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which it is built. The wimble itself consists of The pus from an 0.cer of the liver, growing thin three pieces: two collateral ones, hollowed out and ichorows, corrodes the vessels. Arbuchnot on Diet. into a gutter, serve as a sheath, and contain a Milk, drawn from some animals that feed caly compact, solid, dentated stem, along which runs upon flesh, will be more apt to tun rancid and pa. a groove that conveys the egg from the animal, trify, acquiring árst a saline taste, wbich is a sign of who supports the wimble with its hinder legs, putrefaction, and then it will turn into an ichor. lest it should break; and, by a variety of move
Arbuthnot on Aliments, ments, which it dexterously performs, it bores thicker kind of humor Aowing from ulcers, called
Ichor, in surgery, is sometimes used for a through the building, and deposits one or more eggs, according to the size of the ichneumon, also sanies. though the largest drop but one or two. Some
ICHTHYOCOLLA, isinglass, or fish-glue, agglutinate their eggs upon caterpillars; others from exus, fish, and coma, glue, a preparation penetrate through the caterpillar's eggs, though from the fish named huso. See Accipenser and very hard, and deposit their own in the inside. Chemistry. The best description of isinglass
, When the larva is hatched, its head is so situated, and of the method of making it, is that given by that it pierces the caterpillar, and penetrates to Humphrey Jackson, esq., in the sixty-third voits very entrails. These larvæ suck out the nu
lume of the Philosophical Transactions. All tritious juices of the caterpillar, without attacking authors (he says) who have bitherto delivered the vitals of the creature, who appears healthy, processes for making ichthyocolla, fish-glue, or and even sometimes transforms itself to a chry- isinglass, have greatly mistaken both its corsalis. It is not uncommon to see those cater- stituent matter and preparation. No artificial pillars fixed upon trees, as if they were sitting beat is necessary to the production of isinglass, upon their eggs; and it is afterwards discovered neither is the matter dissolved for this purpose ; that the larvæ, which were within their bodies, for, as the continuity of its fibres would be de have spun their threads, with which, as with stroyed by solution, the mass would become cords, the caterpillars are fastened down, and brittle in drying, and snap short asunder, which so perish miserably. Plant-lice, the larvæ of is always the case with glue, but never with the curculiones, and spider's eggs, are also some- isinglass. The latter, indeed, may be resolved times the cradle of the ichneumon fly. Carcases into glue with boiling water; but its fibrous reof plant-lice, void of motion, are often found on composition would be found impracticable afterrose-tree leaves; they are the habitation of wards, and a fibrous texture is one of the most small larva, which, after having eaten op the distinguishing characteristics of genuine isinglass. entrails, destroys the springs and inward economy A due consideration that an imperfect solution of the plant-louse, performs its metamorphosis of isinglass, called fining by the brewers, posunder shelter of the pellicle which enfolds it
, sessed a peculiar property of clarifying malt contrives itself a small circular outlet, and sallies liquors, induced me to attempt its analysis in forth into open air. There are ichneumons in cold subacid menstruums. One ounce and a the woods, who dare attack spiders, run them half of good isinglass, steeped a few days in a through with their sting, tear them to pieces, and gallon of stale beer, was converted into good thus avenge the whole nation of flies of so for fining, of a remarkably thick consistence; the midable a foe: others, destitute of wings, and saine quantity of glue, under similar treatment, those are females, deposit their eggs in spiders' yielded only a mucilaginous liquor resembling The ichneumon of the bedeguar, or
gum-water, which, instead of clarifying sweet-briar sponge, and that of the rose-tree, beer, increased both its tenacity and turbidness
, perhaps only deposit their eggs in those places, and communicated other properties in no respect because they find other insects on which they corresponding with those of genuine fining. If feed.
what is commercially termed long or short ICHNOGʻRAPHY, n. s. Gr. ixvoç and ypáow. stapled isinglass be steeped
few hours in fair The ground plot.
cold water, the entwisted membranes will expand, It will be more intelligible to have a draught of by a dexterous address, may be perfectly una
and re-assume their original beautiful hue, and, each front in a paper by itself, and also to have a draught of the ground-plot or ichnography of every
folded.' The sounds, or air-bladders, of fresh. story in a paper by itself.
water fish in general, are preferred for this ICHNOGRAPHY, in perspective, from vyvos, delicate substances. These constitute the finest
purpose, as being the most transparent, fiexible, footstep, and ypapw, to write, is the view of any sorts of isinglass ; those called book and ordithing cut off by a plane parallel to the horizon, nary staple are made of the intestines, and pre just at the base of it. Icinography, among painters, signifies a de- yields the greatest quantity, as being the largest
bably of the peritonæum of the fish. The belluga scription of images or of ancient statues of marble and most plentiful fish in the Museovy rivers, ings in fresco, mosaic works, and ancient pieces or less fine isinglass, particularly the smaller of miniature. I'CHOR, n. s. Gr. ixwp. A thin sanious pian Sea, and several hundred miles beyond
sorts, found in prodigious quantities in the CasI'Chorous, adj. } watery fluid like serum : Astrakhan, in the Wolga, Yaik, Don, and even ichorous, a serous, sapious, undigested state of a
as far as Siberia, where it is called kle or kla by wound or ulcer.
the natives, which implies a glutinous matter; The lung-growth is imputed to a superficial sanious it is the basis of the Russian glue, which is pre
Harvey on Consumption. ferred to all other kinds for its strength. The
or ichorou extilceration.
sounds, which yield the finer isinglass, consist of and frequently injurious to its native qualities.
here from the supposed peculiar sanctity of the condemned the worship and use of images; and ground. Bede calls it Hi; but the proper his successor Leo IV. pursued the same meaname is I, which in the Gaelic signifies an island. sures, and enacted penal statutes to extirpate The name lona is now quite lost, and it is al- idolatry. Irene, who poisoned her husband Leo ways called I, except when the speaker would in 780, and usurped the throne during the minowish to lay an emphasis upon the word ; it is rity of her son Constantine, summoned a council then called Icolumkill. It lies in the Atlantic, at Nice in Bithynia, in 786, called the second and is separated from the west point of Ross by Nicene council, which restored the worship of a narrow channel, called the Sound of I. It is images, and denounced severe punishments about three miles long, and from half a mile to a against those who maintained, that God was the mile in breadth. It is flat, consisting of heath, only object of religious adoration. Charlemagne green pasture, rocks, and arable ground, very distinguished himself as a mediator in this con fertile.'
troversy: he ordered four books to be composed, I'CON, n. s. ) Greek, Eixovoklasns, refuting the arguments urged by the Nicene biIcox'OCLAST, n. s. Elkwy and kiálw. Icon, i shops to justify the worship of images; which
ICONOLOGY, N.s. picture, or representation: le sent to pope Adrian in 700, to engage him to iconoclast, a breaker of imayes: iconology, the withdraw his approbation of the decrees of the doctrine of representation by a picture.
last council of Nice. Adrian wrote an answer; Some of our own nation, and many Netherlanders, and in 794 a council of 300 bishops, assembled whose names and icons are published, have deserved by Charlemagne at Frankfort on the Maine, congood commendation. Hakeuill on Providence firmed the opinion contained in the four books,
Boysardus, in his tract of divination, hath set forth and solemnly condemned the worship of images. the icons of these ten, yet added iwo others.
In the Greek church, after the banishment of Brow'ne's Vulgar Errors. Irene, the controversy concerning images broke ICONIUM, in ancient geography, the capital out anew, and was carried on by the contending city of Lycaonia in Asia Minor, now called parties, during half the ninth century, with vaCogni. St. Paul coming to Iconium (ilcts xii. rious success. The emperor Vicephorus appears 51; xiv. 1,&c.), in A. D. 45, converted many Jews to have been an enemy to this worship; but bis and Gentiles there. But some incredulous Jews successor, Michael Curopalates, patronised and excited the Gentiles to rise against Paul and Bar- encouraged it. But the scene changed on the nabas, which obliged them to fly to the neigh accession of Leo the Armenian, who assembled bouring cities. St. Paul undertook a second jour- a council at Constantinople in 814, that abolishney to Iconium, A. D. 51.
ed the decrees of the Nicene council. His sucICONOCLASTE, ICONOCLASTES, Icono- cessor, Michael Balbus, disapproved the worship CLASTS, are titles which the church of Rome of images, and his sou Theophilus treated the gives to all who reject the use of images. Not idolaters with great severity. However, the emonly the reformed, but some of the eastern press Theodora, after his death, and during the churches, are called Iconoclasta, and esteemed minority of her son, assembled a council at by them heretios, as opposing the worship of the Constantinople in 842, which approved the deimages of God and the sainsts, and breaking crees of the second Nicene council, and restored their representations in churches. The oppo- image-worship. The council held under Phosition to images began in Greece under the em- tius in 879, reckoned by the Greeks the eighth peror Bardanes, soon after the commencement of general council, also confirmed the Nicene dethe cighth century, when the worship of them crees; upon which a festival was instituted by became common. But the tumults occasioned the Greeks, called the feast of orthodoxy. The by it were quelled by a revolution, which, in council of Paris, assembled in 824 by Louis the 713, deprived Bardanes of the imperial throne. Meek, allowed the use of images in churches, The dispute, however, broke out with redoubled but prohibited rendering them religious worship. fury under Leo the Isaurian, who issued out an But, towards the conclusion of this century, the cdict, in 720, abrogating the worship of images. Gallican clergy began to pay a kind of religious This edict occasioned a civil war, which broke homage to the image of saints, and their example out in the islands of the Archipelago, and rava- was followed by the Germans and other nations. ged a part of Asia, and afterwards reached Italy. However, the Iconoclasta still had their adherents The civil commotions in Italy were chiefly pro- among the Latins; the most eminent of whoin moted by the Roman pontiffs, Gregory 1. and was Claudius, bishop of Turin, who, in 8:23, orI. Leo was excommunicated, and his subjects dered all images, and even the cross, to be cast in the Italian provinces, rising in arms, cither out of the churches, and burnt; and he wrote a massacred or banished all the emperor's officers, treatise against the use and worship of them. Leo however assembled a council at Constanti- The controversy was again revived by Leo binople iu 730, which degraded Germanus, the shop of Chalcedon, in the eleventh century, on bishop of that city, who was a patron of images; the emperor Alexiis's converting the silver images and ordered all the images to be publicly burnt. that adorned the churches into money, to supply But the zeal of Gregory II. in favor of image- the exigencies of the state. The bishop mainworship was surpassed by his successor Gregory tained that he had been ruilty of sacrilege, and III. ; in consequence of which the Italian pro- published a treatise 10 show that in these images vinces were torn from the Grecian empire. Con- there resided an inherent sanctity, and that the stantine Copronymus, in 754, convened a council adoration of Christians ought to be extended to at Constantinople, regarded by the Greeks as the them. Alexius assembled a council at Constanseventh acumenical council, which solemnly tinople, which determined, that the images of
Christ and the saints were to be honored only Our Saviour himself, being to set down the perfect
I did infer your lineaments,
Being the right idea of your father ;
Both in your form and nobleness of mind. idolatrous practice was entirely abolished in
Shakspears. many parts of the Christian world by the Re
Her sweet idea wandered through his thoughts.
How good, how fair,
I describe. The description Answering his great idea! Milton's Paradise Lost.
Although simply attired, your manly affectiou utter.
If Chaucer by the best idea wrought,
The fairest nymph before his eyes he set. Dryden. give to those of the Romish communion on
Whatsnever the mind perceives in itself, or is the acconnt of their adoring images. See Icono- standing, that I call idea.
immediate object of perception, thought, or under
There is a two-fold knowledge of material things; ICOSAHEDRON, in geometry, a regular one real, when the thing, and real impression of solid, consisting of twenty triangular pyramids, things on our senses, is perceived; the other ideal, whose vertexes meet in the centre of a sphere when the image or idea of a thing, absent in itself, is supposed to circumscribe it; and therefore have represented to and considered on the imagination. their height and bases equal: wherefore the soli
Cheyne's Philosophical Principles. dity of one of these pyramids multiplied by
The form under which these things appear to the
Delightful task! to rear the tender thought,
To teach the young idea how to shoot, næus's sexual method, consisting of plants with
To pour the fresh instruction o'er the mind,
To breathe the enlivening spirit, and to fix hermaphrodite flowers, which are furnished with
The generous purpose, in the glowing breast. twenty or more stamina, inserted into the inner
IDENTITY, 1. s. Fr. identité ; Lat. idem.
Sareness, as opposed to
IDEN'Tic, adj. diversity, whether
Their majus is identical with magis. Hale.
The beard's the identick beard you knew,
was he deceived that drank aqua-fortis for strong
Browne's Vulgar Errours.
Those ridiculous identical propositions, that faith is
can be solidly concluded either about rule or faith. Also the name of the mountain of Mysia, or
Considering any thing as existing, at any deter-
By cutting off the sense at the end of every first line
produced too frequent an identity in sound, and brings poets for the judgment of Paris. See Paris.
every couplet to the point of an epigram. Prior. IDALIUM, in ancient geography, a promon
If this pre-existent eternity is not compatible with a tory on the east side of Cyprus, now called Capo successive duration, as we clearly and distinctly perdi Griego; with a high rugged eminence rising ceive that it is not, then it romains, that some being, over it, in the form of a table; sacred to Venus. though infinitely above our finite comprehensions, The eminence was covered with a grove. must have had an identical, invariable continuance
JDE'A, n. s. Fr. idée; Gr. cca. Mental from all eternity, which being is no other than God. Ideal, adj. image: ideal, pertaining to
IDES, n s. Fr. ides ; Lat. idus. A term IDE'ALLY, adv.) mind; mental ; intellectual; fanciful; not perceived by the senses.
anciently used among the Romans, and still re
taived in the Romish kalendar. It is the 13th
Life is a tale, day of each month, except in the montlis of Told by an ideol, full of sound and fury, March, May, July and October, in which it is Signifying nothing. Shukspeare. Macbeth. the 15th day, because in these four months it was What else doth he herein, than by a kind of circunia six days before the nones, and in the others four locution tell his humble suppliants that he holds then days.
ideots, or base wretches, not able to get relief? A soothsayer bids you beware of the ides of March.
Raleigh's Essays, Shukspeare. I stand not upon their idiocy in thinking that horses did eat their bits.
Bucon. IDES, in the ancient Roman kalendar, the
Embryos and idiots, eremites and friars, name given to the thirteenth day of the month,
White, black and grey, with all their trumpery. except in March, May, July, and October, in
Millon. which it fell on the fifteenth. The origin of the Scholars sometimes in common speech, or writing, word is contested. Some will have it formed in their native language, give terininations and idiotfrom wow, to see; because the.full moon was com- ioms suitable to their native language unto words newly monly seen on the days of the ides : others from invented.
Hule. Elcos, figure, from the image of the full moon then Many idiots will believe that they see what they visible: others from the letrurian word iduo, only hcar.
Dennis. i. e. I divide, because the ides divided the moon IDIOCY, and Lunacy, in law, excuse from the into two nearly equal parts. The ides came guilt of crimes. See CRDBE. “For the rule of between the kalends and the nones; and, like lew,' says Blackstone, as to lunatics, which them, were rechoned backards. Thus they also may be casily adapted to idiots, is, that called the fourierutti dey of Merch, May, July, furiosus furore solum punitur. In criminal and October, and the twelfth of the other months, cases, therefore, idiots and lunatics are not pridie inns, or the day before the idles; the next chargeable for their own acts, if committed when preceding day they called the trstil ilus; the under these incapacities; no, not even for treanext quartid, and so on, rechoniny always back- son itselt.' waris all they came to the nonesi This method IDIOM, n.s. Fr. idiome ; Gr. iduwua. of reckoning time is still retained in the chancery IDIOMATICAL, adi. A mode of speaking peof Rome, and in the halendar of the breviery. IDIOM UI'lc, adj. culiar 10 a language or The ides of May were consecrateri to Mercury: dialect; the particular cast of a tongue; a phrase; the ides of March were esteemed unhappy, after phraseology. the murder of Cesar on that day; the ides of He did Romanize our tongue, leaving the words August were consecrated to Diana, and were oli- translated as rouch Latin as he found them ; wherein served as a feast day by the siaves. On the indes he followed their languaye, but did not comply with of September, anguries were taken for appoin: the idiom of ours.
Dryden, in the magistrates, who formeuly cuterid into Some that with care true cloquence shall teach, their offices on the ides of Mus, afterwards on And to just idioms fix our doubtful speech. Privr. those of March.
Since phrases used in conversation contract meanIdes (Evert Ysbraut), a Russian traveller ness by passing through the mouths of the vulgar, a employed by Peter the Great, wis a native of poet should guard himself against idiomatick ways of Gluckstadt in Holstein, and, euterins into the speaking.
Spectator. service of the car, was in 1692 sent on an en- IDIOPATIIY, 11.8. Fr. idiopathie ; Gr. vitog bassy to China. After his return to Europe he and talos. A primary disease that neither depublished the Travels of Ysbrant Ides from Mos- pends on nor proceeds from another. cow to China, which were translated into English, THIOPATHY, in medicine, is opposed to symand printed in 1 vol. 1to. in 1706.
pathy. Thus, an epilepsy is idiopathic when it IDIOCʻRACY, n. s.) Fr. idiocrase ; Greek happens merely through some injury in the brain ; IDIOCRAT'ICAL, auti. T os, kvaliç and our and sympathetic when it is the consequence of
IDIOSYNCRASY, a.s.) Peculiarity of constitu- some other disorder. tion; peculiar temperament or disposition of TDIof, or lpkon, in law, denotes a fool from body.
his birth. See Imocy and Luxacy. A person Whether quails, from any idiosyncrasy or peculiarity who has understandig enough to measure a yard of constitution, do innocuously feed upon hellebore, of cloth, number twenty rightly, and tell tie or rather sometimes but medicinally use the same. days of the week, &c., is not an idiot in the eve
Browne's Vulgar Errours. of the law. But a man who is born deaf, duinh, The understanding also hath its idiosyncrasies, as and blind, is considered by the law in the same well as other faculties.
Glanville's Soepsis. state as an idiot. Indeed It is doubted, if ever IDIOCY, n. s.) Fr. idiot; Latin idiota ; such an unfortunate human being has existed. INʻ101, n.s. (Gr. loiwtia, IČWINS, WT- See ANATOMY. Inʻ10TISM, n. s. lolog Idiot is a fool; a I'DLE, adj. & v.n. Sax. ydel; Goth. odåll.
Idioi'ic, adj. natural: an imbecile person I'DLE-ILE ADET), adj. / Lazy ; averse from labor; without the powers of reason : idiocy want of I'DLENES), n. s. disengaged; useless; understanding : idiotism, folly; mental innbe- I'DLER, n. s. vain; unfruitful; barcility; also peculiarity of expression; more l'vly, udi.
ren; trifling; unimporproperly called idiom : idiotic, foolish; weak; lant: idle, to lose time in laziness or inactivity : senseless; like an idiotic. This word is often idleheaded, foolish; unreasonable; delirious; used in a meaning inferior to its full import. infatuated : idleness, laziness; want of emBy idle boys and ideots vilified,
ployment; omission of business; unimportWlo una and 11. y calamites deride. Sandys. ance; inetħcacy; uselessness; foolishness; mail