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Of these 493,000 men, however, (87,000 of whom were enabled to join in the struggle, through the influence of England, who obtained the ratification of the treaty of Bucharest), not more than 120,000, as we have previously stated, were ever enabled to act on one point, although this extraordinary military force (on paper) had received the addition of a levy, en masse, and of a militia (opolchinie), amounting, according to Russian authorities, to 900,000 men. It seems incredible, after these grand paper displays, but it is nevertheless true, that only 35,000 (and not 40,000) were marched into Warsaw on the commencement of the Russian campaign in Germany; and it is equally true and is indeed an admitted fact that the Russian army was filled up on its entry into Paris, by the Cossacks and Bashkirs, and that the levy thus raised was the last that could have been resorted to, had the war been prolonged. If any doubt remained as to the exagge rated estimate of Russian armies it would be effectually removed by the history of the next campaign. The Turkish war under Diebitch, cost the Russians 200,000 men, of whom one half were carried off in the first campaign. The panic, as well as the financial drain caused by this war compelled the government to put an end to all the public works throughout the kingdom, as well as to the exertions made to set on foot another force. In the second campaign, before the treaty of Adrianople was signed, Diebitch could only muster 18,000 effective men, so much had his army suffered, not from war, but dysentery, the badness of the commisariat, and the wretched medical staff. It is to the tact and management of Baron Muffling, the Prussian ambassador, rather than to the prowess or efficacy of her military force, or the skill of her generals, that Russia owes her chief successes against the Turks. It was this Prussian ambassador, who by his reports increased the panic of the Divan, and imposed on the ignorant credulity of England and France. Peace was at length signed, and so highly was this service looked on by the Russian emperor, that Muffling obtained his highest military order but one, and of the first class, as well as a regiment in his own country, through the influence which the Czar exercised over his father-in-law, the late King of Prussia. During the campaign in Poland, the cabinet of St. Petersburg was only able to send 110,000 men across the frontier, of whom 25,000 perished within three weeks, not bravely fighting against an enemy, but from forced marches, from the inclemency of the weather, the badness of the provisions, the corruption of the commissariat, and the ignorance, inefficacy, and inattention of the hospital staff,-evils always hitherto incident to the march, and, it would seem, inseparable from the existence and organisation of a Russian army. Throughout the whole of the

Russia baffled by the Circassians.


Polish war, the Russians were never enabled to bring into the field a larger body than 80,000 men; and these were opposed by 70,000 Poles, of whom one-seventh were employed in garrison duty. One-third of the remaining portion were peasants, badly armed and undisciplined, and who learnt their duty by hard fighting in the field.

These two facts sufficiently prove to our mind, both the inefficiency of the Russian tactics, and the exaggeration as to the really effective amount of the Russian army; but if additional evidence were needed, proof is not wanting in the successful opposition of the Circassians, a nation of 200,000 men, who, though surrounded by Russia, have contrived for the last fifteen years, not only to resist the power of the empire, but to become the victors in many engagements.

Though we are ready to concede the valour of the Circassian people, and to admit the difficult nature of their country-though we are free to allow that their mode of warfare is peculiar and harassing, and that they have been aided to some extent by fugitive Poles, still we contend that Circassia would be to either England or France, though not perhaps an easy, still a certain conquest, and that her people, more troublesome than formidable, would within a given time have been eventually subdued.

But this people, though not supplied to any considerable extent with ammunition-though entirely surrounded by Russia, who holds possession of both seas on her flanks-have kept the czar and his armies in check, and have still managed to retain their independence. It cannot be denied that fifteen or sixteen years ago, owing to the efforts of Yermoloff and Paskewitch, the Russian arms made some progress in Circassia, but since that period little has been gained beyond what was ceded by Turkey herself, and this part is even now contested. But the force entrusted to these two generals in Georgia and the Caucasus was the very best in the empire. It amounted in the former country to 40,000 men, of which 32,000 were infantry, 1200 dragoons, and 6000 cossacks. In the Caucasus were two batteries of artillery with a corps of 24,000. Over these armies the military governor of the province had the power of life and death. He was independent of the ministers-corresponded directly with the emperor, and sent in what accounts he pleased. But even with this despotical and czar-like power accorded to the generals, and a quicker promotion conceded to the army, the Russian troops made little gress, and under Rosen and Williaminow the war is a mere affair of outposts. From all this it may be inferred that the military power of Russia is not so formidable as it is generally deemed in England and France, and it may be further concluded that there


is something radically vicious and defective in the military organisation of Russia. Nor is this inefficiency, in fact, and exaggeration as to numbers of the Russian army, redeemed or obviated by a better arrangement or organisation of the force than prevails in other countries. The following account of that organisation is, we have every reason to think, as nearly accurate as the nature of circumstances will permit:

Four regiments of sixteen battalions form a division, and three divisions one corps. Each regiment of the line, with its war complement, is rated at 4000, and is divided into four battalions.

"To each regiment also are four colonels, or more properly lieutenantcolonels, one of whom is always with the reserve, as the regiment is commanded by one officer only. Those of the cavalry have eight squadrons on service, and one hundred men in each, with a reserve of two squadrons, which are always quartered in the south of Russia. There are three lieutenant-colonels to each regiment. The numerical strength of these regiments depends much upon their being in actual service, those quartered in the distant parts of the empire not being always filled up, though the colonels are said always to take the benefit of their complement by drawing the full pay. The sole advantage of the arrangement is, that there is one colonel instead of two, but this again is counterbalanced by its putting a stop to promotion, and rendering the officers discontented with the service. The size of the regiment is an imitation of the Austrian system, and was even carried to a greater height in the time of the Czar Peter, whose regular army at first was composed of only two regiments, commanded by Gordon and Lefort, the one amounting to 12,000, the other to 5000 men.

The regiments are thus divided:

The Imperial Guard.


The Grenadier Corps including three divisions of infantry of twelve regiments; one division of light cavalry of four regiments; two batteries of horse artillery and fifteen of foot.

Six corps of the line-each of three divisions of infantry of four regiments (two being of a regiment of four active battalions), one division of light cavalry of four regiments, fifteen batteries of foot, and two of horse artillery; comprising in all twenty-four regiments of light cavalry, seventy-two of infantry, twelve batteries of horse, and ninety of foot artillery.

Three corps of cavalry of the reserve-each corps has two divisions, each of four regiments; in all twenty-four regiments, with seventy-two batteries of horse artillery. Two, or perhaps three reserve corps of the line, each of three divisions of three, or perhaps four battalions, with two batteries of horse and two of foot artillery; each battalion in war time amounts to 1000 men, but only half as much in time of peace.

Corps of the Caucasus-three divisions of infantry, one regiment of dragoons, and sixteen batteries of foot artillery.

The Imperial Guard.

Corps of Orenberg-one division of infantry of sixteen battalions, sixteen battalions of foot artillery.

Corps of Siberia-one division of infantry.
Corps of Finland-one division of infantry.

Troops of the Interior-fifty battalions of militia, ten battalions of sappers, and one division of horse artillery of nine battalions."-MS.Notes.


There is also a skeleton battalion in the recruiting districts to supply the reserve. It is in the imperial guard that the steadiness, precision of movement, and discipline of the Russian army is chiefly exhibited. The parades of this regiment in the ridingschools, both of St. Petersburg and Moscow, are under the eye of the emperor himself. It is his favourite amusement to make these regiments go through their exercises, and it must be admitted, that the steadiness, carriage, and exactness of the infantry of the guard en parade, come as near to perfection as possible. But soldiers on parade, and in the field, we need not tell our readers, are two very different things. The minuteness of a Russian drill is carried to a most incredible extent. It is an indispensable regulation, that the cartouche-box should hang on the same spot during their marching, and that their hand and finger should remain in one and the same position to keep it so. They have, also, a peculiar marching step, which, though it appears well enough on a paradeground, would be impossible on a ploughed field. It consists, not only in taking a long step, but lifting up each foot alternately to a higher level than the knee. The identity of movement through a line of 1800 men is, notwithstanding, astonishing. Their hands, feet, and eyes, are so simultaneously brought into play, that it has to a spectator the effect of a puppet moved into action by the pulling of a spring. It may be freely admitted, that neither the English nor the French soldiery practise these trifling minutie, which harass and perplex the soldier without adding to his science, skill, or efficiency, but whether, on this account, they are less brave or efficient, it would be idle to inquire. The Russian line have not that perfection of soldier-like appearance which is apparent in the guard, neither have they their physique, or carriage. They are coarsely and indifferently clad, their dress hanging loosely about them, while the guard, padded and pinched in, are under heavy obligations to the tailor's art. But the armies of the line are well kept; they have a steady tread and look, and appear hardy and capable of much endurance. Whether from the influence of the climate, or from the severity of the service, they have, as well as the guards, a dried tawny complexion, which, however, is not observable among the serfs. As the Russian guards are the picked men and most disciplined force in the Russian service, it will be necessary to give a more detailed account of their organisation.

"The Russian Imperial Guard of Infantry consists of three divisions, each regiment of which has three battalions, and is composed in war time of 5000 men, one fifth of which form a reserve.


1st Brigade:

Regiment (polk) Predbvazinsky (polk) was originally formed by Peter the Great, and composed of all his youthful associates. It was in this regiment that he rose from the rank of a drummer to that of an officer-a rule of promotion which he caused to be observed by all the nobility who served.

Regiment Simionofsky polk, also instituted by the Czar for the attendants of the above nobles.

2nd Brigade:

Ismailofsky, raised to commemorate the capture of Ismail from the Turks, under Suwarrow. Iagerski-battalion of sappers and miners.


3rd Brigade:

Moscovski polk, regiment of Moscow.
Grenaderski polk,


4th Brigade:

Paulofski, or regiment of Paul, formed by him, when he was Grand Duke, at Gatschina, and one of his playthings. On his accession he incorporated it with the guards, much to their disgust. They wear a sugar-loaf cap, of the time of Frederick the Great, with a brass plate in front, which is pierced with one or two musket holes, 'just for the look of the thing;' another whim of Paul's.

Finlands polk.-These also wear similar caps.


5th Brigade:

Litorski polk, i. e. (Lithuania.)



Regiment of Marines.

Battalion of Finland Riflemen. Chasseurs.

Battalion of Veterans of the Garrison.

Foot Artillery. Three Brigades (with a drill battalion) each Brigade of four battalions.

Regiment of Engineers.

Company of Congreve Rockets.

The Cavalry of the Imperial Guard consists of one division of Cuirassiers and two of Light Cavalry. Each regiment is composed of six squadrons, 120 men in each, with one squadron (as they call it) of young horses for a reserve. A certain number in each regiment of Cuirassiers are armed, besides the usual weapons, with a lance, which, however, is too short, and has no counterpoise, so that it is grasped in the middle, by which the advantage of its length is lost.


1st Brigade:

Regiment of Chevalier Guards, or Life Guards of the Empress. They have no less than five uniforms, one resembling much our own Life Guards. Their ordinary one is of blue and silver.

Regiment of Garde à Cheval, or Horse Guards. These have the entrée to and guard of the emperor's apartments. Their full dress is of blue and gold.

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