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interstices were filled up by small chippings, forced in by a hammer.
So that the whole mass became a solid compact body?— The whole mass became a solid body.
No stone could rise easily up ?—No, it was almost impossible.
What sort of stones did he use ?—A variety; it depended on the nature of the quarries.
Was it necessary to have it hard ?—Wherever we could get it; it was not necessary to have the lower stratum so hard as the upper.
They must be so hard as not to decompose ?—Yes, they must.
What size did you break the stones?—So that the greatest dimensions of the stones should pass through a ring two inches and a half in diameter.
Was this the practice on the Holyhead road ?—It was.
Do you know when Mr. Telford first began in the Holyhead road?—It was in 1815, I believe.
What is the distance of what may be called the new road ?—Eighty-seven miles.
From what point ?—From Holyhead to Gobowen.
Is all the road either entirely newly made, or so changed as to be fairly called a new road?—The whole of it
Is all of it paved?—The whole, with scarcely any exception.
Some part of the old road was widened only; were they new paved ?—Almost all of them, I believe, through North Wales.
What is the breadth of the road ?—Varying from twentytwo feet, where we have precipices or difficulties to overcome, to thirty-two feet.
The ordinary breadth is thirty-two, accurately ?—Yes.
What is the convexity ?—Eight inches.
Was that quite accurate so that it would prove to be eight inches by using a level when the road was finished? —Yes, we have templets of the shape of the road, but it is accurately ascertained as the materials are put down, the road being first levelled, and then measuring the depth of the pavement at the ends and the centre.
Then the road has not the appearance of a common road, sometimes high on one side and sometimes low on the other ?—No.
It is altogether a construction, as it were, made on fixed rules, and according to the particular measures ?—It is; and wherever in one part it is narrower than others, it is always brought so gradually, so as to produce no abruptness in the appearance of the fences.
Then when you do reduce the breadth to twenty-two or any smaller breadth than thirty-two feet, you continue that until you pass the ground which is difficult?—We do.
Is there a uniformity ?—Always.
The fences, you say, are walls?—Stone walls.
Your convexity is not the same when it is narrowed, only proportional?—Proportionally so.
Then your templet would be no use there, because it would be too high —We principally use the spirit level.
The road being through a mountainous country, crosses a great many small rivulets and streams ?—Yes.
In regard to drainage is it perfectly well drained?— Perfectly well.
Do you find that is the case in very wet seasons, and upon sudden heavy falls of rain ?—I have never yet found any difficulty in getting the water off; it is never any impediment to the travelling.
Does it ever injure the surface of the road, so as to carry away parts of it ?—Not of any consequence.
Are these pipes and small culverts and bridges built in a very strong manner ?—Yes, they are.
Were there particular pains taken to secure the foundation?—A great deal of care; in many instances they are upon a rock.
Were they paved under, so as to prevent the water cutting under the side walls ?—All, except where upon a rock.
A regular rule ?—A regular rule.
Now, in severe winters, after very long frosts and sudden thaws, does the surface break up ?—I never saw an instance of it in any part that had been paved.
That is in such winters of such severity that in ordinary cases the roads generally break up more or less throughout the whole country ?—Where other roads under my charge have broken up.
Then, in summer, does the surface loosen and show weakness ?—No symptoms of weakness; occasionally after a long continued dry season it would show symptoms of looseness.
The stone will not rise so as to cover the surface ?—No.
Did you ever find the pavement stone rise up ?—Never.
Does the pavement serve in any degree as a drain to the road ?—There is no doubt of it.
Have you a communication between the pavement and the drains of the road ?—Generally speaking we have.
In what cases have you not?—We have not a continued i communication, but we have loose materials of a similar sort to communicate with.
You have a sufficient number to carry off any water that collects on the pavement ?—Yes.
As there were stone walls there could be no necessity for ditches ?—No; there are ditches in some places, but they are of rare occurrence; we seldom require them, because the field-drains being sufficiently near, we try to communicate with them wherever we can; we always drain them to the lower side; the greater portion of the road is on hanging ground.
The water that collects at the upper part of the road is carried to cross drains ?—Carried across by a drain below the road, and in most places, where we have hanging ground, the road is supported by a breast-wall, and the water merely passes over this breast-wall into the field.
How do you prevent the water falling from the high ground into the road ?—By leading it in channels into the cross drains.
There are drains in the upper part of the road that carry any water that falls from the upper land into the cross-drain, and keeps the water from the surface ?—Yes.
In forming the road, in point of fact, is it not the case that the road is elevated, the surface of it, so as to be above, as it were, the immediate ground that touches it ?— It is the case; we always prefer raising the road to depressing it.
That is, you always form the road so as to elevate the sub-soil of it on which the materials are put above the level of the adjoining field ?—As much as we possibly can.
Which in itself is a protection from moisture and wet getting upon it?—Yes.
Is there a wall on each side of the road ?—There is, for nearly the whole way, except where we cut through rock.
Is that wall on the hill side somewhat bastion fashion, a little on a slope, so as to act as a buttress?—Not a buttress; but it is wider at the foundation than at the top.
The form of the road, the convexity, in fact, produces a side channel towards the higher side in which all rainwater falls into the cross drain ?—All surface water runs in the channel on each side, close to the wall, until it gets to one of the cross drains.
So that the road is so formed when crossing a sloping ground that the water cannot rise from the side channel next the hill, to the middle of the road ?—It cannot
Through what does the water escape when it gets to the position of one of these drains; how does it find its way; what orifice is there at the surface ?—We in general make them communicate with the field drain; and we have an opportunity of joining them to the field drains at very short distances.
How are the inlets to those drains protected from the silt choking them up ?—Generally by masonry, or paving the mouths with large stones.
Is there much silt on the road ?—In parts.
What sort of materials is the upper coating of; broken stone?—A good deal depends on the rock through which we pass; we always select the best.
Is it generally all through very hard ?—It is of variable quality in that respect.
Have you much scraping?—Very little in some parts, in some parts none.
What makes the difference?—The hardness of the stone, and the difference of the traffic upon it.
Would you say the hardness of the stone made a great difference in the quantity of scraping ?—No doubt.
Is not some part of the road so hard that it never requires scraping?—Yes.
And is not the stone much harder than elsewhere ?— The stone is very good in that place, but that is not the only advantage; it has a good exposure to the wind.
What part of the road is it ?—Lake Ogwen.
Where have you the most scraping to do?—Between Chirk and Gobowen.
What is the material used there ?—Chiefly limestone.
Is there a heavy carriage ?—Very.
What sort ?—Principally of coal and lime.
What is the quality of the stone where the scraping is the least?—Basaltic.
What is the road across Anglesey; is that hard ?—Yes.
Is the material hard there ?—The best I have got on the road.
What is it between Corwen and Llangollen ?—Principally schistus.