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from Xalapa, a town in New Spain, in the neigh- Mahrattas in 1803, and by them ceded to the
It is an
Jalnay, or JALNAPORE, a town and fortress excellent purgative where serous humours are to be
of Hindostan, the capital of the above district, is evacuated.
Hill's Mat. Med.
now the head-quarters of the nizam's subsidiary JALAP. See ConvoLVULUS. This root is force. The town and fort are on opposite sides brought in thin transverse slices from Xalapa in of the river. Long. 76° 34' E., lat. 19° 45' N. New Spain. Such pieces should be chosen as JALOFFS, or QUALOFFS, are a people of are most compact, hard, weighty, dark-colored, Africa, who occupy most of the country between and bound most with black circular striæ. Slices the lower part of the Gambia and that of the of bryony root, when mixed with those of jalap, Senegal. Their territory is reckoned, by Mr. may be easily distinguished by their whiter co- Golberry to occupy 4800 square leagues. They lor and less compact texture. Jalap in substànce, are of handsoine person for negroes, their color taken in a dose of about half a dram in plethoric, being a fine bright black, and their features, upon or cold phlegmatic habits, proves an effectual, the whole, regular and graceful. They boast of and in general a safe purgative. In hypochon- being the most ancient nation in this part of driacal disorders, and hot bilious temperaments, Africa, and were formerly subject to a common it gripes violently, but rarely takes effect as a sovereign, called the Burb-y-Jaloff, who still purge. An extract made by water purges almost occupies a considerable country in the inteuniversally, but weakly, and has a considerable rior. The Jaloffs profess Mahommedanism, effect by urine. The root remaining after this but combine with it many of their own superprocess gripes violently. The pure resin, pre- stitions. They are fearless hunters and brave pared by spirit of wine, occasions most violent warriors. Those inhabiting the towns rank also gripings, and other distressing symptoms, but among the most expert thieves in the world, scarce proves at all cathartic: triturated with using their toes with the same dexterity as their sugar or with almonds into the form of an emul- fingers. They excel in the manufacture of cotsion, or dissolved in spirits, and mixed with syrups, ton cloth, to which they give a superior dye; it purges plentifully in a small dose, without ec- and great quantities of a particular bean are excasioning much disorder : the part of the jalap ported to Morocco for the purposes of dyeing. remaining, after the separation of the resin, yields The language of the Jaloffs is agreeable and soft; to water an extract, which has no effect as a ca- but they have a singular mode of numeration, thartic, but operates powerfully by urine, Its using as its basis the number five; and all their officinal preparations are an extract made with calculations are performed by the motion of the water and spirit, a simple tincture and compound fingers, for they write nothing. powder. By M. Henry's analysis, the consti JAM, 11. s. "Arab. jama. A conserve of fruits tuents of this root are,
boiled with sugar and water. Jal. sain.
JAMAICA, the most considerable and valuable Resin
of the British West India Islands, is separated
from the west end of St. Domingo, by the chanStarch
nel called by our seamen the Windward Passage. Woody fibre
The island is 150 miles long and forty broad, 210
containing 4,080,000 acres ; thus distributed : 500
690,000 acres are under sugar canes, and wood
for the use of the sugar-works.
700,000 in pasture. JALEMUS, in antiquity, a kind of mournful 350,000 all other species of agriculture. song, used upon occasion of death, or any other affecting accident. Hence the Greek proverbs, 1,740,000, leaving upwards of 2,000,000 of acres ταλεμε οικρότερος, ,
i. e. more sad than a jalemus; of unproductive mountain land, of which not εις τας ιαλεμες εγγραπτέος, worthy to be ranked above a quarter is improvable. among jalemuses.
The Blue Mountains are an elevated ridge, JALLONKADOO, a considerable country of which runs through the island longitudinally, Western Africa, which includes the sources of and is covered with vast forests of mahogany, the Bafing, and of almost all the other rivers lignum vitæ, iron wood, log-wood, brazilletto, which form the Senegal. It is mountainous, and and many other heavy and close-grained woods. in many parts barren. The inhabitants are On the north, at a small distance from the sea, governed by a number of petty chiefs, commonly the land rises in small round-topped hills, eaat enmity with each other; and their language thered with spontaneous groves of pimento, differs considerably from that of the Mandingos, under whose shade is a beautiful turfy carpet. though there is a great affinity in many words. This side of the island is also finely watered, Caravans travel for five days here without seeing every valley having its rivulet and every bill its a human habitation; and if any of the party is cascade, many of which tumble from overunable to keep up with the rest, he has little hanging cliffs into the sea. In the back ground hope but of perishing with hunger, or by wild a vast amphitheatre of forest presents itself. beasts.
melting gradually into the distant Blue MounJALNAII, a district of Hindostan, in the tains, whose heads are lost in the clouds. On province of Aurungabad, situated between the the south coast the picture is more sublime, but nineteenth and twentieth degrees of northern less pleasing. The mountains, approaching the latitude. It was taken by the British from the sea in stupendous ridges, first present to the na VOL. XI.
vigator a scene of magnificent savageness; but cashew apple, granadilla, prickly pear, pine on Hearing the land the picture softens, cultivated apple, &c. The orange, lime, lemon, mango, spots being perceived on the sides of the hills, and grape have been naturalised, as well as the and at last the vast savannahs, covered with cinnamon tree, of which there are now considesugar canes, stretching from the sea to the foot rable plantations. The horned cattle, sheep, and of the mountains, offer the pleasing indication hogs, of the island are abundant and their flesh of human industry.
excellent. The indigenous quadrupeds of JaJamaica has upwards of 100 rivers, rising in maica are the armadillo, the opossum, the racoon, the mountains and running with torrent rapidity the acouti, the pecare or Mexican hog, the muske to the sea. This rapidity, as well as the obstruc rat, the alco, and the monkey. Of these only tions from rocks, renders them unnavigable by the agouti and the monkey now remain. Of any thing but canoes. The deepest is Black River the lizard there are many varieties. The woods on the south coast, which flows gently through and marshes abound in great variety of wild a considerable tract of level country, and is ra- fowl, some of them of exquisite flavor.' Of these vigable by flat boats thirty miles. The island the most highly esteemed is the ortolan or Ochas also some medicinal springs, warm, sulphu- tober bird, or rice bird of South Carolina. These reous, and chalybeate.
birds arrive in South Carolina in the month of Appearances of metals are observed in the September, to devour the rice; and, remaining island, but the industry of the English colonists there about three weeks, arrive in prodigious has always been more wisely employed in the fights in Jamaica, about the month of October. certain profits of agriculture.
Parrots are still found in the groves. The folThe climate of this island, even on the coasts, lowing was the progressive population of Jamaica is temperate, the medium heat at Kingston to 1812 :throughout the year being 80° and the least 70%. In ascending towards the mountains, the tem
Whites. Free people of color. Slaves. perature quickly alters with the elevation. Eight miles from Kingston the maximum is but 70';
1.400 at fourteen miles, where the elevation is 4200
8,000 feet, the general range is 55° to 65°, and
86,146 the minimum in winter 44o. On the highest
112,128 summit, called Blue Mountain Peak, 7431 feet
176.914 above the sea, the range in the summer is from
190,914 47° at sunrise to 58° at noon, and the minimum
1787 30,000 10,000
250,000 in winter is 42o.
280,000 Besides the staple exports, consisting of sugar,
359,812 indigo, coffee and cotton, the cultivated vegetables of Jamaica are maize, Guinea coru, and calavances, for the food of the negroes; and
The official value of the imports from Jamaica almost all the kitchen vegetables of Europe, ton into England, and exports to the island : gether with many indigenous ones, as the sweet potatoe, yam, eddoe root, callaloo (a kind of
Imports. Exports. spinach, and the commonest substitute for greens, cassava, okery, &c.
1809 (1,068,097 £3,033,234 Few of the northern European fruits thrive,
1810 4,303,337 2,303,179 but the indigenous ones are numerous and delicious; the principal are the plantain, COCO2nut, guava, sour-sop, sweet-sop, papaw custard The principal objects of export from the island apple, manmee apple, avocado pear, star apple, were,
In 1807, when the exports were somewhat inferior to the above years, the number of vessels that cleared out from the island was,
Е, amre 1 the meat 11
The revenues are perpetual and annual. The and eighty smaller vessels load here annually. perpetual revenue law, which was passed in the Falmouth, the third town, is also on the north year 1728, raises about £12,000 per annum. coast, on the south side of Martha Brea HarThe other public revenues are derived from oc- bour; including the villages of Martha Brea casional grants of the legislature. The principal and the Rock, the number of houses is 250. taxes consist of a duty of twenty shillings per Thirty large ships, besides small vessels, load head on all negroes imported, a duty on all here for England. rum and other spirits consumed within the The villages of Jamaica are generally small island, a poll tax on all slaves and stock, and a hamlets on the bays, where the produce is shipped rate on rents and wheel carriages. There is also in the droggers to be couveyed to the ports of a penalty imposed on all persons who fail to clearance. The few other places worthy of keep one white person for every thirty blacks, mention are Lucea Harbour on the north coast, which has become a productive source of re and Bluefields and Carlisle Bay on the south.
Jamaica was discovered in 1494 by Columbus. Jamaica is divided into three counties, viz. He was shipwrecked on it in 1503; and re
mained here on this occasion, in considerable
distress, more than twelve months. A Spanish Parishes. Town. Villages. colony was established on it in the year 1309;
all whose establishments were abandoned in Middlesex 8
13 1655, except St. Jago de la Vega. Diego, the Surrey
son of Columbus, according to the powers granted
to his father by the king of Spain, appointed Esquivel, a noble Castilian, as governor of the
ople of cala, ?
newly discovered island, in the year 1506, who The capital is St. Jago de la Vega, or Spanish built a town, called Sevilla Nueva, near the spot Town, on the river Cobre, six miles from the where Columbus was shipwrecked. In the year south coast, and in the county of Middle- 1596 Sir Anthony Shirley invaded and plun
It contains about 5000 inhabitants, and is dered Jamaica, and about forty years afterwards the residence of the governor, whose palace is it was again plundered by a party of English, a magnificent building.
under colonel Jackson. In the year 1655 this The legislature of the island is composed of island was taken by the English, under the comthe governor, a council nominated by the crown, mand of Penn and Venables, who had been sent consisting of twelve gentlemen, and a house of by Cromwell to seize on Hispaniola: it was assembly containing forty-three members, elected afterwards settled by 3000 soldiers, disbanded by the freeholders. The power of making laws from the parliamentary army; and these were is vested in the assembly and the governor, who followed by 1500 royalists. From this time the has the privilege of a veto on the acts of the colony has gradually increased in importance, legislative body; and a further power of rejec though its tranquillity has been occasionally distion is reserved to the crown. Until his ma- turbed by the inroads of the Maroons, the slaves jesty's pleasure is known, however, laws are of the Spanish settlers, who, on the surrender of valid.
the island to the English, fled to the mountains, The two towns of the county of Surrey are where they have since lived in an almost savage Kingston and Port Royal; the latter situated on
In 1738 a treaty was concluded with a narrow sandy peninsula that separates Port them, by which their freedom was secured, along Royal Bay from Kingston Harbour. In 1692 this with a grant of 1500 acres of land. They retown contained 2000 houses, when an earthquake mained peaceable till the year 1795, when a new swallowed nine-tenths of it, covering the houses war commenced between them and the white with seven fathoms water. It was immediately inhabitants. Being vigorously attacked, howrebuilt, but ten years after it was destroyed by ever, and the barbarous expedient of bloodfire, and being again rebuilt, was a third time hounds being resorted to, for the purpose of destroyed by a hurricane in 1722. This succession tracing their haunts, they were at last compelled of calamities caused the inhabitants to remove to surrender at discretion to their enemies the to Kingston, on the west side of the harbour, whites, by whom about 600 of them were transfive miles from Port Royal ; and here the chief ported to Nova Scotia. Long. 76° 45' W., lat. government offices have been built, but the royal 18° 12' N. naval arsenal, for careening and refitting ships, is at Port Royal.
JAMB, n. s. Fr. jambe, a leg: Any sup The town of Kingston contains about 2000 porter on either side, as the posts of a door. well-built houses : the harbour can hold 1000
No timber is to be laid within twelve inches of tho
Moron. ships, and those of 200 lay at the quays. Both foreside of the chimney jamós. the harbour and bay are protected by strong for IAMBE, in fabulous history, a servant girl of tifications, which place them beyond all possible Metanira, afterwards wife of Celeus, king of insult from an enemy.
Eleusis, who endeavoured to exhilarate Ceres, The towns of the county of Cornwall are,
when she travelled in search of Proserpine. Savannah le Mar, which, being destroyed by the From the humor she displayed on that occasion, hurricane of 1780, now contains but sixiy to free and satirical verses are said to have been seventy houses : it is at the south-west end of called iambics. the island. Montego Bay Town, on the north IA'MBIC, n. s. Fr. iambique ; Lat. iambicoast, contains 225 houses: seventy large ships cus. Verses composed of jambic feet, or a
1 * 1.4.....!
shoni and long syllable alternately: used origin- Venosa, who, in our ace', hath improved music ally in satire, therefore taken for satire.
with new and admirable inventions,' As Jaunes In thy felonious hcart though venom lies,
I. was one of the most accomplished princes It does but touch thy Irish peu, and dies :
that ever filled a throne', he was also one of the Thy genius calls thee not to purchase fame most unfortunate. After spending almost twenty In keen iambicks, but mild anagram. Dryden. years in captivity, and encountering many ditti
LAMBICS, in ancient poetry. See TAMBUS. cultes on his return into his native kugdom, he There are two kinds of iambics, viz. dimeter and was murdered by assassins in the prime of life. triineter; the former contains four feet, and the
Only three of his poems are now extant, viz. latter six. See VERSE.
Christ's kirk on the Green, Peebles at the Play, JAMBLICUS, a celebrated Platonic philoso- and the king's Quair. pher of Colchis, whom Julian equals to Plato. JAMES II., king of Scotland, succeeded his fiHe was the disciple of Anatolius and Por- ther in 1447, when not seven years of age; and phyry, and died in the reign of Constantine the was killed at the siege of Roxburgh in 1460, Great.
aged twenty-nine, JAMBLICUS, another celebrated Platonic phi- JAMES III. succeeded his father in 1460, in losopher, born at Amamen in Suria and nearly the seventh year of his are. The most striking contemporary with the former. Julian wrote feature in his character was his excessive fondseveral letters to him, and it is said he was ness for the fine arts, and for those who excelled poisoned under the reign of Valens. It is not in them, on whom he bestowed his confidence and certainly known to which of the two we ought
tht favor. This excited in his fierce and haughty to attribute the works in Greek under the name
nobles dislike and contempt of their sovereign, of Jamblicus, viz. 1. The History of the Life and indignation against the objects of his favor; of Pythagoras, and the sect of the Pythagoreans. which produced the most pernicious conse2. An Exhortation to the Study of Philosophy. quences, and ended in a rebellion that proved 3. A piece against Porphyry's letter, on the tatal to James, who was slain in 1188, aged mysteries of the Egyptians.
thirty-six IAMBUS, in the Greek and Latin prosody, a JAMES IV. succeeded his father in 1488. He poetical foot, consisting of a short syllable fol subdued his rebellious subjects; and afterwarıls. lowed by a long one; as in
taking part with Louis ST, against Henry VIII.
of England, he was slain in the battle of Flodveva u- ua
den-Field in 1513, aged forty-one. This Latin Oty deyw, Dei meas.
epistles are classical, compared with the barbaIlorace calls the iambus pes citus, a swift rapid rous style of the foreign princes with whom he foot. The name, according to some, took its corresponded. The attention he paid to the cirise from lambus, the son of l'an and Echo, vilisation of his people, and his distribution of who invented this foot. Others derive it from justice, merit the highest praise. lambe, queen of Eleus.s. Others from the JAMES 1. king of Scotland, in 1513, was but Greek 10g, poison; or caußisw, I rail; because eighteen months old when his father lost his iainbics were at first only used in satire.
lite. When of age, he assisted Francis I. of JAMES I., king of Scotland in 1423, fell into France against the emperor Charles l., for which the hands of bis enemies in his thirteenth year, service Francis gave him his eldest daughter in when flying from the snares of his ambitious marriage in 1535. This princess died in two uncle, who governed his dominious, and was years; and James married Mary of Lorraine, suspected of designs against his life. Having daughter of Claud, duke of Guise, and widow secretly embarked for France, the ship was taken of Lewis of Orleans, by whom he had one by an English privateer off Flamborough Head; child, the unfortunate Mary queen of Scots, and the prince and his attendants, among whom born only eight days before his death, which was the earl of Orkney, were contined in a happened December 14th, 1512, in his thirty-fifth neighbouring castle until they were sent to Lon- year. don. He was detained till suminer 1417, when JAMES I. king of England, and VI. of Scotland, Henry V. carried him with him into France in his was the son of Mary queen of Scots, whom he second expedition. Hector Boece tells us, that succeeded in Scotland in 1567, as he did ElizaHlenry IV. and V'. furnished their royal prisoner beth in England in 1603. Strongly attached with the best teachers in all the arts and sciences; to the Protestant religion, he signalised himself and that, by their assistance, he made great in its support; which gave rise to the conspiracy proficiency in every part of learning; that he of the Papists to destroy him and all the English became a perfect master in grammar, rhetoric, nobility by the gunpowder plot, discovered Nopoetry, music, and all the secrets of natural vember 5th, 1005. The chief glory of this king's philosophy, and was inferior to none in divinity reign consisted in the establishment of new coand law. Above a century after his death he lonies, and the introduction of some manufacwas celebrated in Italy by Alexander Tassoni, tures. The nation enjoyed peace, and commerce a writer of undoubted credit: We may reckon Hourished during his reign. Yet his adminisamong moderns (says he) James, king of tration was despised both at home and abroad Scotland, who not only composed many sacred for, being the head of the Protestant cause in pieces of vocal music, but also of hinself in- Europe, he did not support it in the war of Bovented a new kind of music, plaintive and me- hemia; abandoning his son-in-law, the elector lancholy, different from all other; in which he palatine; negociating when he should have hath been imitated by Carlo Gesua'ilo, prince of fought, deceived at the same time by the courts
of Vienna and Madrid; and continually sending Litchfield, and Birmingham. Thence he reillustrious ambassadors to foreign powers, but moved to London, became a licentiate in the never making a single ally. He valued himself College of Physicians, practised physic, and, in much upon his polemical writings; and was so 1743, published a Medicinal Dictionary, in 3 fond of theological disputations, that he founded, vols. folio. Soon after he published an English for this express purpose, Chelsea College; which translation, with a Supplement, by himself, or was converted to a much better use by Charles Rammazini de Morbis Artificum; to which he II. His Basilicon Doron, Commentary on the prefixed a piece of Frederic Hoffman upon EnRevelation, writings against Bellarmine, and his demial Distempers, 8vo. In 1746 he published Dæmonologia, or Doctrine of Witchcraft, are the Practice of Physic, 2 vols. 840.; in 1760 on sufficiently known. There is a collection of his Canine Madness, 8vo.; in 1764 a Dispensatory, writings and speeches in one folio volume. Se- 8vo. In 1755, the king being at Cambridge, he veral other pieces of his are extant; some of was admitted M. D. by mandamus. In 1778 them in the Caballa, others in MS. in the British were published a Dissertation upon Fevers, and Museum, and others in Howard's collection. He a Vindication of the lever Powder, 8vo.; with died in 1625, in the fifty-ninth year of his age,
a short Treatise on the Disorders of Children. and twenty-third of his reign.
This was the eighth edition of the Dissertation, JAMES II. of England and VII. of Scotland, of which the first was printed in 1751; and the grandson of James I., succeeded his brother purpose of it was, to set forth the success of Charles II. in 1685. A bigot from his infancy this powder, as well as to describe more parto the Romish religion and hierarchy, he sacri- ticularly the manner of administering it. The ficed every thing to establish them, in direct Vindication was posthumous and unfinished : contradiction to the experience he had acquired, for he died March 23d, 1776, while employed during the long reign of his brother, of the upon it. genius and character of the people he was to James (St.), surnamed Major, or the Greater, govern. Guided by the Jesuit Peters, his con- the son of Zebedee, and the brother of Jahn the fessor, and the infamous chancellor Jeffries, he evangelist, was borti at Bethsaida, in Galilee. violated the laws enacted for the security of the The only authentic accounts we have of him are Protestant religion; and he rather chose to live and recorded by the evangelists. It is believed that die, as he believed, a saint, than to support the St. James first preached the gospel to the disa dignity of his ancestors, or perish beneath the persed Jews; and afterwards returned to Juden, ruins of his throne. The consequence was the where he preached at Jerusalem, when the Jews revolution in 1688. James II. died in France excited Herod Agrippa against him, who put in 1710, aged sixty-eight. He wrote, 1. Me- him to a cruel death about A. D. 44.' Thus he moirs of his own Life and Campaigns to the was the first of the apostles who suffered marRestoration; the original of which is preserved tyrdom. St. Clement, of Alexandria, relates, in the Scotch College at Paris. This piece is that his accuser was so struck with his constancy, printed at the end of Ramsay's Life of Marshal that he became converted, and suffered with Turenne. 2. Memoirs of the English Affairs, him. The Spaniards pretend that they had St. chiefly naval, from the year 1660 to 1673. 3. James for their apostle, and boast of possessing The Royal Sufferer, king James II., consisting of his body. meditations, soliloquies, vows, &c., composed at JAMES (St.), surnamed Minor, or the Less, an St. Germain's.
apostle, the brother of Jude, and the son of JAMES (Dr. Thomas), a learned English critic Cleophas and Mary, the sister of the mother of and divine, born about 1571. He was educated our Lord, is called in Scripture the Just, and the at Winchester, and studied at Oxford, where he brother of Jesus, who appeared to him in partook his degree of D.D. and was appointed ticular after his resurrection. He was the first keeper of the public library. He distinguished bishop of Jerusalem, when Ananias II., high himself by the arduous undertaking of pub- priest of the Jews, caused him to be condemned, Jishing a catalogue of the MSS. in each college and delivered him into the hands of the people library at both universities. He was elected to and the Pharisees, who threw him down from this office in 1602, and held it eighteen years, the steps of the temple, when a fuller dashed out when he resigned it. In the convocation held his brains with a club, about the year 62. His with the parliament at Oxford, in 1625, of which life was so holy, that Josephus considers the ruin he was a member, he moved to have proper of Jerusalem as a punishment inflicted on that commissioners appointed to collate the MSS. of city for his murder. He was the author of the the fathers in all the libraries in England, with epistle which bears his name. the Popish editions, in order to detect any for JAMES (St.), an hospital and burying ground geries; but, this proposal not meeting with the near Basil, in the Helvetic republic, and near desired encouragement, he engaged in the labo- the small river Birs. It is famous for a desperious task himself, which he continued until his rate battle fought by about 3000 Swiss against death in 1629. He left behind him a great
an ariny of 30,000 French, commanded by the number of learned works.
dauphin, afterwards Louis XI., in which only James (Robert), M.D., an English physician thirty-two of the former remained alive, despeof great eminence, and particularly distinguished rately wounded, on the field of battle. Sixteen by his fever powder, was born at Kinverston, in that escaped from the field were branded with Staffordshire, 1703. He was of St. John's Col- infamy, for not having sacrificed their lives in lege in Oxford, where he took the degree of defence of their country. The conqueror himself, A.3., and afterwards practised.bersic at Shelfield, who was compelled to retire with his army into