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establishing fortresses and defensive posts the island of Gothland, was driven by a upon the points most exposed to inva- storm into the gulf of Livonia, and in sion, ever entered into the policy of the wards the estuary of the Dwina they disa Poles of the 17th century. The establislio covered the country inhabited by the ment of the Russians in Livonia, placed Lieves. That nation, in a state of haifa Courland and Lithuania wholly in a si- savage barbarism, perinitted them to tuation which rendered the defence of traffic; and it is to a colony which the them almost impossible. We will, in the Bremeners established, that the tunn of first instance, take a glance at the historý Riga owes its origin. In 1186, an eccle. of these countries.

siastic of Holstein began to preach the The Esthoniaus and the Lieves or doctrine of christianity, Livonians, are of Finnish origin; they ap- It is, however, positively prored, that pear to have been the most ancient in- the Scandinavians had a long time prehabitants of maritime Livonia and Cour. viously visited these countries, sometimes land Proper. The Lettons are evidently as friends, sometimes as enemies; they the saine nation as the Lithuanians, were known to them under the name of their language and manners prove it in- Oest-land or the Eastern-land, from contestibly, but their origin is uncertain: whence Estland, it is, however, a fact, that the Lettons, as In 1196, Canute V1. King of Denwell in Livonia as in Courland, were mark, after having subdued the Wendes constantly at variance with the Lieves, of Pomerania, fitted out an expedition whoin by degrees they oppressed and to reduce Esthonia : it appears ibat his compelled to adopt the Lettonian lan- great general Absalon, who at the same guage in their divine worship. At time was an archbishop, gare his name present, there are very few of the to the city of Habsal, Canute VI. Lieves; they are confounded with the only conquered the islands, and a part of Lettons.

the coast. Waldemar II. surnamed the From these two races is composed the Victorious, resolved to connect these mass of the people in the provinces of conquests with those which the Danes Courland, Livonia, and Estonia. Bent bad made in Pomerania; and, as a preunder the same yoke, they yet preserve, text, he formed the plan of converting on both sides, their national pride and the Livonians to the Christian religion, their hereditary hatred: they rarely con. the Pope sent him the celebrated redtract marriages together. Their mutual and-white standard, called Danebreg, aversion is manifest even in the colour which, in consequence, became the palla. of their clothes: an Esthonian always dium of Denmark: in short, it was a re. wears brown, and a Lettoni never gular crusade. A fleet of four hundred leaves off grey.

vessels carried the Danish ariny; the Five nations successively have con- largest of these vessels contained about quered and ruled over these provinces an hundred and twenty men, the smallest either wholly or in part: there still re. about fourtcen. The battle fought near main some colonies inore or less nume. Wolmar in 1220, laid all Livonia at the rous, according to the periodo they re- feet of the conqueror; the Livonians. muained in tranquil possession. The were converted, that is to say, were Danes, Swedes, Germans, Poles, and compelled to suffer baptism. The PrusRussians, are established here; the Gere sians were next converted in a no les man language prevails in the cities; the expeditious manner. Waldemar founded mobility almost wholly derive their ori- the cities of Narva, Revel, and some gin from the north of Germany; they others; but after the three years capti, conceive themselves far above the Ruse vity of this monarch, the conquered sians and the Poles, whom tliey have, as countries recovered their liberty. The it were, adopted: for this reason it is, that, Danes, however, still preserved some in the provinces, every free individual possessions in thein. Esthonia remained of whatever nation he may be, is inva- faithful to them, at least the towns did; ríably called Deutsche, or German; and, that part which they abandoned the last, on the contrary, all the peasanis and was the Isle of Oesel, which, in 1645, serfs or vassals, are styled Undeutsche, was ceded to Sweden. nor Germans,

Successive conquerors continued the It is to the Bremeners we are in- crusade begun by the Danes. In 1201 debied for the first certain information was forined and instituted the order of relative to Livonia. In the year 1153, a “Che Knights of Christ," which in the vessel troun Bremen, bound io Wisby, in commencement had the same statutes as

hac

the Templars, and recognized the den in the possession of Esthonia and bishop of Riga as their chief. While the Livonia. Courland remained subject to good fortune of Waldemar continued, the sovereignty of Poland. these knights could only be regarded as The eighteenth century renewed afresh auxiliaries of the Danes; however, so all the horrors of war in the very heart early as 1206, Albert, bishop of Riga, of these countries; they were almost tohad bestowed upon them the third part tally laid waste by the Russians, who of Livonia, which he did not possess, remained masters of them by the peace and soon after the pope confirmed this of Neustadt, in 1721. singular donation. The first grand- The tranquillity which these provinces master of the order was Winno; be have enjoyed since they became part of gave the knights the name of Ensiferi, the Russian empire, has not, however, or Sword-bearers. In the year 1238, been sufficient to heal those wounds they solemnly united themselves with which war, pestilence, and famine, inthe Teutonic order, and adopted all ficted on them at the commencement of their statutes.

the last century. Although more advanThese knights first subdued Livonia tageously situated than any other proand Courland between 1230 and 1240. vince of northern Russia, although conAn age of barties and of victories ex- nected by the same language, wd even tended their renown, but did not conso- customs, with Germany, these countries lidate their power. In 1346 they pur. cannoty bowever, be reckoned amongst chased Esthonia from Waldemar, king the best peopled or best cultivated, parts of Denmark; in 1521 the grand-master of the empire. The vassalage and serWalter de Plettenberg, purchased from vitude of the peasantry is the chief obthe grand-master of the Teutonic order stacle to political and economical civiin Prussia, the full sovereignty. By this lization. The peasantry here is nearly, contract the order of the Knights of the if not entirely, upon the same footing that Sword became independent, and was ad- the slaves were with the ancient Romitted into the number of the states of mans. Their lords or masters, are not the empire. About this time the refor- obliged to, nor do they, allow generally mation of Luther began to penetrate into more than what is barely necessary for Lironia: the dissension which these new their subsistence; they can sell or change religious opinions created, weakened the them at their pleasure; separate the power of the knights. The Czar Iwan husband from the wise, the parent from Wasiliewitschi thought this a favourable the child; and exercise every sort of unopportunity to attempt the conquest of controuled and unlimited power over these countries: pressed by the Rus- them, as though they were merely anisians, the inhabitants of Revel and of mals born for their use. For these rights Narva, placed themselves under the pro- and privileges of the nobility did the cetection of Sweden. The grand-master lebratcu Patkul contend: if the nobles Gothard Kettler ceded Livonia to the have not the power of life and death, it Poles, resigned his title of grando is to Sweden 'that hunanity owes this master, and in 1561 became the first soothing reflection, the Swedish govern Duke of Courland, after having done ment having deprived the nobility of all homage to Poland. Thus ended the state criminal jurisdiction. The Emperor Alexfounded by the Knights of the Sword, ander has even forced the nobility to after having continued for more than other reforms mild as salutary. three centuries. Those Knights had ci- Courland alone should now occupy vilized the Lettons and Esthonians, if we our attention niore particularly. This can call civilization the establishment state, formerly a vassal of Poland, since of a privileged cast, and the reduction the year 1795 forms a Russian govern. of the primitive nation to the most ment under the same name. dreadful species of slavery.

Over an extent of surface of 452 Still

, bowever, the greatest misfortunes square niles (German), or 1,255 square of these countries did not commence till leagues, is scattered a population of after the decay of the Knights of the 404,266 individuals, which gives 322 to Sword; their spoils became in a manner each square league. The following is the the apple of discord between Russia (then Muscovy), Sweden, and Poiand.

* These reforms were the consequence fer a century of almost continual wars, lhe of the German work of Merkel, entitled, reaty of Oliva in 1060, confirmed Swe- 6 Die Letten," Tbe Lcttons.

coinparative

Modern dicto

Courland Proper

! Circle of Golding

Libu
Winda
Ha-enpoth
Tuckum

Tuckur

Semigallia

land, in Cour and Proper.

6 Mirtan
7 sauske

8 Frederichstadt
Seelburg

9 Jacobstadt.

old age.

comparative table of the ancient and luxury rarely to be met with anong the modern divisions:

lower order of the Poles. Ancient divisions.

Mittau is the capital of the country,

and was formerly the residence of the I Captaiacy of Golding

Duke; the Lettonians call it Ielgawa. In 1795 it contained 12,350 inhabitants, of

whom 5,120 were Germans, 3,546 LetN.B. The district of Pitten, or the bishopric of Cour. tonians, 1,200 Jews, 243 Russians, &c.

This city is of a great extent, but contains Captaincy of Mittau

within its walls a vast number of gardens and vacant spaces of ground. The new

castle, close to the city, is by far too Courland, situated between the 56th magnificent a structure for so small a

state. and 58th degrees of north latitude, en

There is a Gymnasium, with a joys a salubrious air, but is subject to

library, and an astronomical observafrequent and sudden changes of heat and

tory. cold Gales of wind are common; yet possesses a roadstead and a shallow tar

Libau, containing about 5,000 souls, the men are robust, and arrive at a good bour; about 260 or 270 vessels generally

The aspect of the country is agreeably diversified with hil and dale, enter, one year with another. Not forests of pines, and groves of oak.

long since, the importations amounted to The soil, with the exception of the the value of 931,551 rubles; the exneighbourhood of Windau and Golding, ports, on the contrary, amounted to is of a rich loamy clay. The cultivation 2.028,520 rubles ; but the city of Libau of tax succeeds the best. Corn is not riches or industry of its inbabitants.

gives no favourable idea either of the sown till the month of June, but eight weeks is sufficient to bring it to perfec. 900 inhabitants, carries on a consider:

Windau, although possessing but about tion. The meadows are, for the most able trade. Golding, a town of 1,000 part

, under water during the winter. inhabitants, has very important fisheries They say, that the slime left by the in the river Windau. 'Jacobstant, a waters contributes to their richness; owing to this opinion, the inhabitants, for small town on the Dwina, is one of the

successively, drain the principal residences of those idlers who marshes, and sow them with summer

lead che dancing bears over Europe : grain for three years after: they let in these artists fave here a sort of aca. the waters, and stock them with fish.

demy. The forests abound with game, the sea

The lake of Sauken is situated in the and rivers with fish; there are marble parish of Jacobstadt. The natives prequarries, and iron and coal-mines, but sion of the earth, and a sinking in of the

tend that it owes its origin lo a convul

. they are not worked: on the coast are found quantities of amber.

space which swallowed up all the viCourland exports wheat, barley, oats,

cinity with its inhabitants. What gives timber for building, bemp, flax, pot-ash,

a colour to this opinion is, that very free hides, furs, feathers, salt and smoked quently in the fishermen's nets are found meat, wax, honey, rosin, tallow, amber, pieces of wond, which seem to have bebeer, and male-spirits; but it is to be ob: longed to some buildings. served, that many of these articles come

Before we take our leave of Courland, principally from the other provinces of

we must notice the promontory of Dothe interior of the Russian empire: pnt. Livovia and the Baltic Sea ; it foruis the

mesnes, which is between the gulf of ash, for instance, from Lithuania; hides froin Pieskow; and furs froin Siberia.

north point of Courland; it is a bank of It appears that establishments of in.

sand and rocks, very dangerous for vese dustry are reduced to very little. Au.

sels bound to Riga : it was the northern thors make mention of only one iron

point of the territories of Poland before

the dismemberment. and one copper-foundery; even the most necessary trades are often wanting in the

The political constitution of the Duchy towns; the villages, bowever, have a to

of Courland, hore a great resemblance to lerable appearance: much inore clean.

Since famous by being the residence of liness prevails in the inns than in Po. Louis XVIII who, however, was cruelig land. Beds are to be found in them, a obliged to quit even that asylum.

three years

that of Poland; it was a republic of the state. They decided, at their own which the nobles were the citizen-sove- pleasure, upon all differences between reigas, under the presidency of a duke. Their subjects, and could even inflict The Poles pretended to unite this corporal punishment at their own duchy with their republic after the ex- option; so that a noble could punish one tinction of the house of Gothard Kettler, of his vassals whenever he thought fit; whom we have already mentioned; but but flogging by the public executioner, the nobility of Courland, supported by and banishments, were very rare, beRussia, maintained their right to choose cause the estate would thereby lose a a new prince. Poland was forced to ac- subject, whose preservation interested quiesce in 1736. Suon after the Court the proprietor. If a peasant was accused luders received orders from their august of any capital offence, the lord of the soil. protectress, the Czarina Elizabeth, to was obliged by the statutes, under a peelect the adventurer Biron, whom they nalty of an hundred florins, to cause him before would not even adınit into their to be tried by a criminal court composed body as a simple noble. From that of nobles. To the honour of the indivia period, Courland was in fact no more duals it should be mentioned, that this utan a province of Russia ; and, in order despotic power was very rarely exercised w confirm their dependance, in 1795 the in a tyrannical manner. Courlanders demanded to be incorpo- The Duke, in his quality as vassal, was rated with the empire of the Czars. obliged to furnish Poland with 200 ca.

The nobility of Courland, proud of valry, or 500 infantry; he was not even their descent from the ancient Kuights of permitted in time of peace, to keep more the Sword, tenaciously kept up the disa than 500 regular troops in pay; his retinction between the ancient and modern venues were very considerable; they uobility. The ancients are those whose arose principally from the customs, the ancestors assisted at the last meetings of feudal taxes, and the ducal domains, the knights in 1620, 1631, and 1634; which were supposed to consist of one they reckon several new families since third of the duchy: the total of these that time, who are not comprised in the different revenues was valued at three list of the members of these assemblies. millions two hundred and fifty thousand No knight of the new order can acquire Polish forins. About the middle of the any dignity, or hold any superior em- 17th century, Duke James considerably ployment. A gentleman of Courland increased his revenues : he concluded enjoys the indigenat in Poland, the same treaties of commerce with different as a Pole enjoys it in Courland; but powers of Europe; and in 1664, England neither the one nor the other can claiin ceved to him the Island of Tobago in the the privileges attached to this right, but West Indies. He even fitted out some from the time they were settled in either ships of war for other powers; and in country. The laws exempt the vassals of 1652, he sent the King of Poland, inde. the noblesse, and all those attached to pendently of his contingent as a vassal of their service, from all taxes and imposts that power, a thousand auxiliary inupon whatever belongs to them. Their fantry.

W. B, H. estates were exeinpted from the quare tering of troops upon them; they pos. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, sessed their domains in full sovereignty ; and, in order to preserve the family, they I made of life of a catholic bishop at

a enjoyed the right of primogeniture: they paid no sort of taxes but in time of war, Castello Branco, in Portugal, well wora vassals of Polaud, to serve on horse. thy the consideration of our beads of bark. In 1727, the contingent of the cathedrals, taken from a modern Acnolulity was fixed by a convention at count of Portugal, by a clergyman at200 borse, and about as many infantry; Lending General Moore's unfortunate hey could, however, claiin an exemption army: by publishing it you will do your from this by paying 30,000 crowns for duty, as every thing that tends to lessen the first of the war, and 10,000 for the prejudices of mankind against each every year after during its continuance. other's religious principles, is serviceable The nobility had solely under their own to the whole world. dependance all subjects born on their “ We were lodged at the bishop's estates; they cuuld even make bye. palace, and found him a man of mist laws for thein, provided there was no- amiable and interesting inanners. He is skywe contrary to the comioon laws of far advanced in years, and uncorrupted 1

SIR,

boje

year

by commerce with the world ; has a pri- post, where four roads meet; go on onmitive and patriarchal simplicity in every der St. Ann's bill, on the Chertsey road, word and look, and gesture. When I till you skirt the park-paling of Mr. first saw him, he was employed in car. Fox's delightful seat, at the end of which rying fruit for our entertainment into is a public-house, where you may leave the parlour; and I was, you may sape your horse, and ascend on fooi about pose, somewhat surprised to find bin half-a-mile or less to the house, beoccupied by so humble an office. llis yond which is a white bench, alere lordship and three agreeable priests there is a fine prospect from the top of dined with us on the day of our arrival: St. Ann's bill. By swerving two miles the next being a fast.day, they sat and a half to the left, yo? may visit Botat table, and carved for us, but did not ley's, Sir J. Mawby's, and Atterstar, the partake: there was a liberality and con. seat of

two considerable descension in this, which pleased me parks: but you must return from Artermuch. We were attended, during din- sbaw by Bowstey-farin and Ongar-bill, ner, by four fomiliaros.

across Orockford common to Woburn“ The chaplain, an intelligent young place; thence to Weybridge, close to man, informed me, that the value of the which lies Oatlands, the seat of the Date see was tbirty thousand crusados novos of York. Proceed along the side of Oala year, or four thousand five hundred lands to Burwood-park, pass through the pounds sterling; but that the bishop was pack by Burhill, about half a mile beyond by no means rich, for one-third of his to Burwood-house and Pain's bill, income went to the poor, one to hospi- (which is a straight line of about two Cality, and the remainder to the repair miles above the river Mole from Barand maintenance of his churches: this wood-purk-gate to Pain's-bil) late the is the ancient division of monastic seat of B. Bond Hopkins; from Pain's wealth; and in those countries where hill, about a mile of good road brings celibacy is enjoined to the clergy, a more you to Cobham, where you cross the just and proper one could not have been Mole, and see Mr. Perry's very wild and devised."

beautiful park; cross Cobharn-common Such a lesson as this would be well by Mr. Page's new farm, a straight and employed, if any one would quote it in good road into Bookham-common; by a the House of Lord.

G. C. gate, take a sweep to the left round the

top of the bill, among some loose trees, To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. and following the park-paling of EasiSIR,

wick-park, which you see before you, I

SHOU'ID be much obliged to any enter a lane at the corner of the con

of your correspondients who woulů mon where you see a house, and arrive inforrn me of any English work which at great Bookham, where there is a good treats of the art of Foundery, more para ini, and Eastwich-park;cross the Guildticularly the casting of iron.

ford road here, and proceed across a fine London, Sept. 15, 1810.

sloping cominon field to Polsden arbour,

through a beautiful natural avenue to For the Monthly Alagazine. Polsden, the delightful seat of Mr.

RIDE in SURRY and BÈRKS. Sheridanı; from whence a lovely lane, FRO TROM Bishopsgate along the park through groves, leads to Banner-con

palings by Mrs. Solway's xo Wick. mon (a common of no common sent). lieath, round the King's Nursery into Here ask for the Fox public-house, which the great Portsmouth road, near the is at the top of the hill, a httle to the lefi, 20 mile-stone, jurn up short to the and they will direct you where to enter left, and making for the clumps of the wood at Banmer, that leads down a firs in the beath, on a high hill to the narrow lane to Combe Farm, now occuleft, pass by a farm-house and enter a pied by a Mr. Steadman, and which narrow lane just beyond in a corner, stands in the bottom of a lovely valley. which leads down a steep hill to Stroud. Pass through bris farm-yard up to tbe pargreen; keep to the right till you ascend sonage, where is a most rural habitation to St. Ann's heath, keep the left green (Mr.Tyler's); pass through bis farm-yard, read on the heath, and enter the first and descend, leaving a chapel and white turning on the right, which takes you to house to the right; from whence a sloping Trump's-mill

, where you pass a bricke hill leads you to a gate that opens oppobridge, and soon come to a direction- site a clean white public-bouse, where

S. W.

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