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tic an experimenter remained at the head of affairs. He thought it sufficient to distribute medals, and to have the colours of various regiments emblazoned with the name of Kandahar or Ghuznce, forgetting that such compliments, though agreeable enough to the soldier's mind, would neither support his family, nor ensure his own personal comfort. Upon this painful subject we do not choose to dwell at length. To others, who like the task better, we leave it to predict the many misfortunes which may yet befall us in consequence of the perilous quackery of Lord Ellenborough. We return to his policy.

To be convinced that he was guided by no principle, but simply blown hither and thither by the breath of accident, we have but to recapitulate the few acts he performed. He retreated from Affghanistan, and then immediately made the discovery, that the whole political world looked down upon him with scorn for his pusillanimity. To wipe away as he hoped this stigma, he suddenly reversed his maxims of policy, and conquered and annexed Sinde. Again he found that in the estimation of many he had made another false step, and been this time guilty of violence and injustice. What, therefore, should he do? The next time he found himself placed in a difficult position, the best thing he could think of was to do the very contrary of what he had done before. He therefore invaded Gwalior, fought two battles, rendered himself, at a vast expense, of human life, master of the country, and then to render it past doubt that he was bewildered, and could under no circumstances see his way clearly, he relinquished whatever advantages he had gained, and restored to the Gwalior state its former anarchy. For this at least he expected rewards and eulogiums at home. Was his zigzag policy so rewarded? Far from it. The amazed and disgusted Court of Directors no sooner learned what had taken place, than they determined upon his recall, and urged it upon ministers as an act altogether indispensable. Previously even to this, they had become thoroughly convinced of his incapacity, and made representations to that effect to the cabinet. But the Duke of Wellington was there, with his unaccountable but invincible partiality, to screen Lord Ellenborough, and obtain for him a little longer interval to play the madman in Asia. The Court of Directors reluctantly suspended the blow they meant to strike; but, on each arrival of the Indian Mail, were more and more resolved to strike home at last. Meanwhile, the unhappy governorgeneral stood in the midst of the Indian empire looking helplessly around him, unable to devise any thing that could give satisfaction to the authorities at home. Whichever way he advanced his movements were disapproved of, and if he stood still, he was laughed at for his inactivity. To deliver himself from this humiliating state of perplexity, he collected an army on the Sutlej, and formed the design of trying his luck once more at the game of war; but

was arrested in the midst of his preparations by the intelligence of his ignominious recall,- an insult, a mark of reprobation, which had been put upon no other governor-general. From Warren Hastings to Lord Auckland all had escaped this damning proof of unusual wickedness or insufferable incapacity.

Of the ethical character of Lord Ellenborough it is unnecessary to speak. We could say no good of it, and it is not our desire to say any harm. It will probably be sufficient to remind our readers that few persons whether in or out of parliament care to claim the honour of his friendship, save the Duke of Wellington. His grace, however, would appear to rejoice at this. He desires, apparently, to monopolise the patronage of this bankrupt statesman. His grace may have his reasons for so acting. There are mysteries in public as well as in private life, and his grace's partiality for Lord Ellenborough is one of them. Nobody can conceive on what it is based. It reminds us of the story of the baker who loved Robespierre. Though all the world was blind to the man's good qualities, he still found something to love in him. Just so is it in the present case. The Duke of Wellington, no doubt, knows for what it is that he loves Lord Ellenborough; but we believe that we are quite within bounds when we say, that no other human being does. For the sake of his extraordinary friend, the Duke of Wellington treated the whole Court of Directors with almost unprecedented harshness and contempt. He suffered unequivocal tokens to appear that he was boiling with indignation. At first, nevertheless, he kept some guard over his language. He only said, that in recalling Lord Ellenborough they had not been discreet.' Proceeding with his accusation, and warming as he advanced, he soon arrived at the positive, and affirmed that they had been 'indiscreet. But even this was not sufficient to satisfy his grace's friendship for the disgraced governor-general. His anger, gaining the mastery over his judgment, soon found fitting words in which to vent itself, and characterised the act of the Court of Directors as a most gross indiscretion,' nay, as the grossest indiscretion he had ever in all his life heard of.'




It may and will be said here that the man who could inspire the Duke of Wellington with such a friendship must unquestionably possess some merit. We think so too. We believe it may without offence to truth be granted, that Lord Ellenborough is an excellent boon companion, that his conversation abounds with capital jokes, that he tells an anecdote well, that he laughs and is joyous, and inspires all around him with gaiety and is not this sufficient to explain his grace's partiality? We have not the slightest desire to depreciate Lord Ellenborough's convivial powers. He may for aught we know be the most sociable and jovial person in the world: we only maintain that he is the worst governor-general upon record.

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Reineke der Fuchs. Vierte verbesserte Auflage. Mit neuen Kupfern verschönet, nach Zeichnungen von PROFESSOR L. RICHTER, in Dresden. Leipzic. Sq. 18mo.

Reinhart Fuchs, aus dem Mittelniederlandischen, zum erstenmal in das Hochdeutsche ubersetzt von AUGUST FRIEDR. HERRMANN GEYDER, Doctor beider Rechte. 8vo. Breslau. 1844.

The most delectable History of Reynard the Fox, and of his Son, Reynardine. A revised version of an Old Romance. London. 12mo. 1844.

The History of Reynard the Fox, from the Edition printed by Caxton, in 1481. With Notes and an Introductory Sketch of the Literary History of the Romance. By WILLIAM J. THOMS, Esq., F. S. A. London. Reprinted for the Percy Society. 8vo. 1844. Reynard the Fox. A renowned Apologue of the Middle Age, reproduced in Rhyme. Small 4to. London: Longmans. 1844.

WE can scarcely transcribe the titles of these additions to the numerous volumes already dedicated to the history of the wanton knaveries, cunning shifts, and malicious contrivances of that arch rogue, Reynard the Fox, without anticipating that some of our readers, mindful of the many occasions on which the Reynardine fable has been made the subject of comment in the pages of the Foreign Quarterly,' will exclaim

"What, will the line stretch out to the crack of doom!'

We can but plead in excuse our belief, for reasons detailed in our previous articles, that from its quaint humour and racy spirit, this old world fable is destined to retain its immemorial popularity-so long as books are printed, and people read them.

The first of the books on the present list is a German metrical version, chiefly remarkable for its clever illustrations, by Professor Richter of Dresden. They are designed with considerable humour and artistic feeling, and what is yet better, with a thorough appreciation of the spirit of the story; and although not to be compared with the more elaborate productions from the graver of Kaulbach (the publication of which, by the by, is said to be suspended for the present, by the interference of the Prussian censorship), they will abundantly satisfy the admirers of German art.

The second work is one of far higher character. In the first place it

is a well-executed German translation, very nearly word for word, and line for line-from the middle Flemish version published some years since by the authority of the Belgian government, under the skilful editorship of that most patriotic antiquary, J. F. Willems, of Ghent.

But though curious as exhibiting the close affinity which exists between those cognate languages, this is perhaps the least of its merits. It is well known that the several versions of the old poem supply valuable illustrations of the manners, customs, and in short of the whole spirit of society in past ages, and have even served greatly to elucidate some obscurities in the antiquities of the Germanic laws. As long since as 1768, the learned Dreyer made this last part the subject of a special essay, which is reprinted in his Nebenstunden.' Following Dreyer's example, Dr. Geyder has appended to his translation a great body of notes and illustrations, explanatory of those numerous passages scattered throughout the poem, which contain direct reference to the forms and observances of the old German laws, or are couched in its peculiar phraseology. From the connexion which exists between many parts of the ancient laws of this kingdom, and those of our Teutonic kindred, these notes of Dr. Geyder, which occupy upwards of one hundred pages, cannot but be read with satisfaction by all who are interested in the study of legal archæology.


The third work inserted in our list is one of the volumes of Parker's Collections in Popular Literature;' and its selection for republication in such a form, affords strong presumptive evidence of that undying popularity of Reynard's History,' for which we have been contending. The editor of this revised version appears to be acquainted with Grimm's valuable and learned history of the romance, and we, therefore, cannot but feel surprised at some of the strange inaccuracies into which he has fallen in his preliminary notice.

The ample title of the fourth volume, above named, sufficiently describes its contents. To an English reader the homely wit and quaint humour of Reynard's story are greatly heightened by the rich antique mother English of the father of English printing. Caxton's version of this romance, translated from the Flemish prose history, furnishes a valuable and interesting specimen of the state of our language towards the close of the fifteenth century; while the 'Introductory Sketch of the Literary History of the Romance,' prefixed by the editor, exhibits a far more abundant and curious stock of materials upon the subject than has ever before been collected together in this country.

The last volume on our list is a rhymed version in octosyllabic metre, founded chiefly, but not wholly, on Alkmar's text. The author, Mr. Naylor, deserves our gratitude for his labour of love, and the printer and the publisher have well performed their part, and done all that type and paper could do to second the pious design of the poetical antiquary. All who know and love this racy fable will renew their old delights in perusing Mr. Naylor's version, and those who have not yet made acquaintance with Reynard, may now see him in his proper garb. Verse is his only wear. The translation is executed with so much spirit, that

Bokhara, its Amir, and its People.


we the more regret the necessity of denouncing some blemishes that painfully disfigure it. We too often discover in it the artfulness that evinces want of art, and we are vexed with the use of distorted phrases and of slang words, that want the only beauty of which they are capable; namely, that of being apposite. Instances even of elaborate violation of syntax are not wanting, e. g. (p. 158):


Whomso his faulchion well shall wield,
I'll dub him knight upon the field."

"From Isingrim (whom I pretended
Wore boots) I caused to be slit

His skin, which was for high-lows fit."-p. 168.

But perhaps the worst offences we have to complain of, are the odious cockneyisms repeatedly perpetrated in the rhymes. Who can endure such rhymes as these: alarmed-calmed (p. 94); sought-port (p. 100); sworn-dawn (p. 96); brought-court (p. 187); clawswars (p. 189)? Can any thing be worse than the following couplet (p. 104):

"To practise after my papa-
Through life my light and exemplar."

Bokhara, its Amir, and its People. Translated from the Russian of Khanikoff, by the Baron CLEMENT A. de Bode, London: Madden. 1845.

THIS is a very important and well-timed publication. Much interest has recently been excited about the Khanat of Bokhara, by the tragical events connected with the death of Colonel Stoddart and Captain Conolly; and with the temporary detention of Dr. Wolff. The Baron de Bode therefore, was extremely judicious in selecting the present season for publishing his translation of Khanikoff, and extremely fortunate in finding an original so highly deserving of being translated. The work of Sir Alexander Burnes had already made the Khanat of Bokhara familiar to a considerable portion of the public, but, since his time, a long succession of circumstances has greatly changed the political condition of Central Asia, and rendered it imperatively necessary to review once more the force and tendencies of its various populations. A part of this task has been ably performed by Mr. Levchine, whose valuable work on the Kirghiz Kazaks, has cleared up many difficult points connected with the geography and social condition of the people of those regions. The same thing may now be said of Mr. Khanikoff, who, during a long residence at Bokhara, collected much new and authentic information respecting the country and its inhabitants, which, in the present work, he has arranged in a popular form. He enters into very full details on the geography and natural features of the country, institutes various inquiries into the sources of its wealth, and investigates minutely, as if for some political purpose, the military and moral

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