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from the apostles; ' let him be set apart to that for a respectable and increasing body of Protesoffice by a company of ministers themselves the tant dissenters in England: a large portion of the most conformable to the scripture character, and Protestant churches of North America are also let him be chosen by the most holy people on Independents; and the term will describe gene earth; yet, if he answer not the New Testament rically the sentiments upon church government description of a minister, he is not called of God of the Baptists in both these countries, and tato that office, and is no minister of Christ, but is rious other dissenting bodies in England. indeed running unsent. No form of ordination The Independents, considered as a sect, arose can pretend to such a clear foundation in the in England during Elizabeth's reign. The bierNew Testament as the description of the persons archy established by her, the vestments wors by who should be elders of the church; and the lay- the clergy, the book of common prayer, and

, on of hands, whether by bishops or presby above all, the sign of the cross used in administers, is of no more importance in the mission of tering baptism, were very offensive to many a minister of Christ, than the waving of one's hand of her subjects, who, during the persecutions of in the air, or the putting of it into his bosom; for queen Mary I., had taken refuge among


pronow, when the power of miracles has ceased, it is testants of Germany and Geneva. They thought obvious that such a rite, by whomsoever performed, that the church of England resembled in these can convey no powers, whether ordinary or ex- particulars the antichristian church of Rome; traordinary. Indeed it appears to have been and they called for a more thorough reformation sometimes used even in the apostolic age with- and a purer worship. From this circumstance out any such intention. See Acts xiii. 3. In a they were first stigmatised by their adversaries word, whoever in his life and conversation is with the general name of Puritans. Elizabeth conformable to the character which the inspired was not disposed to comply with their demands; writers give of a bishop or elder, and is likewise and the Puritans were not united among themqualified by his mightiness in the scripture,' to selves. Unanimous in nothing, but in their antidischarge the duties of thut office, is fully au- pathy to the forms of doctrine and discipline thorised to administer the sacraments of baptism established by law, they were soon divided into and the Lord's supper, to teach, exhort, and re a variety of sects. buke, with all long suffering and doctrine, and Of these the most famous was that which was has all the call and mission which the Lord now formed about 1581 by Robert Brown, a man of gives to any man; whilst he who wants the qua- insinuating manners, but neither steady nor com lifications inentioned has not God's call,. what- sistent in his principles and conduct. See ever he may have; nor any authority to preach Brown. He did not differ much, in point or the gospel of Christ , or to dispense the ordinances doctrine, either from the church of England

, of his religion. From this view of the Indepen- or from the rest of the Puritans; but he had dent principles, which is faithfully taken from formed new and singular notions concerning their own writers, it appears, that, according to the nature of a church, and the rules of ecclethera, even the election of a congregation confers siastical government. He maintained that such upon the man whom they may choose for their a number of persons as could be contained in pastor no new powers, but only a new relation an ordinary place of worship ought to be conbetween him and a particular flock, giving him sidered as a church, and enjoy all the rights and an exclusive right, either by himself or in con- privileges of an ecclesiastical community. These junction with other pastors constituted in the small societies he pronounced independent, jure same manner, to exercise among them that au- divino, and entirely exempt from the jurisdic thority which he derives immediately from Christ, tion of the bishops, in whose hands the court and which, in a greater or less degree, is possesso had placed the reins of spiritual government; ed hy every sincere Christian.

as well as from that of presbyteries and synods

, There are two sects of Independents in Scot- which other Puritans regarded as the supreme land: the first of whom have no peculiar deno-, visible sources of ecclesiastical authority. He mination besides the general one of Independents' also maintained that the power of governing each or Congregationalists. Their religious sentiments congregation resided in the people; and that are strictly Calvinistic, and they agree in general each member had an equal share in this with those of the English Independents. The ment. Hence all points both of doctrine and other sect is generally denominated in Scotland discipline were submitted to the discussion of Glassites, from their founder Mr. John Glas; the whole congregation; and whatever was supand sometimes in England Sandemanians, from ported by a majority of voices passed into a law. Mr. Robert Sandeman, who spread their doc- The congregation also elected certain hrethren trines in England and America. Some subdivi- to the office of pastors, to perform the duties of sions have lately taken place among them : but public instruction and divine worship; reserving both sects agree in the general principles above however to themselves the power of dismissing stated with regard to church government. these ministers, and reducing them to the condi,

The Independents are a sect of protestants, tion of private members, whenever they should so called from their maintaining that each con think such a step conducive to the spiritual adgregation of Christians, which meets ordinarily vantage of the community. The right of the in one place for public worship, is a complete pastors to preach was not exclusive, or peculiar church, has full power to regulate every thing re to them alone. To any member who thought lating to religious government within itself, and is proper to exhort or instruct the brethren, was in no respect dependent upon, or accountable to, accorded the liberty of prophesying or preachother churches. This term is used specifically ing. The zeal with which Brown and his assn


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ciates propagated these opinions was doubtless themselves Congregational Brethren, and their iutemperate. He affirmed that all coinmunion religious assemblies congregational churches. was to be broken off with those religious socie- The first Independent or congregational church ties that were founded upon a different plan from in England was set up in 1616 by Mr. Jacob, his; and treated the church of England as a who had adopted the religious senti'nents of spurious church, whose ministers were unlaw- Robinson. The charge alleged against them by fully ordained, whose discipline was popish and Rapin (in his History of England, vol. II. p. 514, antichristian, and whose sacraments and insti- folio edition), that they could not so much as tutions were destitute of all efficacy. The sect, endure ordinary ministers in the church, &c., is unable to endure the severe treatment which' groundless. He was led into this mistake by followed the avowal of these sentiments, retired confour

pendents and Brownists. into the Netherlands, and founded churches at Other charges equally unjustifiable have been Middlebourg, Amsterdam, and Leyden; but urged against the Independents by this histotheir founder returned to England; and, having rian, and others. Rapin says, that they abhorred renounced his principles of separation, took or- monarchy, and approved of a republican governders in the established church, and obtained a ment. This might have been true with regard benefice.

to many persons among them, in common with The Puritan exiles, whom he thus abandoned, other sects; but it does not appear,

from any

of soon split into parties, and their affairs declined. their public writings, that republican principles This engaged the wiser part of them to mitigate formed their distinguishing characteristic. On the the severity of their founder's plan, and to soften contrary, in a public memorial drawn up by the riger of his uncharitable decisions. The them in 1647, they declare, that they do not disperson who had the chief merit of bringing about approve of any form of civil government, but do ihis reformation was John Robinson, one of freely acknowledge that a kingly government, their pastors, a man who had much piety, and bounded by just and wholesome laws, is both no inconsiderable portion of learning. This allowed by God, and also a good accommodation well-meaning reformer, perceiving the defects unto men.' The Independents, however, have that reigned in the discipline of Brown, and in been generally ranked among the regicides, and the spirit and temper of his followers, employed charged with the death of Charles I. Whether his zeal and diligence in correcting them, and in this fact be admitted or denied, no conclusion new modelling the society, so as to render it less can be fairly drawn from the greater prevalence odious to its adversaries, and less liable to the of republican principles, or from violent projust censure of those true Christians who look ceedings at that period, that can affect the disupon charity as the chief end of the command- tinguishing tenets and conduct of the Indepenments. Hitherto the sect had been called dents in our times. It is certain that the present Brownists. But Robinson having, in his Apo- Independents are steady friends to a limited logy, affirmed, Cætum quemlibet particularem monarchy. Rapin is further mistaken when he esse totam, integram, et perfectam ecclesiam, ex represents the religious principles of the English suis partibus constantem, inmediatè et Inde- Independents as contrary to those of all the rest pendenter quoad alias ecclesias sub ipso Christo, of the world. It appears from two confessions the sect was henceforth called Independents, of of faith, one composed by Robinson on behalf which the apologist was considered as the found of the English Independents in Holland, and er. The Independents now exhibited candor published at Leyden in 1619, entitled Apologia and charity enough to acknowledge that true pro Exulibus Anglis, qui Brownistæ vulgo apreligion and solid piety might flourish in com- pellantur; and another drawn up in London in munities under the jurisdiction of bishops, or 1058, by the principal members of this commuthe government of synods and presbyteries. nity in England, entitled A Declaration of the They were also much more attentive than the Faith and Order owned and practised by the Brownists, in keeping up a regular ministry in Congregational Churches in England, agreed their communities : for, while the latter allowed upon and consented unto by their Elders and promiscuously all ranks and orders of men to Messengers, in their Meeting at the Savoy, teach in public, the Independents had, and still October 12th, 1658, as well as from other writhave, a certain number of ministers, chosen res- ings of the Independents, that they differed pectively by the congregations where they are from the rest of the reformed in no single point fixed; nor is any person among them permitted of any consequence, except that of ecclesiastical to speak in public before he has submitted to a government; and their religious doctrines were proper examination of his capacity and talents, almost entirely the same with those adopted to and been approved of by the heads of the con- the church of Geneva. gregation. This society has produced divines as During the administration of Cromwell the eminent for learning, piery, and virtue, as any Independents acquired considerable reputation church in Christendom.

and influence; and he made use of them as a From 1642 the Independents are very fre- check to the ambition of the Presbyterians, who quently mentioned in our annals. The English aimed at a very high degree of ecclesiastical Independents assumed this title publicly in a power, and who had succeeded, soon after the piece which they published at London in 1644, elevation of Cromwell, in obtaining a parliamenentitled Apologetical Narration of the Indepen- tary establishment of their own church governdents. But afterwards, to avoid the odium of ment. But after the Restoration their cause sedition and anarchy charged on the sect, num- declined; and in 1691 they entered into an assobers of them renounced this title, and called ciation with the Presbyterians resid, og in and

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about London, comprised in nine articles, that terminutely, not in a settled manner : indetere tended to the maintenance of their respective mination, want of tined or stated direction. institutions. These may be found in the second By contingen's I understand all things which may volume of Whiston's Memoirs, in l the substance be done, and may not be done, may happen, or may of them in Mosheim. Arthuis time the Independ- not happen, by reason of the indetermination or acci. fonts and Presbyteruns, folied from this 2:50. dental concurrence of the causes.

Brumhail. C.110n the lnita Breilren, Were reell with. There is not only obscurity in the end, but berin

pritid to doctrines, brin: veneriily Calumnists, ning of the world; that, as its period is inscrutarle, and only with respett pcclesiastical so is its nativity undeterminable.

Brourne. riscipline. But at present, thoush the English flis perspicacity discerned the loadstone to respect Independents and Presisyteriany form two dis- the North, when ours beheld it indeterminately. Id. unes parties of Protestant Dissenters, they are We should not amuse ourselves with fluating words distinguished by very triling ditierences with of indetermined signification, which we can use in rer to church government. The Indepeud- several senses to serve a turn. ents are generally more allached to the tenets The rays of the same color were by turns trausdistinguished by the term Calvinisin than the milled at one thickness, and reflected at another Presbyterians.

thickness, for an indeterminate number of succéssicos. Independency was first carried to the Imerie

Veutun's Opticks. can colonies in 1620, and, by successive puritan

The depth of the Lold is indeterminately expressed in the description.

Arbuthnot on Cuins, engrants from England, in 1629 and 1633. One Morel, in the sixteenth century, endea- TXDETERMINATE PROBLEM, or unlimited probvoured to introduce it into France; but it was lem, in algebra, that which admits of a great condemned at the synod of Rochelle, where number of chitterent answers, or of innumerable Brza presided : and äran at the synod of Ro- different solutions. In such problems the numchelle in 1641. On this subject, see Mosheim's ber of unknown quantities concerned is greater Ecclesiarcal History, by Maclean, vol. IV.; than the number of conditions or equations by Val's History of the Puritans, vols. II. III. and which they are to be found; from which it hapIl.; and Burnet's History of his own Times, pens, that generally some other conditions or vol. I., &c. The Independents of the present quantities are assumed to supply the defect, day, it inay be added, have sustained a noble which, being taken at pleasure, give the same part in the advocacy of Bible, Missionary, and number of answers as varieties in those assumpEducation Societies. of every description. tions. Diophantus was the first writer on Inde

IDERABIT, an island of small extent near terminate Problems, in bis Algebra, first pub. the mouth of the Persian Gulf. It is perhaps lished in 1575 by Sylander. His book being three miles in length, low, level, and narrow, and wholly on this subject, such questions have been separated from the main land by a strait, three called Diophantine Problems. Des Cartes, iniles in breadth, and which may be navigated fermat, Frenicle, Wallis, Euler, Grange, &c., without much danger: but shins running for bave cultivated this branch of algebra : and Mr.J. shelter under the island must not come within Leslie, in the second volume of the Edinburgh a mile of its south-east end, until a tree, which Philosophical Transactions, has given an ingestands by itself, bears W.WW. Lat. 20° 40' N. nious paper on the solution of Indeterminate

INDERGEREE, a river of Sumatra, on the Problems, by a new and general principle. north-east coast, running into the sea, in long. INDEVOUT', adj. Lat. inderotus (in, deo 103' 20' E., lat. 0° 33' S.

INDEVO'LION, n. s. I lotus); Fr. indcrot. Not INDERGTR, or IDARGHCR, is the name of religious: a want of devotion ; irreligion. various hill fortresses in Ilindostan, so called after H e prays much ; yet curses more; whilst he is One of the Iloloo deities.

meek, but inderout.

Decay of Piety. EVDERMAY POINT, a cape on the north Let us make the church the scene of our penitence, coast of Java, in long. 108° 18' E., lat. 6° 1% S. as of our faults ; deprccrate our former indevotiin,

INDESERT,' ns. In and desert. Want of and, by an exemplary reverence, redress the scandal merit. This is a useful word, but not much of prophanenesi.

Id. received.

INDEX, 21. s. Lat. indico. The discoverer; Those who were once looked on as his equals, are the hand that points to any thing, as the hour of apt to think the faine of his merit a reflection on their a dial; the table of contents to a book. own indeserts.

Addison. To such indexes, although small INDESIVEVTLY. adv. Fr. indesinentor: To their subsequent volumes, there is seen Lat. in and desino. Without cessation.

The baby figure of the giant mass They continue a month inde inently.

Of things to come at large.

Shakspeare. Ray on the Creation.

Her silver head adoruing INDESTRUCTIBLE, adj. In and destruc

(ller dorage index ) much she bragged, yet feigned, tible. Lat. in and destruo. Not to be destroyed. For by

For by false tallies many years she gained.

Fletcher's Purple Island. Glass is so compact and firm a body, that it is inde

That which was once the inder to point out all virstructible by art or nature.


tucs, docs now mark out that part of the world where INDETERMINABLE, adj.) Fr. indeter- least of them resides.

Decay of Piety. INDETERMINATE, adj.

mini; Lat. in, Tastes are the inderes of the different qualities of INDETERMINATELY, adv. de, termino. plant

plants, as well as of all sorts of aliment. Arbuthnot. INDETER'MINED, adj.

(Not to be fixed, They have no more inward self-consciousness of INDETERMINATION, n. $. defined, or get what they do or suffer, than the under of a watch, or tleri ; indeterminate, unfixed; indefinite : inde- the hour it points to.


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If a book has no index or good table of contents, 'tis derable of all the indices is that of Anthony, a very useful to make one as you are reading it; and in Sotomayor, supreme president and inquisitoryour index to take notice only of parts new to you. general in the kingdom of Spain, which was


made for all the states subject to the king of But I shall add them in a brief appendix,

Spain, and comprehends all the others. This To come between mine epic and its inder.

- was published, with the advice of the supreme Byron. Don Juan,

senate of the general inquisition, in 1640, and INDEX, EXPURGATORY, a catalogue of prohi- reprinted at Geneva in 1667. To this there were bited books in the church of Rome. The first many rules prefixed; and to the Geneva edition catalogues of this kind were made by the inqui- was added the index of the decrees which were sitors; and afterwards approved of by the made by the master of the holy palace, by virtue council of Trent, with some retrenchments and of his office, or by the command of the holy additions. Thus, an index of heretical books congregation, or by the holy congregations for being formed, it was confirmed by a bull of the indices and holy office, after the before-menClement VIII. in 1595, and printed with several tioned index of the council of Trent. The rules introductory rules; by the fourth of which the of the former indices are explained and confirmed use of the Scriptures in the vulgar tongue is for- by these; and the fifth rule, which enlarges the bidden in these words :- Since it is plain by fourth of the index of Trent, prohibits not only experience, that if the sacred writings are per- all bibles in the vulgar tongue, comprehending mitted every where, and without difference to all except those that are Hebrew, Greek, Latin, be read in the vulgar tongue, men, through their Chaldee, Syriac, Ethiopic, Persic, and Arabic; rashness, will receive more harm than good ; let but all parts of them, either printed or manuthe bishop or inquisitor determine, with the ad- script, with all summaries and abridgments in vice of the parish priest or confessor, to whom the vulgar language or tongue.-Limborch's Histo permit the reading of the Bible, translated by tory of the Inquisition, book ii., chap. 16. Catholic authors in the vulgar tongue, according The Index of a Book is that part annexed as they shall judge whether it be most likely to a book, referring to the particular matters that such reading of the scripture may do harm, therein contained. The index is intended to ur tend to the increase of faith and piety. Let to point out every important particular in a book, them also have the same power as to all other in its alphabetical order, that the reader may at writings. But if any, without such leave, shall once, and without difficulty, find out any article presume to read or have them, without first show- he wishes to be informed of, that is discussed or ing the Bible to the ordinaries, he shall not re- mentioned in the work: and as these are hardly ceive the absolution of his sins. And as to all known even to the author, till the work is booksellers who shall sell the Bibles translated finished, the index always appears with most into the vulgar tongue, without such leave, or by propriety subjoined to the work. Every book any other method shall publish them, let them of any extent ought to have both contents and forfeit the price of the books, and let the money index. Most modern indexes to books are very be given to pious uses by the bishop; and let carelessly compiled. About a century or two them be subject to other punishments; at the ago very complete indexes were made to various pleasure of the said bishop, according to the learned works by the editors of the classics in nature of the offence. As to regulars, they shall usum Delphini, as well as by Minellius, Farnanot read or buy them, without leave first ob- bius, Oudendorp, Ruddiman, and other literati. tained from their prelates. By the tenth rule it is But now the compilation of an index, being ordained, that no book shall be printed at Rome thought too great a drudgery by authors, is without the approbation of the pope's vicaror some often entrusted to persons very ill-qualified for person delegated by the pope; nor in any other the task ; in consequence of which modern place, unless allowed by the bishop of the dio- indexes are seldom either complete or properly cese, or some person deputed by him, or by the arranged. And if the work is extensive, the inquisitor of heretical pravity. In pope Clement's reader is perplexed with three or four different catalogue is a decree that all the books, even of indexes, or an index divided into so many parts, Catholic authors, written since the year 1515, while one complete general index, properly which was the year preceding that in which Lu- compiled and arranged, would answer the purther began to declaim against indulgences, should

pose much better. be corrected ; not only by retrenching what is INDEX OF A GLOBE is a little stile fitted on not conformable to the doctrine of Rome, but to the north pole, and turning round with it, also by adding what may be judged proper by pointing to certain divisions in the hour circle. the correctors.

It is sometimes also called gnomon. See GeoThe duke of Alva, after this, procured another to be printed at Antwerp in 1571, which was INDEXTERʻITY, n. s. In and dexterity. published by Francis Junius about the year Want of dexterity; want of readiness; want of 1586. There were two others published in 1584 handiness; clumsiness; aukwardness. and 1612, by the cardinals Quiroga and San

The indexterity of our consumption-curers demondoval, and several others by the inquisitors and

strates their dimness in bebolding its causes, Harvey.. masters of the sacred palace. The most consi

Problems. A allis, Euler, at nch of a gebr: volume of the Cions, has dia luuion of Lab 1 general pray Lat

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INDIA, an abridginent of Hindostan, is a name crossed that river, and advanced to the Eastern often given to that region of Asia lying to the Ocean. Great disputes have been carried on south of Tartary, and between Persia and China, with respect to this conqueror, and his expediwith its dependent islands. It contains, besides tion; but Dr. Robertson, in his Disquisition Hindostan, the BIRMAN Empire, Siam, Cochin concerning Ancient India, doubts whether any CHINA, TONQUIN, Thibet, Japan, and CEYLON; such expedition was ever made. Herodotus but is now, in its geographical features, more makes no mention of the conquest of India by usually, and far more properly, described under Sesostris, though he relates his history at some those respective heads, which see.

length: and Diodorus Siculus, who first menBut we may conveniently consider, under this tions it, informs us that he had it from the Egyphead, the chief occurrences, of an historical kind, tian priests; who related many things rather connected with this interesting portion of the from a desire to promote the honor of their earth.

country than from attention to truth.' Strabo 1. India as known to the ancients.-By the name rejected the account altogether, and ranks the of India the ancients understood only the western exploits of Sesostris in India with the fabulous peninsula, on this side the Ganges, and the ones of Bacchus and Hercules. peninsula beyond it, having little or no know It is certain, however, that the Tyrians kept ledge of the countries which lie farther eastward. up a constant intercourse with some parts of But though originally they were acquainted India by navigating the Arabian Gulf, or the only with the western parts of Hindostan, they Red Sea. Of this navigation they became masgradually extended the name of India over the ters by taking from the Idumeans some mariother countries they discovered to the east; time places on the coast; but, as the distance so that probably they would have involved all betwixt the nearest place of that sea and Tyre the rest in the same general designation, had they was considerable, the land carriage must have been as well acquainted with them as are the been very tedious and expensive; for which reamoderns. By whom these countries were ori son it was necessary to become masters of a port ginally peopled is a question which, in all pro- on the east of the Mediterranean, nearer to the bability, will never be solved. Certain it is, that Red Sea than Tyre. With this view they took some works in these parts discover marks of possession of Rhinvelura; and to that port all astonishing skill and power in the inhabitants; the goods from India were conveyed by a much such as the images in the island of Elephanta, shorter and less expensive route.

This is the the rocking stones of immense weight, yet so first authentic account of any intercourse betwixt nicely balanced that a man can move them

with India and the western part of the world : and his hand, the observatory at Benares, &c. These to this we are without doubt in a great measure stupendous works are, by Bryant, attributed to to ascribe the vast wealth and power for which the Cushites or Babylonians; and it is possible the city of Tyre was anciently renowned ; for in that the subjects of Nimrod, the beginning of other respects the whole terrilory of Phænicia whose kingdom was in Shinar, might extend was but of little consequence. themselves in this direction, and thus fill the fer- ing the frequency of these voyages, however, the tile regions of the east with inhabitants, before ancients have left little account of them. The they migrated to the less mild and rich countries most particular description to the westward. Thus would be formed for a wealth, power, and commerce of ancient Tyre, time that great division betwixt the inhabitants is in the prophecies of Ezekiel. If the Tyrians of India and other countries ; so that the western kept any journals of their voyages, it is probable nations knew not even of the existence of India, that they were lost when the city was destroyed but by obscure report; while the inhabitants of by Alexander the Great. the latter, ignorant of their own origin, invented

Though the Israelites, in the reigns of David a thousand idle tales concerning the antiquity of and Solomon, carried on an extensive and lucratheir tribes, which some of the moderns have tive commerce, yet Dr. Robertson is of opinion been credulous enough to believe. The first that they did not trade to any part of India

. among the western nations who distinguished There are only two places mentioned to which themselves by their application to navigation and their ships sailed, viz. Ophir and Tarshish; both commerce, and who were of consequence likely of which are now supposed to have been situated to discover these distant nations, were the Egyp- on the east coast of Africa ; the ancient Tartians and Phænicians. The former, however, shish was probably the present Mocha : and soon lost their inclination for naval affairs, and Ophir the kingdom of Sofala, so remarkable in held all sea-faring people in detestation ; though former times for its mines, that it was called the extensive conquests of Sesostris, if we can be by oriental writers the golden Sofala. See lieve them, must have in a great measure sup- Ophir and Tarsuisu. Thus India continued plied this defect. He is said to have fitted out long unknown to, and undisturbed by the a fleet of 400 sail in the Arabian Gulf or Red Sea, western nations. But, soon after the destruction which conquered all the countries lying along the of the Babylonian monarchy by the Persians

, Erythrean Sea to India; while the army, led by we find Darius Hystaspis undertaking an expehimself, marched through Asia, and subdued all dition against the Indians.

Herodotus informs · the countries to the Ganges; after which he us, that he sent Scylax of Caryandra to explore


we have of the

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