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Cette, with its glistening houses white,
Curves with the curving beach away
Far in the bay.' “In Heine's Grave, page 199, we have the lines on Montmartre and the crisp everlasting-flowers '-the only flowers which Renan, in his magnificent denunciation of pessimism, delivered at the Lycée Louis le Grand, declares to be not beautifulsharply contrasted with the tall dark firs of the Upper, as with the oaks and beeches of the Lower Hartz :
Of hazels green in whose depth
valley, the dizzily perch'd
Clingest! with smiles, with a sigh!' • The connection between Montmartre and the German mountain range, is of course the Reisebilder of the great poet, who is laid in the Paris cemetery:
“No one who has read it is likely to forget the lovely opening of the stanzas from the Grande Chartreuse :
“Through Alpine meadows soft-suffused
With rain, where thick the crocus blows,
Through forest, up the mountain-side.
“The strong children of the Alpine wild' in the same poem.
" The crocus is, I need hardly say, the colchicum so familiar to the Swiss tourist, and the same which is mentioned in Obermann, at page 227
« In “ Obermann once more” we have the yellow gentian at page 232, and the crocus again at page 244. 6. The oleander also appears in Thyrsis :
“. Hear it from thy broad lucent Arno-vale
(For there thine earth-forgetting eyelids keep
Under the flowery oleanders pale) as it does, with more cheerful association, among the Lyric poems in The Terrace at Berne :
• Ah, shall I see thee, while a flush
THE CHEDDAR PINK.
“Mr. Arnold once told me that he took special pains with the references to plants in Merope ; and they are very correct. See, for instance, the Speech of Æpytus, pages 45-50, and the Chorus at page 96 of Vol. III.; but there is no passage in the play which can be very conveniently detached from its setting for purposes of quotation.
“In Empedocles we have the well-known lines which may fitly conclude these extracts :
60. The track winds down to the clear stream,
To cross the sparkling shallows; there
The peak, round which the white clouds play.' “A careful reader will find other passages, which will remind him how constant a lover of flowers was the poet we lost two years ago—a poet whose fame will, I think, be greater with posterity than it has been with a generation only too apt to confuse poetry with another very different, though no doubt highly respectable, thing—namely thinking in verse.
“In this letter I have only, in obedience to your commands, put together the most characteristic notices of flowers and plants I can find in Mr. Arnold's volumes, in the hope that they may win a few additional students for some of the wisest and loveliest compositions in the English language."
M. E. GRANT DUFF.
THE CHEDDAR PINK.
are fast diminishing. At one time they are threatened
another by the unwise advertisement of a “find” and the consequent incursions of the ruthless plant-dealer; and again by the carrying out of quarrying operations and the setting up of the “devilish enginery " which accompanies them; not to speak of the general destruction and disfigurement of scenery occasioned by the development of accommodating branch-lines, constructed on the cheapest principle, by the extension of building operations in the vicinity of large towns, and by the erection of gas works, sewage “ farms,” and limekilns in the outskirts.
There are but four pinks which are really native in this country; they are all only very locally distributed, and one of these is threatened with immediate extinction. The plant here referred to is the Cheddar Pink, Dianthus cæsius. This species is mentioned by Ray (1680) under the name of “ Armeriæ species flore in summo caule singulari ;” also by Dillenius (1732), who refers to it as “ Tunica rupestris folio cæsio molli flore carneo.” Hudson, in his “ Flora Anglica ” (1762), calls it Dianthus glaucus, a name previously given by Linnæus to a plant which is now considered a form of D. deltoides. It is not, therefore, a Linnean species as stated in Sowerby's “English Botany” (third edition), but was given its present name and fully described by Smith in his “ English Botany” (1792). The specific name cæsius refers to the gray-green appearance produced by the deposit of bloom on the leaves. Its geographical distribution is extremely limited, and the only British locality for the species is the Cheddar cliffs in Somerset. What is also remarkable is that this solitary station marks the northern as well as the western limit of the plant in Europe. In a letter to the Daily News of July 15th, 1889, Mr. E. G. Aldridge, of Winscombe, says :
“ Kindly permit me to call attention to the inexpressibly saddening thing' which is now in progress at Cheddar. I am aware that it is not long since an article appeared in your paper condemning the quarrying operations which were then being carried out upon the western side of that unparalleled gorge. Latterly, however, these works have been extended in a smaller degree to the eastern or perpendicular face, and, unless at once arrested, will do much to mar, if not in some measure to destroy, the noblest scene of its kind in England. Much might be written concerning the base use to which the cliffs and their surroundings are put by 'cave men,' and others. Loud, inartistic noticeboards and flaming handbills appear at every turn, while paint or whitewash proclaims from lofty heights the doom of the impenitent or the superior attractions of the upper cave. The despicable traffic in the floral specialities of the district still continues, and the beauteous Cheddar Pink has now well nigh disappeared from its accustomed haunts.”
It grows at a height of fifty feet among jagged rocks, and is therefore not accessible to all comers : and in the case of the typical cockney excursionist, it is a matter for congratulation, that, after a preliminary meal of Cheddar cheese and native beer, the process of digestion would materially interfere with the comfort attending the extra exertion which any such act of spoliation would entail.
INSECTS AS ORNAMENTS OF THE GARDEN. 109
On the Continent, the Cheddar Pink, or Mountain Pink, as it is sometimes called, is very local in its distribution. The following are the countries in which it occurs, with the vernacular names of the plant :-Belgium, blauwachtige Angelier; Luxemburg, Switzerland, the east of France, Eillet bieuâtre ; South and West Germany, graugrüne Nelke ; North Italy, Garofano appannato; Bohemia, Hwozdik rychlicek ; Moravia and the Tyrol, graublättrige Bergnelke ; Croatia, Klincic, Transylvania, hegyi Szegfü; Roumania, Diant verdiu.
Frederic N. WILLIAMS.
INSECTS AS ORNAMENTS OF THE GARDEN.
TIRT has been defined as “matter in the wrong place,”
and Southey, in a passage which I cannot for the moment lay my hand on, remarks that we have not
taken enough animals into alliance with us, and that the more spiders there were in the stable the less would the horses suffer from the flies. A later writer, Mr. A. R. Wallace, looks forward to the time when the earth will produce only cultivated plants and domesticated animals, and when man's selection shall have supplanted natural selection (Essay on the Action of Natural Selection on Man).
To this pass we are visibly tending in all parts of the world where civilised man has established himself; for the clearing of forests, the draining of marshes, or even the settlement of open country, destroys the native inhabitants of the soil, root and branch. And in the wake of civilised man come the hog, the goat, the rabbit, the thistle, and even the water-weeds, to complete the havoc which he has made.
In England the destruction of native plant-life is the end and object of scientific farming. We hear of one man boasting of having levelled so many yards of old fences, meaning the beautiful hedges, which but a few years ago adorned our English lanes and meadows to a much greater extent than at present. It is recorded to the credit of another successful farmer that if he cannot grow a good crop on poor soil, at all events nothing else is allowed to grow there.
With the plants, the insects which feed on them likewise disappear; and even the destruction of nettles and thistles robs our gardens of the presence of many of our most beautiful English butterflies.
But it is useless to regret the inevitable course of the progress of events, and our only remedy is to march with the times, and improve our present opportunities. Almost the only insects which we domesticate at present are the bee and the silkworm ; but why should we not rear insects for their beauty as well as for their utility ? Our wild flowers are doomed; a large number have already disappeared, or become restricted to ever narrowing limits, but our gardens and hot-houses bring together a far larger assemblage of curious and beautiful plants than any single locality in the world, however favourably situated. Why should we not do the same with insects ? Insects are as beautiful as flowers, many are perfectly hardy, and might easily be acclimatised, and it would be easy to select species for experiment which could not feed on or endanger our crops in any way. In fact, we might have regular breeding-beds of plants of no value otherwise (in some out-of-the-way corner of the grounds), where butterflies and other insects might be reared to render our gardens as beautiful with innocuous insect-life as with floral treasures. The Insectarium at the Zoological Gardens is a step in the right direction; but who among our rich horticulturists will be first to introduce foreign butterflies on a large scale to compete with his orchids?
W. F. KIRBY.
NORTHUMBRIAN PLANT NAMES.
noted by the writer during the last ten years, are yet
two remote, and lovely Northumbrian valleys, bordering upon the Cheviot Hills.
D. D. Dixon.
Viola lutea *Red Mint drops
Ononis arvensis *Poor Robin...
Bartsia Odontites * Mouse's peas
(seed of) Vicia Cracca *Cocks and hens
(fruit of) Pyrus Malus