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On the other hand sulphuric acid is a on, than to observe that by these pracno less ready test of the presence of tices health is imminently endangered; acetite or sugar of lead in white wines, and were the first mentioned no other&c. in which it may have been used for wise injurious than by the certain dethe purpose of restoring them when straction of the teeth, and their afflicting pricked; upon adding to such a few pain, now so generally felt, and greatly drops of weak sulphuric acid, if the wine attributable to the use of mineral acids be pure it will remain transparent, other- and salts in our food and medicine, its wise it will become turbid by the preci. practice, independant of the fraud, is an pitation of the lead.
enormity which calls aloud for public As this is designed for general infor- censure and punishment, G. F. mation, I shall not enlarge further there
General View of the Confederation of the Rhine, exhibiting the Ertent, Populatinn,
and Revenue, of each of the States of which it is composed, and also ils Contingent of Troops.
Extent in Geographi
Contingent of Troops to bi
STATES OF THE CONFEDERATION.
cal Square Population. | REVENUE. furn shed to
968 30,000 12,000 20,000 30,000 25,000 8,000 5,000 4,000 2,000 1,680
Dominions of the Prince Primate
Ditto Hohenzollern Sigmaring -
Ditto Reuss-Graitz ..
£ 43 170,000 136,364 1,636 3,231,570
1,818,182 330 1,183,000 727,273
723 | 2,085,476 1,272,727 1,851 | 2,277,000 727,273
717 1,912,303 11,272,727 275 929,649 590,909 310 932,000 500,000 206 560,000 290,909 96 280,000 218,182 65 166,000 1
154,545 40 105,000 $
14,000 5,454 10 39,000 17,273 20 37,000 13,636 10 18,000 7,273 12 42,000 22,727 50 60,000 27,273
5,000 9,091 54 180 000 118,182 S6 110,000 90,909 18 40,000 31,818 11 33,000 19,636 19 60,000 36,364 16 35,200 31,818 15 30,000 27,274 17 52,000 40,000 25 70,500 22,727 10 20,500 7,273 226 398,636 163,636 48 70,000
7,273 25,000 10,909 18,000 10,000 18,000 9,091 56,000 32,727 58,000 31,818
48,000 31,818 97 160,000 78,182
29 1,100 800 300 200 400 240 210 350 500
150 1,900 400 100 117 108 125 325 325 400 800
Io the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. deed, there is no opinion more false, than SIR,
that money is the sinews of war. IT
T sometimes happens that a specious “ The doctrine was first broached by
proposition once established, main- Quintus Curtius, in speaking of the war tains its ground long after its fallacy has of Antipater king of Macedon, against been exposed. Innumerable proofs of Lacedemon. He relates that, for want this truth might be cited, but I shall of money, the king of Sparta was comcontent myself with one: that “Money pelled to give battle, and was defeated. is the sinews of war." It is a sentiment If he had been able to defer it a few and a form of expression continually in days, intelligence of the death of Alex. the inouths of modern politicians, al- ander would have arrived, and he would though the opinion was satisfactorily have remained conqueror without striking shewn to be erroneous three hundred a blow; but being in want of money, years ago by Machiavelli
, in his Reflec. and fearing that his army would mutiny tions on the first Decade of Livy; a work and abandon him for want of pay, be in itself sufficient to form a statesman, was obliged to run the risk of a battle: and instruct him in the science of go- and from thence Quintus Curtius takes vernment. Such a treatise, at all times an occasion of saying, that money is the valuable, is at the present period capable sinews of war. of inspiring extraordinary interest; nay, “This maxim is every day held forth as more, it is capable of healing the poli- a political maxim, and the princes who tical wounds which have wasted the life- confide in it more than they ought to do, stream of the British empire, and again regulate their conduct according to this entitling us to command the respect and prejudice, which infatuates them, so as admiration of surrounding nations. to make them believe that great tre**
Machiavelli's refutation of the doctrinesures are sufficient for their defence, that money is the sinews of war, is con. They do not perceive that if it were tained in the tenth chapter of the second really so, Darius would have conquered book of the Reflections on Livy, ard runs Alexander, the Greeks have triumphed as follows: "That Money is not the sinews over the Romans; in more modern times of 'war, although it is the generally re
the Duke Charles would bare beaten the ceived opinion."
Swiss, and the Florentines would not “ We can commence war at plea. have had so many difficulties to surmount sure, but we cannot terminațe it in the against Francis Maria, nephew of Julius
It is therefore the duty the Second, in the war of Urbino. of a prince, before he engages in an
“All the above powers bare been conenterprize, to ascertain his strength, and quered by those who did not think that regulate bis designs accordingly. lle money was the sinews of war, but good ought to be careful not to deceive him- troops. Among the objects of curiosity selt on this examination, which he infal. which Cræsus king of Lydia showed libiy must do if he calculates on the basis Solon, was an immense treasure. What of his pecuniary resources, bis gengra- think you of my power, said the king, phical position, or the friendship of his on showing it to him. It is not by this allies,
These advantages considerably mass of gold that I can judge of it, reaugment his real strength, but they do plied the philosopher; it is with the not constitute it. Considered alone, and sword and not with gold that you make by themselves, they are a mere nullity, war, and he who can bring more arms nor can they be of any service to himn into the field than yourself, may soon be. unless he has a well-disciplined and brave come master of your treasures. army. Without such troops all the trea- " Afier the death of Alexander the sures in the world are nothing. The Great, an immense horde of Gauls overran strength of a country cannot defend it Greece and afterwards Asia. They sent alone ; the fidelity and the friendship of ambassadors to the king of Macedon, to allies wear out; if you are unable to de- conclude with him a treaty of peace. fend them in your turn, they will no That monarch, to give them a splendid longer be faithful.
Mountains, lakes, idea of his power, and to dazzle their and places of the most difficult access, eyes with his magnificence, caused to be present few ditticulties when deprived of displayed all his gold and treasures. The valiant defenders. 'Treasures, instead ambassadors of the Gauls, who had nearly of serving you, will only tend to excite concluded the treaty, broke it oif; so the cupidity of the invading army: in- anxious were they to possess his riches;
and these treasures, accumulated for his the Athenians to make war against all defence, were the sole cause of his ruin." Peloponnesus, and persuading them that
A few years ago, the Austrians, with with diplomatic cunning and money they their colers full, were despoiled of their would remain conquerors, does not affect states, without being in the least able to my position. The Athenians obtained, arrest the blow by their treasures. it is true, some slight successes, but in
Hence I raise my voice against the the end they were vanquished; and the general clamour; it is not gold, but good wisdom and courage of the Spartans tritroops, which are the sinews of war: gold umphed over the policy and the gold of will not enable you to find good troops, the Athenians. but they will find gold. Had the Ro- What stronger proof can be brought in mans thought of making war with gold favour of my assertion than Livy himself, instead of the sword, all the treasures of in the passage where he examines whie the universe would not have sufficed, if ther Alexander would have conquered we consider the magnitude of their en- the Romans if he had passed into Italy. terprizes, and the difficulties they had to He lays down three things as necessary surmount; but the use they made of the in war-ra numerous and valiant army, sword prevented them from wanting mo- able generals, and good fortune. He ney. The nations who dreaded them, afterwards examines whether the Romans brought their riches as an offering even or Hannibal were better provided with to the Roman camp.
those three requisites; and he coucludes If the king of Sparta was compelled to without saying a word of this pretended give battle for want of money, it only sinew of war-money! Inappened that he was reduced to such The Capuans, required by the Sidicins an extremity from that, in lieu of any to aid them against the Samnites, proother cause. We have seen, for exam- bably calculated their power according to ple, armies in want of provisions, and their riches, and not the goodness of their between the hard alternative of dying of troops. llence, after they had taken hunger and risking a battle, choose the part with them, and been twice defeated, latter as the most honourable, and that they were compelled to become tributary which merited most the fayours of for. to the Romans, in order to avoid their tune.
J.S. BYERLEY. It has often occurred that a general, finding the enemy about to receive rein. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. forcements, deterniined to hazard a battle SIR,
N whereby he would be compelled to fight my brother the valuable present under greater disadvantages. We have of your 26th volume. On examining its sometimes found a general obliged to fly contents, I was surprised and concerned or fight; which happened to Asdrubal, at an error which has unaccountably when he found himself attacked on the slipt into it, and which I flatter myself Metaurus by Claudius Nero and his col- you will permit me to correct. In the league. That general preferred a battle, 142d page of the above volume, is a very as, notwithstanding appearances, he might beautiful poem, of which I am asserted conquer, whereas certain ruin must have to be the author. To this honour I have been the consequence of his flight. no claim. It is the production of my
There are therefore a thousand reasons valuable friend, John Joshua More,* of which may oblige a general to give battle this city. It is very true, sir, that I did contrary to his inclination, and the want enclose several copies of “The Scale of of money may be one; but money is no Nature and the Three Recorders,” to my more the sinews of war than any of the English friends, and that I did not menother causes which may reduce him to a fatal or dangerous alternative.
John Joshua More, is a native of Cam. I therefore again repeat that it is not
bridgeshire, in England: he early distingold, but soldiers, which command suc
guished himself for his mathematical and cess in war. Money is a means, but only virtuous men he left his native country soon
astronomical knowledge. With many other a secondary one, which good troops ne
after the commencement of the Quixotic war ver fail to procure, because it is as im• of 1793. He was one of those who supposed possible for good soldiers not to find gold religious tolerance and parliamentary reform as it is for gold to procure good soldiers. essential to the salvation of his country: these History affords nuinerous proofs of the were refused, and he withdrew from the fact. The example of Pericles advising (now impending) evils he foresaw. 1
tion the author's name, from a presumpo at some places they went so far at the tion that they were uninterested in the public meetings as to enter into reson name of a person with whom they had lutions expressive of their bope, that the no acquaintance; but, sure I am ihat I American government would not receive never gave the most distant reason for or acknowledge Mr.Jackson as the minis. supposing that I was the author of the ter of England. In this temper of the na produccion alluded 10. The history of tion, the president, however, wisely, ! the poem is as follows: About twenty of think, determined to hear what be bad us trave formed a society for the purchase to say, received him in due form; and tbe of books, for which purpose each of us world will be surprized at (if any thing Mi, subscribes half a dollar inonthly. In Ja- Jackson does can surprize), and I hope nuary we have an anniversary dinner, the thinking part or the British natin after which one of the meinbers delivers will not justify, the return he has made. an oration, and another an ode, composed But before I detail the circunstance I for the occasion. The Three Recorders allude to, I shall relate one or two facts made a part of Mr. More's poem, for the which I have on such authority as to anniversary celebration in January, 1808. command implicit belief. I will not And now, sir, that I am on the subject pretend to say whether Mr. Erskine bad of book societies, permit me, as I have or had not written instructions from Mr. observed that you occasionally notice Canning, subsequent to those of the 230 them, to introduce to your readers one of January, ult. but it is certain that Mr. that is probably unique. In this city Oakley, the confidential agent of the there is a book society, consisting alto- English ministry, left London some time gether of boys of from twelve to fourteen after that date, and, consequently, if he years of age, some few may be nearly did not bring written, he most probably fifteen. Each boy, on becoming a mem- did verbal, instructions. Nor is there the ber, stocks a certain number of volumes,' least doubt but Mr. Oakley was associ. which become a part of the common pro- ated with Mr. Erskine by the English perty of the society. Every Saturday ministry, in the negociation with the evening they publicly debate some his. United States, as when that gentleman toric fact. The subject of the last niglie's met with any question peculiarly impordiscussion was, " What was the true cha- tant, he used to defer his assent, by words to racter of Mary Queen of Scots ?" A sub- this import, “I will take time to consider ject which pre-supposes a degree of his- the subject, and consult Mr. Oakley toric knowledge, rarely met with at that about it;" a degree of complaisance na period of life, and leads us to hope that minister would have avowed, had not the ihe next generation will outstrip their person to be consulted had a claim ta predecessors in useful knowledge, and the distinction. And it is universally with equal zeal maintain the rights of the believed here, that Mr. Oakley has uni. people, and the independence of their forınly justified Mr. Erskine's conduct, country.
since the moment it was known that the From the laudable ambition of boys, British ministry refused to ratify his let me call the attention of your sube agreement with the United States, scribers to the follies (to use no barsher Having premised thus much, I shall scate term) of men. Early in Mr. Pirt's that on Sunday last it was generally un war, the government of England con- derstood among the best-informed citemplated sending Mr. Jackson as tizens, that Mr. Jackson had conducted its representative to the United States. himself very extraordinarily towards our But there was even then something so government, and that in consequence he objectionable in the character of Mr. no longer considered as a public Jackson, that Mr. Rufus King, our then functionary; and yesterday's National ainbassador, objected to the appoint- Intelligencer laid the following summary ment; and in conversation with Mr. Pitt, before the public, which may be deemed adduced such reasons as led that minis. official from the American goveroment. ter to abandon the intention. As this “ As soon as the preliminary ceremonies facı was well known in the United were adjusted, a correspondence took States, and as Mr. Jackson had acted 90 place between Mr. Sinith,
(the American very conspicuous a part at Copenhagen, Secretary of State) and Mr. Jackson, in his appointment to succeed Mr. Erskine which the latter stated, that the dispatch gave very general dissatisfaction to our of the 23d of January, was the only discitizens. Many believed that he was patch by which the conditions were pre only sent to insult our government, and scribed to Mr. Erskine, for the conclu.
sion of an arrangement with this coun- States. These scribblers really seem intry, on the matter to which it related. different to the matter, provided what Mr. Smith, in reply, asserted, that no they write will but flatter the passions such declaration had ever before been and prejudices of their British employers. made to the American government; and After the baneful effects produced by addet, that if that dispatch bad been their predecessors, at the commencement communicated at the time of the arrange of our revolutionary war, as well as those ment, or if it had been known that the which resulted from the reports of roypropositions contained in it were the alists in France, and emigrants who only ones on which Mr. Erskine was au- escaped from thence, it were much to be thorized to make an arrangement, the wished that the English ministry would arrangement would not have been made. rather rely on the information of men of Notwithstanding this assurance, Mr. honour and veracity, than pin their faith Jackson, in his next letter, indecorously to the assertions of miscreants, one of used a language, implying that Mr. Fr. whom, when here, was held in universal skine's instructions were at the time contempt as a spy, and whose deserted made known to this government. Mr. wife and daughters have experienced Smith, in his answer, distinctly intimated every evil, which loss of character, asso. that such an insinuation was inadmis- ciated with poverty, con imfict. It is sible, more especially after the explicit not enough, sir, that such a man should asseveration of this government; that they call himself an esq." or even “a coun. had no such knowledge; and that with cellor, late of Rhode Island," the inbasuch knowledge, such an arrangement bitants of Alexandria only knew him as would not have been made. Not satis- a petty-fogging grocer; nor, because he fed with the sacred pledge thus given, used to take notes in Congress occasionmore grossly, if possible, he reiterated ally for a Tory newspaper, is he to be his insinuation. A conduct so inde presumed capable of the impartiality recorous could receive but one answer. quisite for "a stranger in America." Mr. Jackson was accordingly inforined, But I shall on this subject say no more: that it was become necessary to preclude if necessary, deteriora manent. On the opportunities which he had abused, and contrary, I earnestly hope the Englista that consequently no further communic people will fully and impartially review cations would be received from him. Their present situation ; let them reflect That the necessity of this determination
on the consequences which have resulted would, without delay, be made known tu from nearly fifty years of one undevie his government, who would at the same ating policy. Let them ask themselves, tiñie be assured, that a ready attention whether that policy has increased the would be given to any communication happiness of the great body of their peo. affecting the interests of the two coun ple, diminished the number of the poor tries through any other functionary and miserable, or lessened the weight of that may be substituted.” It must be their oppressions. Has it tended to miadmitted, that the sending hither a man tigate religious intolerance, and unite in known to be so obnoxious as Mr. Jack
one compact band, the different sects of son, was not the most likely means of Christianis, in defence of their common conciliating the feelings of this country faith and common interests. Has it not towards your's; but, ill as I think of the
on the contrary placed the nation on the British ministry, (including not only Mr. verge; nay, has it not plunged her into Canning's party, but his successors; nor the gulf of perditioni? Hlas ir not severed do my Lord Grenville, or Mr. Windham, a mighty Continent from the empire; and rank much higher), I would wish to be. if it has increased the number of splendid lieve that Mr. Jackson was not sent here palaces and luxurious nobles, has it not as a political bully, in use language to nearly swept your hardy yeomanry from the Ainerican government which no gen- the land, and pressed so heavily on the tleman would dare use towards another.
poor, as to render the science of a Rum. I am aware how totally mistaken is the ford necessary to ascertain low small a American character in England; how its portion of what once were deemed the love of peace has been interpreted into necessaries of life, is essential to ex. a fear of war; but the dignified attitude istence. Has it not separated inen of it has now assumed, will, I trust, undeceive those who have bitherto implicitly believed a set of Tory libellers on the go.
* The short period of the Rockingham ad. verment and people of the United ministration starce merits an exception.