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stacle as possible may be opposed to the ascend- viates many difficulties connected with the ordiing water: C,c,c, the piston, the handle, and the nary arrangements. To prevent the pump drawing lever, on which it works, all in one piece ; the air, he has introduced a side pipe, connecting the piston part is curved, to correspond with the parts of the working barrel which are above and curvature of the barrel: d, the pivot on which below the bucket, which pipe has a stop valve, the lever of the handle works: é, a flat plate to that the miners can regulate with the greatest which the whole apparatus is fastened, and ease, so as to keep the engine to its full stroke, which may itself be screwed to a block of wood without drawing air, by letting down the water fixed against the wall.
from the upper part of the barrel into the lower, Mr. Eve's patent pump is probably one of the so that it is working again in its own water. most ingenious and valuable inventions of its Instead of having the whole weight of the lower kind that has appeared of late years; there are lift of pumps standing on the bottom, it is fixed no valves to open and close, the moving parts in the pit by cross beams, and the miner has only being rotatory; their speed may therefore be in- to fit and move an additional pipe or wind-bore, creased at pleasure, and to an almost unlimited which slides upon the lower length of the pump degree. The water pumped up is in proportion like a telescope, to lengthen down, and this adto the speed of the revolving parts, and to the ditional wind-bore is besides crooked, and turned force applied. Figs. 5, 6, will, however, best aside like a short crank, which, by the facility illustrate its construction. A shows a front with which it turns round in the leathered collar view; and B an interior view; after the end of above the nose of it, can easily be removed into the case with the cog-wheels is removed.
every fresh hole which is made in the bottom by The principle is this : two cylinders of equal the miners. The pumps are supported in the diameter (three inches and a half) and equal pit by beams placed across at proper distances, length (six inches), move in close contact on so as to suit the lengths of the pipes, or lengths axes or pivots, and revolve in opposite directions, of the pump, which are nine feet. Short pieces in an outer case or box. These cylinders have are laid across these, with half circular holes in each two wings, of three-fourths of an inch area, them: which being put round the pump, first and two grooves; and, as they revolve, the wing beneath the flanches, firmly sustain its weight, of one cylinder falls regularly into the groove of but may quickly be removed when it is required the other, alternately, and so in rotation; and in to lower the pumps in the pit; and, as they are order that the groove may present itself regularly not fastened by any bolt, they do not prevent to the wings of the opposite cylinder, and let the pumps being drawn upwards, if it becomes them pass, cog-wheels, placed outside the case, necessary to take out the pumps when the pit is are fixed to the axes or pivots, which project: full of water. The pumps by these means remain these cog-wheels insure not only an even revolu- stationary, and the suction-pipe lengthens as the tion of the two moving parts, but they communi- pit is sunk, until it is drawn out to its full excate the power, which is applied by means of a tent; the whole column is then lowered to the handle, to the axis of a large toothed wheel next flanches, and another pipe is added to the gearing into one of the two cog-wheels.
top. The pumps being thus kept stationary till The pump-case is placed upon a common nine feet are sunk, the pipe at the top will of pipe, descending down to the well twenty-one course deliver the water at the same level at all feet below. Two men, turning the handle, raise times, and, instead of being obliged to lengthen half a ton of water in three minutes with this the column every yard sunk, it will only be nesmall pump; which is allowed to be a most cessary every nine feet. Plate III., fig. 7, exsatisfactory result, considering that, as the first plains the construction of Mr. Brunton's pump, pump constructed on this principle, it has of being a section through the centre of the working course many imperfections.
barrel and suction-piece. A is the door which By substituting an air-vessel, with a hose and upscrews to get at the clack of the pump ; B is pipe, the machine becomes the most simple, the working barrel, with the bucket D working strong, and effectual fire-engine. It may be con- in it; E is the clack, also shown enlarged in verted into a water-wheel, where a small stream figs. 8 and 9; F is the suction-pipe, and GG a with a high fall of water exists, or be acted upon moveable lengthening piece : this slides over, by steam as a rotatory steam-engine.
and includes the other when the pump is first The advantages which it possesses over com- fixed; but, as the pit is sunk, it slides down over mon pumps are manifold and self-evident. the pipe F, to reach the bottom. The outside of The most conspicuous are, a saving of power, on the inner pipe F is turned truly cylindrical and account of the friction being much less than in smooth, and the inside of the outer pipe G, at ordinary pumps. It requires no leathering, being the upper end, for about six inches down, is made entirely of metal; it does not wear, as no made to fit it. The junction is made perfect, by parts touch or rub, except the axes or pivots on leathers being placed in the bottom of the cup their bearings. Its simplicity, strength, and aa, which holds water and wet clay over them, elegance, and the ease with which it is turned to keep them wet and pliable, and consequently into a fire-engine, the saving of room, and weight air-tight. The lower extremity of the suction-pipe in pump work, if applied to deep wells or shafts G, terminates in a nose R, pierced with a numin mines, the advantages as a ship's pump, are ber of small holes, that it may not take up dirt. peculiar, and too numerous here to enumerate. This nose is not placed in a line with the pipe;
Mr. William Brunton, of Butterly iron works but curved to one side of it, like a crank, so as to in Derbyshire, has presented to the Society of describe a circle when turned round. By this Arts an improved pump for mining, which ob- means the miners, by turning it round upon the pipe F, can always place the nose R in the deepest set to work, after the pumps love bern standing part of the pit; and, when they diy or blast a still, and the lower part of the barrel and chainber deeper part, they turn the nose about into it, the empty. slidin: iube lengthening down to reich the bota Vpen a spiral pipe, consistills of many contom of the hole, is shown in the fiure. By this volutions, arranged this unit 1 le plane', or mems there is never a necessity to sta shot for in a cylindrical or conical sulfide, and resolving blasting so near the pump-fuotas to put it in any round a horizontal aus, is connetted it one end dancer of being mjured by the pyplosion, as is by a witor-11.sht joint with an ascending pipe, the cist in the common pump, in wbich this wbile the other end ruceives, durinn eich revodanger can only be avoided by moving the lution, nearly equal quantities of air and water, pump-foot to one side of the pit, which necessa- the machine is calleil at spiral pump. It was rily throws the whole column of pumps out of invented about 17-16, by Andrew Wirtz, a pewthe perpendicular.
terer at Zurich. The end of this pipe is turThe construction of the clack is explained by the nished with a spoon, containing as much water preceding figs., ibe former being a section, and the its will fill half a coil, wuch enters the pipe a utier a plan. LL in it cast-iron rins, fitting into little before the spoon has arrived at its highest a conical scat in the bottom of the chamber of situation; the other hall remainin: full of air, the pump, as shown in tix: 10; it has two stems which communicates the pressure of the column 1,1, rising from il, to support a second iron ring of water to the precedinc portion, and in this manMUI; just beneath this, i bur m extends across per the effect of nearly all the water in the wheel from our stem to another, and has two screws is uites, and becomes equivalent to that of the tapped through it; these press down a second column of water, or of water mixed with air, in cross-bar 17, which holds the leather of the valves the ascending pipe. The air nearest the joint is down upon the cross-bar of the ring I, and this compressed into a space much smaller than that makes it fast, forming the bunge on which the which it occupied at its entrance; so that, where double valves open, without the necessity of the height is considerable, it becomes advisable making iiny holes through the leather, as is com- to admit a larger portion of air than would namon; but the chief advantage is, that by this rurally fill half the coil, and this lessens the means the clack can be repaired, and a new quantity of water raised, but it lessens also the leather put in, with far less loss of time than at force required to turn the machine. The joint presunt, in object of the greatest importance; ought to be conical, in order that it may be for in many situations the water gathers so fast in tightened when it becomes loose, and the presthe pit, that if the clack fails, and cannot be sure ought to be removed from it as much as quickly repaired, the water rises above the clack possible. The loss of power, supposing the madoor, so as to prevent any access to it, and there chine well constructed, irises only from the fricis no remedy in the common pump but drawing tion of the water in the pipe, and the friction of up the whole pile of pumps, which is a most the wheel on its axis; and, where a large quantity tedious and expensive operation. In Mr. Brun- of water is to be raised to a moderate height, tou's pump, the clack can at any time be drawn out both of these resistencs may be rendered of it, by first drawin: out the bucket, and letting inconsiderable. But, when the height is very down an iron pronz 2, which has hooks on the great, the longth of the wpiral must be much inoutside of its iwo points : this, when dropped creased, so that the weight of the pipe becomes clown, will fall into the ring V, and its prougs extremely cumbersome, and causes a great fricspringiug out will catch the under side, and hold tion on the axis, as well as a strain on the mait first enough to draw it up. Another part of chinery: thus, for a height of forty feet, Dr. Vr. Bruntoni's improvement consists in the ad- Young found that the wheel required above 100 dition of a pipe ll, which is cast at the same feet of a pipe which was three-quarters of an aume with the barrel, and communicates with it inch in diameter; and, more than one-half of the at the top and botton, just above the clack: at pipe being always full of water, we have to overthe upper end the pipe is covered by a Hat sliding come the friction of about eighty feet of such a plate, which can be moved by a small rod b, pipe, which will require twenty-four times as pissing through a collar of leather; the rod bas much excess of pressure in produce a given vea communication by a lever, so that the valve locity, as if there were no friction. The centrican be opened or shut by the men in the bottom fugal force of the water in the wheel would, also, of the pit. The object of this side pipe is to let materially impede its ascent if the velocity were down such a proportion of the water which the considerable, since it would be always possible pimp draws, is will prevent its drawing air; to turn it so rapidly as to throw the whole water though, of course, the motion of the engine will bach into the spoon. The machine wbich Dr. be so adapted is not to require a great proportion Youns had (tected beinr out of repair, he of the water to be thus returned through the side thought it more eligible to substitute for it a pipe, yet it will not be possible to work the common forcing-pump, than 10 attempt to make engine so corrently as not to draw some without any fiuther improvement in it, under circumthis contrivance, ind, if it does, it draws up much stances so unfavorable. But if the wheel, with dirt and pieces of stone into the pump, besides its pipes, were entirely made of wood, it night causint the engine to work very irrparularly, in in many cases succeed better; or the pipes may consequence of partially losing its load every be made of tuned copper, or even of earthentime the air enters the pump. Another one of ware, lihich might be cheaper and lighter than the side pipe is to let denn water into the cham- loud. ber of the clack to fill it, when the engine is tirst The chain-pump consists of two square or cylindrical barrels, through which a chain passes, there should happen upon any occasion to be an having a great number of fat pistons, or valves, obstruction in the valves, they are both within fixed upon it at proper distances. The chain the reach of a person's hand, and may be cleared passes round a wheel, fixed at one end of the at once, without the disjunction of any part of machine. The teeth of this are so contrived the pump-and that the pamp is rendered caas to receive one-half of the Aat pistons, which pable of being instantaneously converted into an go free of the sides of the barrel by nearly a engine for extinguishing fire. Besides, it occuquarter of an inch, and let them fold in, and pies very little space in the hold, and thus saves they take hold of the links as they rise. A room for stowage. whole row of the pistons, which go free of the But this pump is not confined to nautical uses sides of the barrel by nearly a quarter of an inch, alone; its adaptation extends to the raising of are always lifting when the pump is at work, and, water in all situations, and with peculiar advanas this machine is generally worked with rapi- tage where it happens to be mixed with sand or dity, they bring up a full bore of water in the substances which destroy other pumps, as, for pump. It is worked either by one or two han- instance, in alum-works, in mines, in quarries, in dles, according to the labor required.
the clearing of foundations; and in its double The many fatal accidents which happen to capacity it will be very convenient in gardens, ships, from the choking of their pumps, makes bleaching-grounds, in stable, and farm yards, it an important object in naval affairs to find and in all manufactories, or other places, where some machine for freeing ships from water, not there is a necessity for raising water and the risk liable to so dangerous a defect. The chain-pump, of fire. being found least exceptionable in this respect, With all these advantages, it is a simple and was adopted in the British navy ; but the chain- durable pump, and may be made either of metal pump itself is not free froin imperfections. If or wood, at a moderate expense. the valves are not well fitted to the cylinders, Fig. 1, plate IV. HYDROSTATICs and HYDRAUthrough which they move, much water will fall Lics, is a vertical section of the pump, as made back; if they are well fitted the friction of many of metal, in which A is the suction-piece, B the valves must be considerable, besides the friction inner valve, C the outer valve. of the chain round the sprocket-wheels, and that The valves are of the kind called clack-valves. of the wheels themselves. To which may be Their hinges are generally made of metal, as added the great wear of leathers, and the disad- being more durable than leather. vantage which attends the surging and breaking D the working-barrel, E the piston, G the of the chain. The preference, therefore, which spout. has been given to chain-pumps over those which . The following parts are necessary only when work by the pressure of the atmosphere, must the pump is intended to act as a fire-engine. have arisen from one circumstance, that they have H an air-vessel, which is screwed like a hosebeen found less liable to choke.
pipe, that it may, at pleasure, the more readily In point of friction, of coolness, and of cheap- be fixed or unfixed. ness, the sucking pump has so evidently the ad- There is a perforated stopple for the spout, vantage over the chain-pump, that it will not fail made for receiving such pipes as are common to to gain the preference, whenever it shall be no fire-engines. It is oval and tapered, and, being longer liable to be choked with gravel and with introduced transversely, upon being pulled back,
becomes immediately tight. Buchanan's pump, which, like the common These parts being provided, all that is nepump, acts by the pressure of the atmosphere, is cessary to make the pump act as a fire-engine, not liable to the defects incident to other pumps after having been used as a sucking-pump, is to upon that principle, being essentially different plug up the spout with the stopple. from any in general use.
No particular mode being essential in the The principal object of its invention was to working of this pump, it may, according to remove the imperfection of choking, and, in at- choice, or circumstances, be wrought by all the taining this important end, a variety of collateral methods practised with the common pump. In advantages have also been produced, which en- many cases, however, it may be advantageous to hance its utility.
have two of them so connected as to have an The points in which it differs essentially from aliernate motion, in which case one air-vessel, the common pump, and by which it excels, are, and even one suction-piece, might serve both. that it discharges the water below the piston, and The usual method of working pumps, either in has its valves lying near each other.
distilleries, &c., or on board ships, is to force The advantages of this arrangement are-that the water to the top of the barrel, and allow it to the sand or other matter, which may be in the run off to a lower level. water, is discharged without injuring the barrel It is quite clear that, if the water in this case or the piston-leathers; so that, besides avoiding descends from the top of the pump to a place of unnecessary wear and tear, the power of the delivery much below the top of the pump-barrel, pump is preserved, and not apt to be diminished the fall of the water through this height is a meor destroyed in moments of danger, as is often chanical force which is entirely wasted, and the case with the common and chain-pumps, which may be actually employed in raising the that the valves are not confined to any particular water through a part of the pump-barrel. Mr. dimensions, but may be inade capable of dis- Witty avails himself of this power in a very incharging every thing that can rise in the suction- genious manner. Instead of letting the water piece, without danger of being choked-that, if or liquid escape from a common pump, at the
usual place of delivery, I caused it to descindd lever or brake bingo bent at right ancies at a again in a syphon-pipe to the lowest level at centre pin, v that it hangs straight down when which it can conveniently be delivered; and as it is at rest, instead of being horizontal; then to this descent is considerable in ships, brewhouses, the lower extremity a rool is jointed, which is &c., a considerable savings of labor is effected in carried rather in an inclined direction upuards to working pumps bva descending column of water the seaman, who is seated before the pump with a or liquor, co'interbalancing as much in length of rest for his feet. The rod has a cross handle, to the rising column in the pump, as the height lold by both hands, and in some cases it may be which it descends in the syphon-pipe, to the made long enough for two men to sit side by side place where it can be delivered.' ile have no upon the same seat; and by drawing and pushdoubt thai this invention will be found to be of ing it in the same manner als rowing, the perpencreat practical value, as it relieves the men at the dicular lever is caused to vibrate, and the horipump of a very great part of their labor. 1. 2ontal arm, or bended part wbich suspends the cases of dancer, at sea, it may prove the means pump spear, partakes of the motion suiliciently of saving both the ship and the crew.
for pumping. If we consider the water, which in ordinary The latest improvements in ship-pumps are by pumps falls from th: top of the barrel to the captain Jekyl. This gentleman has invented an place of its réception, as a rchanical arcowbri adilition to the pump of an air vesstil, and a is lost, we may avail ourselves oi ii, by !?rious stuiling-box for the road to pass through, by wuch contrivities, for assisting in the work to be per- it will raise the water to a greater belhi than forand. In Jr. liitty's contrivine, the men at the head of the pump, and at home buin attached the pulp raise the water to the bottom of the to the pump spout, ly very simple nous, the shori leg of the syphion, and it is thaun drawn water is convryed to any desired part of the ship, through the syphon by the action of the longer and thrown in i jet tirnch a nose-pipe with branch. There are many cases, however, wlien great force, to extinguistire, if such a calamity we may allow the men to raise tit Hilt's to the should letal a ship, and thus the pump is rentop of the birrel, and employ the direct force of deren of t180-folil service. The idea of convertthe descending thuid to work in other pump, oring the pump to a fire-lirine is not ju', having perform any other piece of work that may be re- been attempted in many differnt ways by
forcin-pum,; but then havus pipes proceed. Mr. Robert Clarke, of Sunderland, has pri- ins from the lower part of the barrels and valves, posed an improvement in the made of applying which are not very il0Cessible, are always liable men's force to pumping, which is worthy the to choke up by obstructions, and have not succonsideration of seamen. It is to chan ė the cecled in mineral use. The air-vessel is always posture of standing to sitting, and making the been in the wav; if made of a sufficient size to action the same as that of rowing, which, besides answer the purpose of equalizing the stream. that it is by philosophers considered as the most Captain Jekyl has obvinted these objections, and, efficacious application of a man's force, is to seawithout altering the material parts of the handmen most particularly so froin their habitual pump), has rendere: it as complete a fire-engine practice of it. lle objects in the ordinary action as can be wished. This is explained by tig. ?, of pumping with a brake, ils the posture is weak, plate 11., which is a section of the pump through and requires much force to preserve it. It op- iis whole lengu. ABC is the iron brake or presne's the man by over-stretching his loins on lever to work it. It is branched at the same exone side, and incommodes respiration by the treme end, and has a wooden pole, C, tixed in Hlexure of the body on the other side. Too much it, for several men to hold at once: D is the iron mouon of the shoulder-joint is required, as the stanchi'n or fulerum of the brake; it is fixed murles which act on the arm-bone at this joint, to the purp-euil by means of strong iron hoops are disproportionate to the effort they must make, at EE and FF, which at the same time strengthen when the ara vibrates on the shoulder-joints as the work of the pump The centrc-pin is to be a centre, for the force to be communicates by the at a height of two feet six inches above the ship's hand. Besides this, the arms themselves are at deck. II are the slings of the pump, united by one instant enfeebled, ly being thrown above a furlock or pin to the end of the brake, and the head and requurinsa pull, and the next in- suspending the pump-spear I, by means of the stant requiring a pushing effort; which changes joint-piece y. This the pump-spear, marie of of direction, in the exertion and sustaining force, copper in the upper part I, a'd the lower length are to continual and rapid for long continuance; K of iron : the latter has the bucket attached in standing, too, the body is a continuer deal to it. The valve of the bucket is made in a very witht on the las
simple and efective manner; the valle being The action of rowing is powerful to a surprise merely a round plate of brass, with a hole through in de ree, and so well alated to a man's case, the centre to receive the rol, upon which it rises that he can continue it a greater loth of time and falls, and covers the aperture in the bucket. without fati rue, than any otherinode of exertion; The bucket is a ring of brass, with a cross bar to for, then the motion is large, it is made up of fix the rod in: it is made in two thicknesses, one easy motions in several joints; the velocity and above the other, and a cup of lrather is held restance of which, suit the muscles emplovel, in between them, projecting all round the upper Verv little sustainin' force is required; for the part of the buchet, and turning up, 1 malet boily is supported, and ruins unkaril to its right fittings in the 13:rrel. The tivo rings of the claire: the breathin lao is free. The muner bucket are held together by the piston-rod piss
mirrying this inte etlectis Vart simple: the ing through both, and I (TOSS-werp bencatii. L is the brass chamber in which the bucket the receiver, conveys the whole water to any part works: it is well fitted into the wood of the pump- of the ship. The receiver has the three nozzles tree, so that the water cannot leak by it, and is k k k at one end made in a divergent direction, bored smooth withinside. N is the lower box, agreeably to the directions in which the hoses fitted into the lower part of the pump-tree, be- come from the three different pumps, and a valve neath the chamber : it has a groove round it into is placed withinside, before each hose, to open which oakum is placed, and when it is put inwards, in order that the receiver may be used down inakes a tight joint: its valve is of the same for one or two pumps, whilst the others are reconstruction as that of the bucket, with the ad- pairing or getting ready, or that, if any of the dition of a ring or eye on the top of the pin, on hoses burst, the water may not escape from the which the valve rises and falls. By this eye the receiver at that nozzle. There are two handles box can be drawn up when it needs repair, by fixed to the receiver, to lift and carry it, as it is first drawing up the bucket of the pump, and to be moveable, and when in use is proposed to putting an iron hook down into this eye. VOP be laid on the grating of the main hatchway, as is the air-vessel : this is a cylinder of sheet cop- the most central situation, from which the hose per, soldered to a cover of brass ;. within the may be carried in any direction. Z is a branch centre of it is a tube, likewise soldered to the pipe, or jet, screwed at the end of the great hose cover, through which the copper pump-spear X; and it also unscrews at the extreme end, to passes, and is fitted round at top with a collar of fit on jets of different bores, in the same manner leather and stuffing. To prevent the escape of the as all other fire-engines. In working, the pressure water, it is packed with hemp and two rings of of the water condenses the air contained in the leather. R shows the place of two iron bars, receiver, O OP, into a small space, and its refitted through the head of the pump, and confin- action to resume its former bulk equalizes the ing the cover, 0, 0, of the air-vessel ; they are efflux of water from the nozzle of the pump. fastened by the wedges d: it is by these only In some experiinents it performed as well as that the air-vessel is held down : a circle of lea- could be desired, a single pump forming a very ther is first put round the air-vessel, just beneath effective engine; but, when the three were comits lid, and this, being pressed upon the recess bined, it was superior in force to any ever seen, in the wood, makes the joint tight. I is the and would throw a stream of an inch in diameter pump nozzle, which delivers the water. When over the main top-mast head of a seventy-four it is used as a fire-engine, a hose is fixed on by gun ship. Besides, the length of the handle C its link-joints, and keys or wedges: the nozzle is admitting several men to work at once, an accesfixed to the pump by four screw-bolts going sion of force is gained by a rope 1, made fast to through the thickness of the pump, and is fixed the brake A B, and conducted through a single in such a direction as will most conveniently lead block, hooked to the deck at m, and thence along to a receiver which unites the hoses from all three the ship's deck. At this any number of men of the ship's pumps.
may be applied very advantageously to produce Fig. 3 is the link joint of the hose, T repre- the stroke, leaving those at the handle only to resenting the pump-spout, made of cast iron, and turn it by lifting the handle. If the ship proves screwed to the pump-tree; ee is the collar or leaky, and the stuffing-box is thought to be an socket, made of brass, with the hose X bound obstruction to the working of the pump, the airupon it. This has two trunnions, on which a vessel may be taken out, by drawing the wedges link, f, is fitted, one on each side; these links d, and taking out the bars R, which confine it; pass through grooves in the cast-iron piece T, then after taking out the key which connects the and a key g, put down through the link behind joint-piece g with the copper rod, also removing it, draws the joint tight, without any screwing or the brake, lift out the air-vessel by the two screws farther trouble. The socket ee is fitted into the of the stuffing-box, and fix on the joint-piece nozzle, and has a leather ring to make it tight. again; but fix the guide-eye H in the lowest The outside of the pump is to be hooped at every pair of holes, so that it will receive the top of the three feet, to prevent it from bursting by the copper rod, and prevent the pump-spear having pressure of the water. The disposition of the any play in the slings. In this state it acts as a three hand-pumps in a ship's well renders their common hand-pump, but the air-vessel can be connexion with a common receiver very conve- restored to its place and be ready for work in two nient to bring all the water into one stream, minutes. To prevent any of the work being which will then be very powerful, and more capa- neglected from carelessness, the inventer proble of extinguishing a fire than any moveable poses that one of the pumps shall be always used engine. Two hand-pumps are always placed on to wash the ship by the hose and jet in the mornthe starboard side of the main-mast, in the well, ing, which it would do much more effectively and one of them being the cistern pump, used than by the present mode of raising the water into for washing decks, its foot stands upon a small buckets; and the force with which the jet of cistern fixed upon the step of the main-mast, and water is thrown would very completely wash into supplied with water by a pipe through the ship's every recess of the gun-carriages, and other side, with a cock to admit it at pleasure; there is places where a brush cannot reach; while, by one pump on the larboard side of the mast, three this constant exercise, the pumps would always separate hoses being united with each of the be ready, at a moment's notice, on an alarm of pumps by a link-joint at one end, and, with three fire. necks attached by similar joints at the other. The following simple and ingenious method bringing all the water into one; and a hose being of working a ship's pump, when the crew are · joined by a link-joint, l, to the opposite end of either too few in number, or too much exhausted