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at which trade he laboured as a journeyman, great attention; and this communication contains until he taught himself bookbinding, by which one of the few speculations in that branch of he added to his humble income. In 1750 he knowledge entitled to the name of theory. A opened a book-shop in Birmingham, to which he more voluminous work from Dr. Hutton's pen added a circulating library, and succeeded so made its appearance soon after, viz. An Investiwell as to be enabled to embark in the paper gation of the Principles of Knowledge, and of business, in which, by industry and frugality, he the Progress of Reason, from Sense to Science arrived gradually at opulence. In 1791 his house and Philosophy, in 3 vols. 4to. His activity in Birmingham, and villa near that town, were was now called into exertion by an attack on hir burnt by the rioters, for which he obtained tut Theory of the Earth, made by Mr. Kirwan in an inadequate remuneration. He died Sep- the Memoirs of the Irish Academy. Before this tember 20th, 1815, at the advanced age of ninety- period, though Dr. Hutton had been often urged two. The works of this acute and self-taught by his friends to publish his entire work on the man are, The History of Birmingham, 8vo; Theory of the Earth, he had continually put off Journey to London ; History of the Court of the publication; but he now began the revisal of Requests, and of the Hundred Court of Bir- his MS., and resolved immediately to send it to mningham, a lively and ingenious work ; History the press. The work was accordingly published, of Blackport ; History of the Battle of Bosworth in 2 vols. 8vo., in 1795; and contained, besides Field ; History of Derby ; Description of the the treatise formerly given in the Edinburgh Roman Wall; Remarks upon North Wales; Transactions, a more detailed application of his Tour to Scarborough ; Poems; Trip to Coatham, principles to the explanation of appearances. &c.

He next began a work on the Elements of AgriHIUTTON (James), M.D., was born in Edin- culture, in the progress of which, however, he burgh in 1726. He was sent first to the high was seized with a violent fever; and, though he school of Edinburgh, and afterwards to the uni- recovered from the immediate danger, it left him versity, where he entered as a student of humanity, to emaciated and feeble, that he died about three in November 1740. His friends wishing him, months after, March, 1797. however, to follow business rather than science, HUXING, among fishermen, a particular mehe was placed as an apprentice to a writer to the thod of catching pikes. For this purpose they signet ; but he was afterwards allowed to extake as large bladders as can be got; blow them change the profession of a writer for that of a up, and tie them close and strong; and at the physician. After attending the classes in the mouth of each tie a line, longer or shorter acuniversity of his native town, from 1744 to 1747, cording to the depth of the water. At the end he repaired to Paris, where he pursued, with of the line is fastened an armed hook, artfully great ardor, the study of anatomy and chemistry. baited; and thus they are put into the water with Having resided in that metropolis nearly two the advantage of the wind, that they may gently years, he returned by the way of the Low Coun- move up and down the pond. When a large tries, and took the degree of M.D. in September pike has struck himself, it affords great enter1749. His thesis is entitled, De Sanguine et tainment to see him bounce about in the water Circulatione in Microcosmo. Dr. Hutton did with a bladder fastened to him; at last, when not, however, enter upon the practice of medicine. they perceive him almost spent, they take him He cultivated his farm in Berwickshire till it up. ceased to have any attractions for him; and, in “HUYGENS (Christian), one of the greatest 1768, he took up his abode in Edinburgh, and mathematicians and astronomers of the sevenfrom that time devoted his undivided attention to teenth century, was the son of Constantine Huyscientific pursuits. A good deal of his leisure, gens, lord of Zuylichem, who had served three says Mr. Playfair, was now employed in the successive princes of Orange in the quality of prosecution of chemical experiments. In one of secretary. He was born at the Hague in 1629, these he first discovered an alkali in zeolite, or in and discovered from his infancy an extraordinary a stony boc!y. About this time he visited the partiality for the mathematics; in which he soon salt-mines in Cheshire, and made those observa- made great progress, and perfected himself under tions on the concentric circles marked on the the famous professor Schooten, at Leyden. In roof of these mines, to which he has referred in 1649 he went to Holstein and Denmark, in the his Theory of the Earth as affording a proof that retinue of Henry count of Nassau. He travelled the salt rock was.not formed from mere aqueous into France and England; was, in 1663, chosen deposition. While at Edinburgh he read several F. R.S; and, upon his return to France, M. papers to the Philosophical Society of that city, Colbert settled 'a considerable pension upon but which, from that society being soon after in- him to engage him to fix at Paris; to which M. corporated with the Royal Society, were never Huygens consented, and staid there from 1666 published, with the exception of a treatise On to 1681, where he was admitted a member of certain Natural Appearances of the Ground on the Academy of Sciences; and daily added to the Hill of Arthur's Seat. The institution of the the reputation of that society. He was the Royal Society of Edinburgh had the good effect discoverer of Saturn's ring, and a third satelof calling forth from Dr. Hutton the first sketch lite belonging to that planet. He discovered the of a theory of the earth, the formation of which means of rendering clocks exact, by applying the had been the great object of his life. Another pendulum, and rendering all its vibrations paper from his pen, a Theory of Rain, appeared equal by the cycloid. He died at the Hague in also in the first volume of the Edinburgh Trans- 1695. Ile was the author of several excellent actions. He had long studied meteorolcãy with works. The principal of these are contained in

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two collections; the first printed at Leyden in A caldron of fat beef, and stoop af ale, 1682; in 4to, entitled Opera Varia; and the se On the huzsaing mob sball still prevail. cond at Amsterdam in 1728, in 2 vols. 4to.,

King's Cookery. entitled Opera Reliqua.

You keep a parcel of roaring bullies about me day HUYNEN, or HUYNGEN, a town of Germany, and night ; huszas and hunting-horns never let mo

cool.

Arbuthnot, in the late archbishopric of Cologne, now an

All fame is foreign, but of true desert; nexed to Prussia. It is twenty-five miles south

Plays round the head, but comes got to the heart : of Cologne, and is included in the grand duchy

One self-appoving hour whole years outweighs of the Lower Rhine.

of stupid starers and of loud huzzas. Pope. HUYSUM (Justus Van), an eminent painter, Huara boys By the Royal George, I swear, born at Amsterdam in 1659. He studied under Tom Coxen and the crew shall straight be there. Nicholas Berchem, and painted flowers, land

Garrick, scapes, and battles.

HY'ACINTH, n. s. ) Fr. hyacinthe ; Lat. Huysum (John), a celebrated Dutch painter, HYACINTHINE, adj. I hyacinthus; Gr, varsvôos. whose suhjects were flowers, fruit, and land- A flower; the same with the lapis lyncurius of scapes. He was born at Amsterdam in 1682, the ancients : hyacinthine, having the color of and was a disciple of Justus Van Huysum his the hyacinth. father. He began at first to paint, not so much

The Spartan mirtle, whence sweet gumb does for the acquisition of money as of fame, and

flowe, therefore did not aim at expedition, but at deli- The purple hyucinthi, and fresh costmarie. cacy. Having first attentively studied the pic

Spenser. Faerie Queene. tures of Mignon and other artists of distinction

And hyacinthin locks in his own style, he painted every thing after Round from his parted forelock manly hung nature; and, was so exact, as to watch even the

Clustering

Milton's Paradise Lost. hour of the day in which his model appeared in

Beds of hyacinth and roses,
Where young Adonis oft reposes.

Id, Comu. its greatest perfection. His reputation finally

Let these hyacinth boughs rose to such a height, that he fixed immoderate

Be his long, flowing hair, prices on his works; so that none but princes,

And wave o'er his brows or those of princely fortunes, could become pur

As thou wavest in air. chasers. Six of his paintings were sold at a

Byron. The Deformed Transformed. public sale in Holland for prices almost in

Her hair in hyacin hine flow credible. One of them, a flower-piece, for 1450 When left to roll its folds below; guilders, a fruit piece for 1500, and the smaller As midst her handmaids in the hall pictures for 900. The vast sums which he thus She stood superior to them all, received caused him to redouble his endeavours Hath swept the marble where her feet to excel; no person was admitted into his room. Gleamed whiter than the mountain sleet.

Id, The Giaour, while he was painting; and his method of mix. ing the tints, and preserving the lustre of his HYACINTH, in botany. See CRINUN, HYAcolors, was au impenetrable secret. From the CINTHUS, and Scilla. same principle, he would never take any scholars, HYACINTHIA, in antiquity, feasts held at except one lady, named Haverman; and he grew Sparta, in honor of Apollo, and in commemoraenvious and jealous even of her merit. It is tion of his favorite İlyacinthus. They lasted universally agreed that he has excelled all who three days; the first and third of which were emever painted fruit and flowers before him, both ployed in bewailing the death of Hyacinthus, in the delicacy of his pencil and his manner of and the second in feasting and rejoicing. finishing. The greatest truth, united with the HYACINTHUS, hyacinth, in botany, a genus greatest brilliancy, and a velvet softness on the of the monogynia order, and hexandria class of Sirface of his objects, are visible on every part of plants; natural order tenth, coronariæ: Cor. his compositions ; and his touch looks like the campanulated, and there are three melliferous pencil of nature. Those pictures which he pores at the top of the germen. There are thirpainted on a clear ground are preferred as having teen species ; of which the most remarkable is greater lustre; yet there are some on a dark H.orientalis, the eastern hyacinth. Of this there ground, in which appear rather more force and are a great number of varieties, amounting to harmony. In grouping his flowers, he generally some hundreds. It has a large, purplish, buldesigned those which were brightest in the centre, bous root, sending up several narrow erect leaves, and gradually decreased the force of color from eight or ten inches long; the flower-stalk is upthe centre to the extremities. He also painted right, robust, and succulent, from ten to fifteen landscapes with great applause. He died in inches in height; adorned upward with many 1749, aged sixty-seven.

large funnel or bell-shaped flowers, swelling at HUZZ, v.n.

Etymology from the base, and cut half way into six parts; colHuzza', interj. & v. n. š the sound. Po buzz; lected into a large pyramidal spike of different, 10 murmur: húzza, a cry of acclamation or joy; colors in the varieties; flowering in April or to utter acclamation; to receive with shouts of May. They are hardy, and will prosper any pleasure.

where, though, the finer kinds require a little

shelter during the winter, and may be propagated The huzzus or the rabble are the same to a bear either by seeds or off-sets from the roots. The that they are to a prince.

L'Estrange. properties of a good oriental hyacinth are, a He was huzzaed into the court by, several thousands stem, perfectly upright, of moderate length, and of weavers and clothiers.

Addison, so strong and well-proportioned that it will sus

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tain the weight of the forets without bending; known to run off with live children. It is a the forets should be large, swelling below, ex- solitary unsociable animal, living in caves. panded above, and numerous, ten or fifteen at Several fossil remains of these animals have been least, but are often twenty or thirty in number; lately found in Kirkdale, Yorkshire. See our and should be placed equally round the stem, article England. the pedicles, on which they grow longer below HYENIUS LAPIS, in natural history, a stone than above, diminishing gradually in length up- said to be found in the eyes of the hyæna. Pliny ward, in such a manner as to represent a pyra- informs us, that those creatures were in old mid, and each pedicle sufficiently strong to times hunted and destroyed for the sake of these support the florets without drooping. The stones, and that it was supposed they gave a curious in these plants take care never to plant man the gift of prophecy by being put under his the fine sorts two years together in the same bed tongue. of earth; for, by planting them every year in a H Y'ALINE, adj. Gr. válivos. Glassy; crysfresh bed, the beauty of the flowers is greatly talline; made glass; resembling glass..., improved.

From heaven-gate not far, founded in view HYACINTHUS, the son of Amyclas king of'. On the clear hyaline, the glassy sea. Milton Sparta, was beloved both by Apollo and Zephy. HYRLA in

HYBLA, in ancient geography, a town on the rus. The youth showing most affection for the

east coast of Sicily, called also Hybla Parva, former, his rival grew jealous; and, to be revenged, one day, as Apollo was playing at the

Galeotis, and Megara; which last name it took discus with Hyacinthus, Zephyrus turned the

from the Megareans, who led thither a colony. direction of a quoit, which Apollo had pitched,

In Strabo's time Megara was extinct, but the full upon the head of Hyacinthus, who fell down

name Hybla remained on account of its exceldead. Apollo then transformed him into a

lent honey named from
i

it. It was situated flower of the same name; and, as a farther token

between Syracuse and the Leontines. Galeotæ of respect, instituted the feasts of Hyacinthia.

and Megarenses were the names of the people, HY'ADES, n. s. / Gr. vádes. Awatery con

· who were of a prophetic spirit, being the de HY'ADS, n. S. S stellation,

scendants of Galeus, the son of Apollo Then sailors quartered heaven, and found a name

Hybla MAJOR, in ancient geography, a town For every fixed and every wandering star;

of Italy, in the tract lying between Mount Ætna The pleiads, hyads.

Dryden's Georgicks. and the river Simæthus. In Pausanias's time it HYADES, in astronomy, are seven stars in the

he was desolate. bull's head, famous among the poets for the

Hybla MINOR, or Here, an inland town of bringing of rain. Whence their name Yaons,

Sicily, situated between the rivers Oanus and from the Greek VELV, “to rain. The principal of

Herminius; now called Ragusa. them is in the left eye, by the Arabs called Alde

HYBLÆI Colles, small eminences at the baran.

springs of the Albus, near Hybla, famous for HYADES, in the mythology, the daughters of their variety of flowers, especially thyme; the Atlas and Pleione. Their brother Hyas being

honey gathered from which was by the ancients torn to pieces by a lioness, they wept for his

reckoned the best in the world, excepting that death with such vehemence, that the gods. in 01 Hymettus in Attica. compassion, translated them into heaven, and

à HYB'RIDOUS, adj. Gr. ißois; Lat. hybrida. laced them in the bull's forehead, where they Begotten between animals of different species. continue to weep; this constellation being sup- Why such different species should not only mingle posed to presage rain. Others represent the together, but also generate an animal, and yet that Hyades as the nurses of Bacchus : and the same that hybridous production should not again generate, with the Dodonides, who fearing the resentment

is to me a mystery. of Juno, and flying from the cruelty of king Ly HYBRISTICA, of Gr. vßpus, injury, in anticurgus, were translated by Jupiter into heaven. quity, a solemn feast beld among the Greeks,

HYENA, in natural history, a species of the with sacrifices and other ceremonies; at which canis, with the tail straight and annulated; the the men attended in the apparel of women, and hairs of the neck long and erect: ears naked : the women in that of men, to do honor to Venus toes, four ou each foot. It has six incisores, and in quality either of a god or goddess, or both. two canine teeth in each jaw: and between the According to others, the hybristica was a feast tail and the anus a transverse orifice. This celebrated at Argos, wherein the women, being quadruped is almost as large as a wolf, except- dressed like men, insulted their husbands, and ing that its legs are not so long ; the hair of it is treated them with all marks of superiority, in rough, and its skin spotted with divers colors. memory of the Argian dames having anciently Hyænas were formerly produced at Rome in the defended their country with singular courage public games, and they have been represented against Cleomenes and Demaratus. on some medals on account of their rarity. It HYDARTHRUS, from Gr. vówp, water, and inhabits Asiatic Turkey, Syria, Persia, Barbary, appov, a joint, in medicine, is more usually and the Cape of Good Hope. It has no neck, known by the name of white swelling, and is in but its head is fastened to the vertebræ of the this country but too common. Systematic wriback, so that it is forced to turn itself quite ters have generally distinguished this disease into round, whenever it would look behind. It is two kinds, viz. scrofulous and rheumatic. The very cruel and voracious; it drags dead bodies scrofulous is, however, much more important out of their graves, and carries them to its den. and dangerous than the other kind, and is perIt also preys on herds and focks, and has been haps the most serious disorder of the bones to

Ray.

which man is subject. It commonly commences tuted lord high chancellor of England. In 1659 with a violent pain in one part of the joint, the duke of York became enamoured of Anne generally the knee, and there appears from the Hyde, the chancellor's eldest daughter, but carebeginning a uniform swelling of the whole sur- fully concealed the amour both from the king rounding integuments. Great tension generally and chancellor. After the Restoration, however, prevails; but at first there is seldom any exter- he fulfilled his promise of marriage, and her nal change of color. From the commencement father was chosen chanceller of the university of of the disease the motion of the joint is attended Oxford; soon after created baron Ilindon, viswith exquisite pain, and the patient keeps it count Cornbury, and earl of Clarendon; and, on constantly in a relaxed posture, finding that the the death of Henry lord Falkland, was made lord easiest. Tlence, the tendons become extremely lieutenant of Oxfordshire. In these important stiff and rigid, till at last the joints have the stations his principalaim was neither to abridge the appearance of complete and real anchyloses. king's prerogative, nor encroach upon the liberThe swelling now begins to augment, till the ties of the people; he therefore refused to set joint las acquired three or four times its natural aside the petition of right, nor would he endeasize; the cuticular veins become turgid and vour again to raise the star-chamber or highvaricose; at the same time that the muscular commission courts : and when he might have substance of the limb below decays, though it obtained for the king £2,000,000, for a standing frequently acquires an equality in size by revenue, he asked only £1,200,000, which he becoming adematous; the pain becomes intole- thought would still keep the king dependent rable, especially when the person is warm in bed, upon his parliament. In this just conduct he is or otherwise heated; abscesses form in different said to have been influenced by his father's lying parts, whichi, either breaking of themselves, or, advice. In 1662 he opposed a proposal for the by being laid open, discharge considerable quan- king's marriage with the intanta of Portugal, and tities of matter, but without any remarkable the sale of Dunkirk; and in the following year cfiect in reducing the size of the swellings. The articles of impeachment for high treason were bone's are found to be carious, and pieces of exhibited against him by the earl of Bristol; but them we frequently discharged. In the mean they were rejected by the house of lords. In time, the health of the patient gradually declines, 1604 he opposed the war with Holland. In from the violence of the pain, and the absorption August, 1667, he was removed from his post of of matter into the system, which takes place in lord chancellor, and in November following imsome degree from its first formation in the dif- peached of high treason, and other crimes and ferent abscesses; but which never appears so misdemeanors, by the house of commons; upon evidently till the different abscessus have been which he retired into France, when a bill was land open ; after which, a quick pulse, night passed for banishing him from the king's dusweats, and a weakening diarrhea, are sure to ininious. lle now resided at Rouen in Noroccur, which generally carry of the patient, if many; and dying there, in 1074, his body was the member is not either amputated, or the disc brought to England, and interred in Westinister tuse cured some other way. See MEDICINE. Abbey. Ile wrote, 1. A History of the Rebel

HYDITIDES, n. s. From @@wo. Little lion, 3 vols. folio. 2. A Letter to the Duke of transparent bladders of water in any part; most York, and another to the Duchess, upon their cominon in dropsical persons, from a distension embracing the Romish religion. 3. An Answer or rupture of the lympheducts.

to llobbes's Leviathan. 4. A llistory of the All the water is contained in little bladders, adher. Rebellion and Civil Wars in Ireland, 8vo., and ing to the liver and peritoneum, known by the same some other works. This character is thus paneof hydalues.

Wiseman. gyrised by Horace Walpole:-“Sir Edward HIDE (Edward), earl of Clarendon, and lyde, who opposed an arbitrary court and emTord high chancellor of England, was descended braced the party of an afflicted one, must be from an ancient family in Cheshire, and born at allowed to have acted conscientiously. A better Dinton near Windon, in Wiltshire, in 1608. Ile proof was his behaviour on the Restoration, when was entered of Maydalen Hall, Oxford, where the torrent of an infatuated nation entreated the in 1625 he took the degree of A. B., and after- king and his ministej to be absolute. Tad Clawards studied the law iu the Middle Temple. rendon sought nothing but power, his power had In the parliament which began at Westiniuster, never ceased. A corrupted court, and a blinded April 10th, 1610, he served for Wotton Basset populace, were less the causes of the chancellor's ali Wiltshire. But, that parliament being soon fall, than an ungrateful king, who could not after dissolved, he was chosen for Saltash in pardon his lordship's having refused to accept Cornwall, in tlie long parliament. This abilities for him the slavery of his country. Like justice were taken notice of, and he was emploved in herself, he held the balance between the necesseveral committees to examine into grievances; sary power of the supreme magistrate and the butat last, being dissatisfied with the proceedings interests of the people. This never-lying obliof the parliament, he retired in the king, and was gation his conteniporaries were taught to overlook maile chancellor of the excheques, a privy coun- and clanor against, till they removed the only sellur, and knight. I'pon the decline of the man, who, if he could, would have corrected luis kink's cause he went to France, where, after the master's evil government. Almost every virtue

heath of king Charles I., he was sworn of the of a minister made his character venerable. As pravy council to Charles II. L 1649 he and an historian, he seems more exceptionable. This Joud Cottington ver en ambassador's extme majesty 2011 loquence, his power of painting oiuinary into pain, and in 1957 he was consti- Characters, his hoowledge of his subject, raik

him in the first class of writers; yet he has both between the sixteenth and nineteenth degrees of great and little faults. Of the latter, his stories northern latitude, and between the rivers Godaof ghosts and omens are not to be defended. very and Kistna; but the name is now also apHis capital fault is his whole work being a plied to all the territories of the Nizam. It may labored justification of king Charles. If he be stated therefore to be bounded on the northrelates faults, some palliating epithet always east by the territories of the Berar rajah, and on slides in; and he has the art of breaking his the north-west by those of the Poonah Mahrattas, darkest shades with gleams of light, that take off on the west by the same power, and on the south all impression of horror. One may pronounce and east by the British possessions; being about on my lord Clarendon, in his double capacity of 350 miles in extreme length, and about 300 in statesman and historian, that he acted for liberty, breadth. It thus comprises the ancient provinces but wrote for prerogative.'

of Beder and Nandere, part of Dowlet or AuHYDE (Thomas), D.D., professor of Arabic rungabad, part of Bejapore, and part of Berar ; at Oxford, and one of the most learned writers and is principally governed by zemindars, or of the seventeenth century, was born in 1636, granted in jagiers (fiefs) to the officers of governand studied first at Cambridge, and afterwaras ment. The former are nearly independent. The at Oxford. Before he was eighteen years of age whole of the land, except some portions set aside he was sent from Cambridge to London to assist for charitable purposes and the estates of the niWalton in the great work of the Polyglot Bible; zam and his family, is thus in the hands of a few and about that period undertook to transcribe individuals; but it is fertile, and, if well managed, the Persian Pentateuch out of the Hebrew cha- it would yield much more abundantly. Its comracters, which archbishop Usher, who well knew merce is very confined, the diamond mines hardly the difficulty of the undertaking, pronounced to paying the expense of working; and the only be an impossible task to a native Persian. He, other article being cotton, which is bartered for however, succeeded in his task, and was made salt and European commodities. The chief archdeacon of Gloucester, canon of Christ towns are Hyderabad, Golconda, Warangole, Church, head keeper of the Bodleian library, Aurungabad, Beder, and Ellichpore. A consiand professor of Hebrew and Arabic, in the uni- derable portion of the inhabitants are Mahommeversity of Oxford. He was interpreter and dans: the majority, however, are Hindoos; but secretary of the Oriental languages, during the the population is thin. reigns of Charles II., James II., and William III. Hyderabad was once subject to the rajahs of Of all his learned works (the very catalogue Telingana and Bijanagur, but was conquered by of which, as observed by Anthony Wood, is a the Mahommedans in the fifteenth century, and curiosity), bis Religio Veterum Persarum is the in the year 1512 was formed into a separate most celebrated. Dr. Gregory Sharpe collected kingdom under the name of Golconda. Abdooseveral of his pieces formerly printed, and repub- lah Kuttub Shah, of the original dynasty, died in lished them, with some additional dissertations, 1674, and was succeeded by his son in law and his life prefixed, in 2 elegant vols. 4to. He Aboul Hussen, who, in the year 1687, was taken died on the 18th of February, 1702. Among his prisoner by Aurungzebe, and Golconda converted other works is, A Latin Translation of Vlug into one of the provinces of the Mogul empire, Beig's Observations on the Longitude and Lati- and, with the other five southern provinoes, was tude of the fixed Stars.

formed into a viceroyalty, called the Soubadar HYDER ALY, or Ali, a celebrated Indian of the Deccan. In 1719 a Mogul officer, named usurper, and for some time a formidable oppo- Cheen Khilij Khan, appointed to this governnent of the British interest in the East Indies. ment, had a very large army placed under his He was the son of a killader, or governor of a command to keep freebooters in awe; and this fort, to the king of Mysore, and acquired his skill inspired him with the ambition of founding an in military tactics in the French army. In 1753 independent kingdom. He for several years emhe distinguished himself as their auxiliary at Tri- ployed himself in getting possession of the strong chinopoly. In 1763, being commander of the holds; and, when summoned to Delhi, proceeded Mysore army, he dethroned his sovereign, and thither with so large a force as to overawe his governed the kingdom under the title of regent. master. In the wars with the British, between 1767 and He is also accused of having encouraged the 1770, he displayed great spirit and abilities; but Persian Nadir Shah to invade Hindostan in 1739; in 1771 he was totally defeated by the Mahrattas. and having, after that event, been appointed viDuring the peace that followed he greatly im- zier or prime minister, he left to Mohammed the proved his army and revenues. In 1780 he emperor nothing but the name. For two years inade an irruption into the Carpatic, and cut to he governed at Delhi with absolute sway, during pieces a British detachment under colonel which period he appointed his son Ghazy ad Baillie; but his victorious career was soon Deen, his deputy ; but, the Mahrattas having instopped by Sir Eyre Coote, who, with a force vaded the Deccan, he marched in 1741 to meet scarcely exceeding 7000 men, gained a complete them with a numerous army. On his arrival at victory over Hyder Ali at the head of 150,000, Arcot he found that country in total confusion; and defeated him six times successively after- and not fewer than twenty petty chiefs assuming wards, the last of which victories was obtained the title of rajah : the measures that he pursued, on the 7th of June 1782. Hyder died in Decem- however, tranquillised the country; and he disber 1782.

posed of its different offices to his friends, withHYDERABAD, Telingana, or Golconda, an out consulting the court of Delhi. Ile now extensive province of Ilindostan, situated chiefly made Aurungabad his capital, but died at Boor.

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