every one the cloth is removed. Water or sherry: within sight or bearing falls on his knees, wine is taken with the dinner, and with whether in the street or in a house, and moderation afterwards; coffee is then prę. remains, or is supposed to remain, in pared in an adjoining room; sometimes prayer while the procession passes. The å glass of liqueur finishes the ceremony, weather or the place does not excuse and is a signal tor withdrawing. At the oinission of this duty; the porters dinner, ca 1 person is furnished with a with a load on their backs will stand still, napkin, and a roll of bread; one knife and a regiment of soldiers will fall on will orien serve for several persons, the their knees on the parade, on these occafork and the spoon being inonly used by sions. In fact no one is exempt from the right hand, while the left holds a crust this obeisance, and heretics commit an of bread, which is continually soaked in open offence if they do not passively con, the gravy; a Spaniard not eating in a form to it. very delicate manner at table.
But among the public acts of Catholic The evening is generally spent at the devotion, none is certainly so apparently
religious as the “oration,” which is a they are lofty and large. It has only prayer said every evening about half-past two entrances; one at the quay, the other five o'clock; it is a time when the whole at this end of the peninsula; at each an nation are at once supposed to be offer- officer's guard is always on duty, and the ing up thanks for their preservation in the gates are locked every night at beat of past day, and imploring the continuanice drum. The streets are so narrow that of God's protection; ihe solemnity of two carriages can pass but in few of it cannot for the moment be exceeded. them; they run nearly all at angles, and
The time is announced by the colling thus a current of air is always Howing of a bell, when every one pauses in his through them. occupation and conversation; in the . The houses are lofty, built much alike Streets the men stand uncovered, and the with stone, and on the outside luok like ladies bend their eyes to the ground; rows of prisons; for alihough the windows the most profound silence existing unul are glazed, they are defended by massive the bell again tolls. In all possible cases iron bars, and very few have any apartthe Spaniards seem to respect religion; ments below stairs, but warehouses. for, on passing a church while service The shops make a very indifferent apis performing, every one takes off his hat. pearance, few of then having sashes,
The popular piece now performing is and their only light is from the door-way; the “ Patriots, of Arragon," written to they are consequently not attractive to exhibit many occurrences that have the eye; and as they seldom lead into the happened at the siege of Sarragoza. It is, house, or if they do, it is the singular as you may suppose, filled with fine senti- custom to lock the door while the fainily ments of loyalty; and the active part is at dinner. which the women took in the defence of The entrance to a house is by a large that place, is represented by the intro- folding dour into a porch, where is a bell; ducing a band of females led hy an on ringing it the second door is opened Amazon, who marches them in file to the by pulling a string from above; this door right and left, in the true spirit of cha- leads to the staircase by the side of a racter.
court, called the "patio," which is usually We ought not to suppose that at this covered with marble, and around it are the time the Spaniards wanted the stage to ware-rooms, cellars, &c.; underneath is a excite them to loyalty; but I can already tank containing rain-water, which is condiscover the mixture of zeal and in- veyed by pipes from the Hat roof of the difference, of loyalty and disloyalty, of house, and in this manner is obtained unanimity and opposition, to the cause
one-third of the yearly consumption. in which the nation is engaged; and one
I before told you of the noisy reception half of the people seem to care but little we met with on landing; it arose from the who governs them.
frequent passing of boats to and from Port A comedy was performed last night, St. Mary, a town on the opposite side of in which the hero with great humour and the Bay; the boatmen are continually in correctness went through the several a bustle, signifying their departure by the characters of a porter, a captain in the cry of • Puerta !” which they bawl out army, a nobleman, a relation in mourn- with a long accent to the last letter; to ing, an old lover, a writing-master, and this noise is added that of the fruit-sellers, last of all a father confessor, before he and water-venders, who announce their could obtain his suit with his Dulcinea: articles in the same sonorous manner. the last character had its effect, by sbew- Fresh water is plentifully supplied from ing the superiority of the clergy over port St. Mary, and excepting from the other personages, and how little their in- rain none else is had here; the soil is tentions are suspected when they ought rock and sand, and therefore if wells are most to be watched. Voltaire says: sunk they are brackish. Hundreds of Les prêtres ne sont point ce qu'un vain
men and asses are daily employed to peuple pense :
supply this ingredient; it is sold in the Notre credulite fait tout leur science. streets by barrow-men, who wheel it about The people vainly give to priests a name:
in jars, and dispose of it to the poor ac But cur credulity gives them their fame.
per glass-ful, to which they add a few Cadiz has a most beautiful appear ander, &c.
aromatic seeds, such as carraway, cori. ance from the harbour; it is entirely surrounded by fortifications; the houses are
(To be continued.) all built of stone, neatly white-liiged;