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of it about forty years. He was not carried cap Contemn the silly taunts of Beering buffoonery; and live to Babylon with the other Jews, but ra the jerks of that wit, that is but a kind of confident mained in Judea to lament the desolation of his folly.
Glanville. country. He was afterwards a prisoner in
Nor blush, should be some grave acquaintance Egypt with his disciple Baruch, where it is sup
meet, posed he died in a very advanced age. Some
But, proud of being known, will jerk and greet. of the Christian fathers say he was stoned to
Dryden. death by the Jews, for preaching against their seeming contradiction of a poor antithesis, neither is
Wit is not the jerk or sting of an epigram, nor the idolatry; others, that he was put to death by it so much the morality of a grave sentence, affected Pharaoh Hophrah, because of his prophecy by Lucan, but more sparingly used by Virgil. Id. against him.
Lobsters use their tails fins, wherewith they JEREMIAH, THE PROPHECY OF, a canonical commonly swim backwards by jerks, ar springs, reach. book of the Old Testament. Part of this pro- ing ten yards at once.
Grew. phecy relates to the time after the captivity of
Bastings heavy, dry, obtuse,
Only dullness can produce ;
While a little gentle jerking the latter captivity, from the forty-fourth chapter
Sets the spirits all a-working.
Swift. to the end. Jeremiah predicts the grievous
JERKIN, n. s. Sax. cyrtelkin. A jacket; calamities that were approaching, particularly
a short coat;
close waistcoat, the seventy years captivity in Chaldea. He also A man may wear it on both sides like a leather foretels their deliverance and happy return, and jerkin.
Shakspeare. the recompence wbich Babylon, Moab, and Then strip thee of thy carnal jerkin, other enemies of the Jews, should meet with in
And give thy outward fellow a firking.
Hudibras. due time. There are likewise several intimations
Unless we should expect that natyre should make in this prophecy concerning the kingdom of the Messiah ; also several remarkable visions and could she do better than afford us wool ?
jerkins and stockings grow out of the ground, what
More. types, and historical passages relating to the
Imagine an ambassador presenting himself in a times. The fifty-second chapter does not belong poor frize jerkin, and lattered clothes, certainly he to the propheay of Jeremiah, but probably was would have but small audience. South's Sermons. added by Ezra, and contains a narrative of the I walked into the sea, in my leathern jerkin, about taking of Jerusalem, and of what happened an hour before higla water.
Gulliver's Travels. during the captivity, to the death of Jechonias. JERKIN, n. s. A kind of hawk.--Ainsworth, St. Jerome has observed that Jeremiah's style is This should be written gyrkin. more easy than that of Isaiah and Hosea, that
JERNINGHAM (Edward), a modern English he retains something of the rusticity of the vil- poet and dramatic writer was descended from lage where he was born; but that he is also at the ancient Roman Catholic family of this name times learned and majestic.
in Norfolk, and brother of Sir William JerningJERICHO, or HiericilUS, in ancient geogra- ham, bart. Burn in 1727, he was sent to the phy, a city of Judea, between Jordan and Jeru- English College at Douay, in Flanders, for his salem, 150 stadia from the latter, and sixty from education, and afterwards removed to Paris. On the former. Josephus says, "the whole space his return to England, however, he became a from Jerusalem is desert and rocky, and equally member of the established church. One of his barren and uncultivated from Jericho to the lake earliest productions was a poem in favor of the Asphaltites; yet the places near the town and Magdalen, which was followed by The Deserter, above it are extremely fertile and delicious, so
1769; The Funeral of Arabert, Monk of La that it may be justly called a divine plain, sur, Trappe, 1771; Faldoni and Teresa, 1773; The passing the rest of the land of Canaan, and Swedish Curate; The Fali of Mexico, 1775; surrounded by hills in the manner of an amphi- Honoria, or the Day of all Souls, 1782 ; The theatre. It produces dates; from which it is Rise and Progress of Scandinavian Poetry, 1784; called the city of palm trees, by Moses. It is Enthusiasm, 1789; &c. His play, called Marnow called Raha; and is situated, Volney in
garet of Anjou, was acted in 1777; the siege of forms us, 'in a plain six or seven leagues long, Berwick, a tragedy, in 1794; and the Welsh by three wide, around which are a number of Heiress, a comedy, in 1795. A collection of barren mountains, that render it, extremely his works appeared in 4 vols. 8vo. 1806. He hot. Here formerly was cultivated the balm of also published An Essay on the Mild Tenor of Mecca.
Christianity, and other religious tracts. His JERK, v. d., v. n. & n. s. Saxon gereccan. death took place November 17th, 1812. Mr. To strike with a quick smart blow; to lash. It
Jerningham is spoken of with respect by lord is sometimes writien yerk; to strike up suddenly, Byron in his English Bards, and was a very as an angler withdraws his line on perceiving a amiable man. bite; to accost eagerly. Jerk, a smart quick JEROME, or HIERONYMUS, (St.), a famous lash; a sudden spring; a jilt.
doctor of the church, and the most learned of all I lack iniquity
the Latin fathers, was the son of Eusebius ; and Sometimes to do me service : nine or ten times
was born at Stridon, a city of ancient Pandonia, I thought to've jerked him here under the ribs.
about A. D. 340. He studied at Rome under Shakspeare. Donatus, the learned grammarian.
After being Well run Tawney, the abbot's churl;
baptized, he went into Gaul, and transcribed
St. Hilary's book De Synodis. He then went
with llelisus, who prevailed on him to travel numerous batteries, but chiefly by Elizabeth with luin mo Thrace, Pontus, Bithyni, Galatia, Castle, standing on a rock insulated at hig'i aud Cappadocia. In 372 he retired into a desert water. in Syria, where he was persecuted by the ortho- On the west side of the island is St. Quen's cox of Melitius's party, as a Sabellian, because Bay, and on the east St. Catherine's Biy, which he male use of the word hypostasis, as used by are safe roads according to the wind. Allibe the council of Rome in 36). This obliged him accessible parts of the island are defended by to go to Jerusalem ; where he studied the llebatteries or towers. See GUERNSEY. brew language, to acquire a more perfect know- Christianity was first planted here, it is belelge of the Holy Scriptures; and consented to lieved, in the sixth century, and the island made be ordained, provided he should not be contined part of the see of Dol n Bretagne. It is now 10 any particular church. In 391 he went to governeil by a dean. Besides the abbey of St. ('onsiantinople to hear St. Gregory of Nazianzen; Helier, there were four priories, Noirmont, St. and in 382 returned to Rome, where he was Clement, Bonnenuil, ind le Leck, and above inacle secretary to pope Damasus. lle soon, twenty chapels, now mostly in ruins. During however, returned to the monastery of Bethle- the American war this island was twice invader hen, where he held a controversy with John of by the French. The first attempt was in 1779. Jerusalem and Rutinus concerning the Origenists; About 6000 men were embarked in flat-botand was the first who wrote against l'elagius. tomed boats, and endeavoured to land in the He died on the 30th of Sptember, 420, about lay of St. Quen, on the 1st of May, supported eighty years of age. The last edition of his by five frigates, and other armed vesseis; but works is that of Verona, in 11 vols. folio. His tiey met with such vigorous resistance, that principal works are, 1. i Latin l'ersion of the they were compelled to retire without having Scriptures, commonly called the l'ulgate. 2. Tanded a single person. Another attempt was Commentaries on the Prophets, Ecclesiasties, St. now resolved on. The troops and seamen were Matthew, and the Epistles to the Galatians, equally desirous of retrieving their honor; but Ephesians, Titus, and Philemon. 3. Polemical they were for some time prevented from making .reatises avainst Montanus, llelvidius, Jovinian, any attempt by bad weather; and, before anooizilantius, and Pelagius. 4. A treatise on the ther opportunity offered, the squadron designed lives and writings of the Ecclesiastical authors to cover their descent was attacked by Sir Jaines who hail flourished before his time. This style is Wallace, who drore them ashore on the coast of lively and animated, and sometimes sublime Normandy, silenced a battery under whose guns
JEROME 01 PRAGUE, so called from the place they had taken shelter, captured a frigate of of his birth, in Bohemia. Having embraced the thirty-four guns, with two rich prizes, burnt two opinions of jobu Hluss, he began to propagate other large frigates, and a considerable number them in 1480. The council of Vice cited him of smaller vessels. The scheme, though thus 10 appear before them, and give an account of totally disconcerted, was resumed in 1781. The hus faith. In obedience to this citation, he went conduct of this expedition was given to baron to Constance; but on his arrival, in 1415, find- Rullecourt, a man of courage, but very deficient ing luss in prison, he sei out for his own coun- in the prudence requisite for such an enterprise. ty. Being seized, however, on the way, impri- His force consisted of 2000 men; with whom soned, and examinel, he was so intimidated, he embarked in tempestuous weather, hoping that he retractel, and pretende ! to approve of that he might thus le able to surprise the garrithe condemnation of the opinio'is of Wickliffson. Many of his transports, however, were ond Huss; but on the 26th of May, 1416, he dispersed, and he himself, with the remainder, condemned that recantation, and sentence was obliged 10 tahe shelter in some islands in the accordingly passed on him ; in pursuance of neighbourhood. As soon as the weather grew which he was burnt in 1416. He was a person calin, he landed, in a dark night, at Grouville, of graal talenti, learning, and elocution. where he made prisoners of a party of militia.
JERSEY is a populous island of the English llence he proceeded with the utmost expedition channel, twelve miles long and six broad. The t St. IIelier, and, being wholly unexpected, north side is composed of rocky cliffs forty to seized on a party of men who guarded it, togefifty fathoms high, while the south shore is nearly ther with the commanding officer, and the malevel with the sea; a ridge of hills runs through sistrates. Rullecourt then drew up a capitulation, the centre, whose sides are covered with orchards, the terms of which were, that the island should 24,000 hogsheads of cyder bave been yielded be instantly surrendered to the French, and the by their fruit in one year. The other chief garrison sent to England ; thr atening the town pursuit is the rearing cattle, particularly sheep, with immediate destruction in case of non-comwhose wool, together with cyder, form the only pliance. This point being gained, he summoned exports; the island is obliged to import corn Elisabeth Castle to surrender in virtue of the from France and England. The number of in- capitulation just concluded. To this a perhabitants is upwards of 20,000.
emptory refusal was given, and followed by such The two towns of Jersey are St. Helier and a vigorous discharge of artillery, that he was St. Aubin. The former, being the chief place, is obliged to retire into the town. In the mean situated nearly in the middle of the south side time the British troops stationed in the island of the bay of St. Aubin, the best road of the under the command of major Pierson began to island, but still dangerous, from numerous rocks assemble from every quarter: being required by scattered round the entrance. The town con- the French commander to submit, that officer sists of several good streets, and is defended by replied, that if the French themselves did not, within twenty minutes, lay down their arms, he The three northern counties, Sussex, Morris, would attack them. An attack was accordingly and Bergen, are mountainous. The next four, made with such impetuosity, that the French Hunterdon, Somerset, Essex, and Middlesex, are were totally routed in less than half an hour, and agreeably diversified with hills and valleys. South driven into the market-place, where they endea- Mountain, a great ridge of the Alleghany range, voured to make a stand. Their commander, crosses the state in lat. 41° N., and the Kittatinny exasperated at this change of affairs, endea- ridge crosses a little to the north of South Mourivoured to wreak his vengeance on the captive tain. The greater part of the six southern Counties governor, whom he obliged to stand by his side is composed of the long range of level country, during the whole time of the conflict. This, which commences at Sandy Hook, and lines however, was quickly over; the French were the coast of the middle and southern states. broken on all sides, the baron himself mortally Much of this range is nearly barren, producing wounded, and the next in command obliged to only shrub oaks and yellow pines; but the rest surrender himself and the whole party prisoners of the state has a large proportion of good soil, of war; the captive governor escaped without a excellent for grazing, and for the various purposes wound. This last disaster put an end to all of agriculture. The productions are wheat, rye, hopes of the French ministry of being able to maize, buck-wheat, potatoes, oats, and barley. reduce the island, and was indeed no small mor- Great numbers of cattle are raised in the mountification to them; 800 troops having been tainous parts for the markets of New York and landed at that time, of which not one escaped. Philadelphia. Large quantities of butter and During the late wars Jersey flourished, and was cheese are also made. New Jersey is remarkable we believe never attacked.
for an excellent breed of horses. The exports are Jersey, New, one of the United States of flour, wheat, horses, cattle, hams, cyder, lumber, North America, is bounded north by New York, flax seed, leather, and iron. The greater part of east by the Hudson and the Atlantic, south by the produce exported from this state passes the Atlantic, and west by Delaware Bay and through New York and Philadelphia. River, which separates it from the states of Dela- Great quantities of leather are manufactured ware and Pennsylvania. It is 163 miles long, at the valuable tanneries of Trenton, Newark, and fifty-two broad; containing 8320 square and Elizabethtown. Large quantities of shoes miles. Population, in 1790, 184,189; in 1800 are made at Newark. There is a glass-house in 211,149; and, in 1810, 245,592, of whom 10,851 Gloucester county, and there are paper mills and were slaves, and 7843 free blacks. The number nail manufactories in various parts of the state. of militia, in 1817, amounted to 35,169. But the most important manufacture is that of
Trenton is the seat of government. The other iron. In the county of Morris there are seven most considerable towns are Newark, New Bruns- rich iron mines, two furnaces, two rolling and wick, Elizabeth-town, Burlington, and Amboy. slitting mills, and about thirty forges. The an
There are fourteen banks in this state; and the nual produce of these works is about 540 tons of counties, number of townships, population, and bar iron, 800 tons of pig, besides large quantities chief towns, are thus exhibited :
of hollow ware, sheet iron, and nail rods. There
are also iron-works in the counties of BurlingCounties. Town. Popula
| Chief Towns. ton, Gloucester, Sussex, &c. The annual proships. tion.
duce in the whole state is computed at about Bergen 7 | 16,603 Hackinsack
1200 tons of bar iron, 1200 tons of pig, and ( Burlington
eighty tons of nails, exclusive of small articles. Burlington
Two colleges have been incorporated in this ( Mount Holly
state, one at Princeton, and one at New BrunsCape May 3,632
wick. The latter is not at present in operation. Cumberland 8 12,670 Bridgetown
There are theological seminaries at Princeton Newark
and New Brunswick; and academies have been Essex 10 | 25,984
established at Amboy, Aniwell, Baskingridge,
Bedminster, Bergen, Bloomfield, Bordentown, Gloucester 10
| Gloucester 19,744 Woodbury
Bridgetown, Burlington, Camden, Elizabethtown, Hunterdon 24,553 Trenton
Flemington, Hackinsack, Morristown, New
Brunswick, Newark, Newton, Salem, Springfield, Middlesex
( N. Brunswick
Somerville, and Trenton. Most of these acadeMonmouth 22,150 Freehold
mies have but small funds, and five or six of Morris 10 21,828 Morristown
them are not incorporated. Salem 12,761 Salem
The most numerous denomination of Chris Somerset 14,728 Boundbrook
tians in New Jersey is the English PreshySussex 151 25,549 Newton.
terians, who have seventy-four churches, and
fifty-nine clergymen. The Dutch Reformed have 116 245,562
thirty-one churches, and twenty clergymen; the
Baptists have thirty churches, and twenty-three Delaware River separates this state from Penn- clergymen; the Episcopalians have twenty-four sylvania, and the Hudson forms the northern churches, and eleven clergymen; the Congregapart of the eastern boundary. The other most tionalists have rire churches, and five clergymen; considerable rivers are the Raritan, Passaic, the Friends have fortv four meeting-houses. The Hackinsack, Great Egg Harbour River, and Methodists are numerous; the number of comMusconecunk.
niunicants was stated, in 1811, at 6739.
whe legislature is composed of a legislative of king David, who took it from the Jebusites, council, and a house of assembly; the former and made it the capital of his kingdon, which consisting of thirteen members, one from each it ever after continued to be. It was first taken county, and the latter of thirty-five members, all in the days of Joash, by Hazael, king of Syria, chosen annually. The executive is composed of who slew all the nobility, but did not destroy a governor chosen annually by a joint vote of the city. It was afterwards taken by Nebuchadboth branches of the legislature, a vice-president nezzar king of Babylon, who destroyed it, and chosen by the council, and a privy council, carried away the inhabitants. Seventy years composed of three members of the legislative after it was rebuilt, by permission of Cyrus king council. The annual elections are in October. of Persia, and it continued to be the capital of New Jersey sends six representatives to con- Judea (though frequently suffering much from press.
the Grecian monarchs of Syria and Egypt), till JERSEY, n. s. From the island of Jersey, the time of Vespasian emperor of Rome, by where much yarn is spun. Combed wool, and whose son Titus it was totally destroyed. See yarn made of cumbed wool.
Jews. It was, however, rebuilt by Adrian: and JERVIS (John), earl of St. Vincent, a late seemed likely to have recovered its former grandistinguished naval commander, was descended deur, being surrounded with walls, and adorned of an ancient family in Staffordshire. His father, with several noble buildings; the Christians also Swynten Jervis esq., was auditor of Greenwich being permitted to settle in it. But this was a Hospital. Our admiral was born at Meaford short-lived change; for when the empress Hall, January 9th, 1734 (old style). At the age Helena, mother of Constantine the Great, visited of fourteen he was a midshipman on board the this city, she found it in the most ruinous situaGloucester, of fifty guns; and, in 1755, served tion. Tlaving formed a design of restoring it to as lieutenant under Sir C. Saunders, in the ex- its ancient lustre, she caused, with a great deal pedition againt Quebec. Soon after he was ap- of cost and labor, all the rubbish that had been pointed as commander to the Experiment, and thrown upon those places where our Saviour afterwards to the Albany sloop. In 1760 he ob- had suffered, been buried, &c., to be removed. tained the rank of captain of the Foudroyant, In doing this, they found the cross on which he and fought in the action between admiral Keppel died, as well as those of the two malefactors who and the French Aeet in July 1778. In 1782 he suffered with him; and (as the writers of those engaged and took the Pegasé, f seventy-four times relate) discorered by a miracle that which runs and 700 men. Receiving a severe wound had borne the Saviour of mankind. She then in the head from a splinter, he obtained the caused a magnificent church to be built, which red riband as a reward for this gallant conduct. enclosed as many of the scenes of our Saviour's
In 1794 he had the command of a squadron sufferings as could conveniently be done, and equipped for the West Indies, and reduced Mar- adorned the city with several other buildings. tinique, Guadaloupe, and St. Lucie ; for which The emperor Julian is said to have formed a dehe received the thanks of parliament, and the sign of rebuilding the temple of Jerusalem, and freedom of the city of London. On the 14th of of restoring the Jewish worship, on purpose to February 1797, however, he obtained his great give the lie to our Saviour's prophecy concerning victory. Being in command of the Mediterranean the temple and city of Jerusalem; namely, that tleet of fifteen sail, he engaged and defeated the temple should be totally destroyed, without twenty-seven Spanish ships of the line, the one stone being left upon another: and that the omallest carrying geventy-four guns, and seven city should be trodden down of the Gentiles vill of them mounting from 112 to 130 each. He the times of the gentiles were fulfilled. In this was now raised to the English peerage, by the attempt, however, according to the accounts of titles of baron Jervis and earl of St. Vincent. the Christian writers of that age, the emperor To this was added a pension of £3000 a year, was frustrated by an earthquake and fiery erupand a gold medal from the king. In 1801 he tion from the earth, which totally destroyed the became first lord of the admiralty ; in which ca- work, consumed the materials which had been pacity he undertook and executed many salutary collected, and killed a great number of the workreforms in naval expenditure, but resigned his men. This event has been the subject of much post in 1804. May, 1814, lord St. Vincent was dispute. Bishop Warburton published a treaappointed general of marines, and July 19th, tise expressly on the truth of this fact, and col1821, admiral of the feet. He died March 15th, lected iestimonies in favor of it, from Ammianus 1823, in his eighty-ninth year, and a monument Marcellinus, and Gregory of Nazianzen; for was voted by the house of commons to be erected which we sball refer our readers to the bishop to his inemory in St. Paul's cathedral.
and the original authors. But it is a matter of JERUSALEM, IIeb. from 17 they shall see, very little consequence, whether this event hapand yw, Salem, Peace, a famous and ancient pened, with the circumstances related by these city, cap tal of Judea, now a province of Turkey
authors, and quoted by the bishop, or not. If in Asia. According to Manetho, an Egyptian
cundian Julian did make any attempt to rebuild the temhistorian, it was founded by the shepherds who ple, it is certain that something obstructed his invaded Egypt in an unknown period of anti
attempt, because the temple was never rebuilt. quity. See EGYPT. According to Josepbus, it
If he made no such attempt, the prophecy of our was the capital of Melchisedek's kingdom, called
Wed Saviour still holds good, and it surely cannot Salem in the book of Genesis : and the Arabians
detract from the merit of a prophecy, that noassert, that it was built in honor of Melchisedek
body ever attempted to elude it, or prove it to be by twelve neighbouring kings. We know no
a falsehood. Jerusalem continued in the band, thi is of it with certainty, however, till the time of the eastern emperors till the reign of the caliph
Omar, who reduced it under his subjection. the bottom. 8. The stones of which they were
up the prodigious chasm made by the deep The edifice most resorted to by Christian pilvalley below, and to make the area of a sufficient grims is that called the Church of the Holy Sebreadth and length for the edifice, were 1000 pulchre. It was built, as already intimated, hy cubits in length at the bottom, and 800 at the the empress Helena, the mother of Constantine, lop, and the breadth of them 100 more. 7. The and is a handsome structure, 300 feet long, and huge buttresses which supported the ramparts nearly 200 broad, professing to comprehend were of the same height, square at the top, and within these limits the scene of all the great fifty cribits broad, and julted out 150 cubits at events of the crucifixion, burial, and resurrection