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the river Indus; who sailed from Caspatyrus, a found, in the time of Alexander, to be in no detown at its source, and near the territories of gree inferior in population to the kingdom of Pactya, eastward to the sea; thence, turning Porus. The climate, soil, and productions of westward, he arrived at the place where the India, as well as the manners and customs of the Phænicians had formerly sailed round Africa, inhabitants, are exactly described, and the deafter which Darius subdued the Indians, and scriptions found to correspond in a surprising became master of that coast. His conquests, manner with modern accounts. The stated however, were not extensive, as they did not change of seasons, now known by the name of reach beyond the territory watered by the Indus; monsoons, the periodical rains, the swellings and yet the acquisition was very important, as the inundations of the rivers, with the appearance of revenue derived from the conquered territory, the country during the time they continue, are according to Herodotus, was near a third of that particularly mentioned. The descriptions of the of the whole Persian empire. But very little inhabitants are equally particular; their living knowledge of the country was acquired by this entirely upon vegetables; their division into expedition of Darius, for the Greeks paid no re- tribes or casts, with many of the particularities gard to the transactions of barbarians; and as of the modern Hindoos. The military operations, for Scylax, he told so many incredible stories in however, extended but a very little way into ihe account he gave of his voyage, that he was India properly so called; no further indeed than disbelieved in almost every thing, whether true or the modern province of Lahore, and the countries false. The Greeks acquired much more know- on the banks of the Indus, from Moultan to the ledge of India by Alexander's expedition, al- sea. To secure the obedience of those countries, though be went no farther into the country than Alexander built, it is said, a number of fortified the Setlege (Hyphasis). See Hindistan. The cities; and, the farther eastward he extended his breadth of this district, from Ludhana on the conquests, the more necessary did he find this Setlege to Attock on the Indus, is computed to task. Three he built in India itself; two on the be 259 geographical miles in a straight line; and banks of the Hydaspes, and a third on the AceAlexander's march, computed in the same manner, sines, both navigable rivers, falling into the Indus, did not exceed 200; nevertheless by the spread- after they have united their streams. By these ing of his numerous arıny over the country, and he intended not only to keep the adjacent the exact measurement and delineation of all countries in awe, but to promote a commercial his movements by men of science whom he em- ntercourse between different parts. With this ployed, a very extensive knowledge of the view, on his return to Susa, he surveyed the western part of India was obtained. Of this course of the Euphrates and Tigris, causing the celebrated conqueror's exploits, previous to this cataracts or dams to be removed, which the Perexpedition, an account will be found under the sian monarchs had built to obstruct the naviarticle MACEDON.
gation of these rivers. After the navigation was According to major Rennel, the space of thus opened, he proposed that the valuable comcountry through which Alexander sailed on the modities of India should be imported into the Indus was not less than 1000 miles; and as, other parts of his dominions by the Persian Gulf, during the whole of that navigation, he obliged and through the Red Sea to Alexandria, and the nations on both sides of the river to submit thence dispersed over Europe. to him, we may be certain that the country on On the death of Alexander, the eastern part each side was explored to some distance. An of his dominions devolved first on Pytho, the exact account, not only of his military operations, son of Agenor, and afterwards on Seleucus. The but of every thing worthy of notice relating to latter was sensible of the advantages of keeping the countries through which he passed, was pre- India in subjection. With this view, he underserved in the journals of his three officers, Lagus, took an expedition into that country, partly to Nearchus, and Aristobulus; and these journals confirm his authority, and partly to defend the Arrian followed in the composition of his history. Macedonian territories ayainst Sandracottus, From these authors we learn, that, in the time of king of the Prasii. The particulars of his expeAlexander, the western part of India was pos- dition are very little known; Justin being the sessed by seven very powerful monarchs. The only author who mentions them. Plutarch tells territory of Porus, which Alexander first con- us that Seleucus carried his arms farther into quered and then restored to him, is said to have India than Alexander; and Pliny, whose authocontained no fewer than 2000 towns; and the rity is of considerably greater weight than either, king of the Prasii had assembled an army of corroborates the testimony of Plutarch in this 20,000 cavalry, 2000 armed chariots, and a great instance, though his language is obscure. Bayer number of elephants, to oppose the Macedonian thinks it implies that Seleucus marched from the monarch on the banks of the Ganges. The navi- Hyphasis to the lysudrus, thence to Palibothra, gable rivers with which the Panjab country and thence to the mouth of the Garges; the abounds, afforded then, and still continue to distances of the principal stations being marked, afford, an intercourse from one part to another and amounting in all to 2244 Roman miles. But by water: and, as these rivers probably had then Dr. Robertson considers it very improbable that many ships on them for commerce, Alexander the expedition of Seleucus should have been might easily collect all the number he is said to continued so far, as in that case the ancients have had, viz. 2000; since it is reported, that would have had a more accurate knowledge of Semiramis was opposed by double the number this part of the country than they seem ever to on the Indus, when she invaded India.
have possessed.' The career of Seleucus in the The country on each side the Indus was east was stopped by Antigonus, who prepared
to invade the western part of his dominions. fifteenth century all thoughts of establishing any : The fermer was therefore obliged to conclude a dominion in India were totally abandoned by treaty with Sandracottus; but Dr. Robertson is the Europeans. The only object now was to of opinion, that during the lifetime of Seleucus, promote a commercial intercourse with that which continued forty-two years after the death country; and Egypt was the medium by which of Alexander, no diminution of the Macedonian that intercourse was to be promoted. Ptolemy, territories took place. With a view of keeping the son of Lagus, first raised the power and up a friendly intercourse with the Indian prince, splendor of Alexandria, by carrying on a trade Seleucus sent Megasthenes, one of Alexander's to India. His son Ptolemy Philadelphus proofficers, to Palibothra, capital of the kinguom of secuted the same plan very vigorously. In his the Prasii, on the banks of the Ganges. This time the Indian commerce once more began to city is by Dr. Robertson thought to be the centre in Tyre; but, to remove it effectually modern Allahabad, but major Rennel supposes thence, he attempted to form a canal between it to be Patna. As Megasthenes resided in this Arsinoe on the Red Sea, near the place where city for a considerable time, he made many Suez now stands, and the Pelusiac, or eastera observations relative to India in generai, which branch of the Nile. This canal was about 100 he afterwards published. But he mingled with cubits broad, and thirty deep; so that by means bis relations the most extravagant fables; such of it the productions of India might have been as accounts of men with ears so large that they conveyed to Alexandria entirely by water. We could wrap themselves up in them; of tribes know not whether this work was ever finished, with one eye, without mouths or noses, &c., if or whether it was found useless on account of the extracts from his book, given by Arrian, Di- the dangerous navigation towards the northern odorus, and other ancient writers, can be credited. extremity of the Red Sea; but it is certain that After the embassy of Megasthenes to Sandra- no use was made of it, and a new city, named cottus, and that of his son Damaichus to Alli- Berenice, situated almost under the tropic upon trochidas, the successor of Sandracottus, we hear the western shore of the Red Sea, became the no more of the affairs of India with regard to the staple of Indian commerce. Thence the goods Macedonians, until the time of Antiochus the were transported by land to Coptos, a city Great, who made a short incursion into India three miles from the Nile, to which it was about 197 years after the death of Seleucus. All joined by a navigable canal. Thus, however, that we know of this expedition is, that the there was a very tedious land carriage of no less Syrian monarch, after finishing a war he carried than 258 Roman miles through the barren desert on against the two revolted provinces of Par- of Thebais; but Ptolemy caused search to be thia and Bactria, obliged Sophagasenus, king made every where for springs, and, wherever of the country which he invaded, to pay a sum these were found, he built inns for the accomof money, and give him a number of elephants. modation of travellers. It is probable that the successors of Antiochus Ships during this period sailed from Berewere obliged, soon after his death, to abandon vice, and coasting along the Arabian shore to the all their Indian territories.
promontory of Syagrus, now Cape Rafalgate, After the loss of India by the Syrians, an inter- held their course along the coast of Persia, till course was kept up for some time betwixt it and they arrived at the mouth of the western branch the Greek kingdom of Bactria. This last became of the Indus. hey either sailed up this branch an independent state about sixty-nine years after till they came to Pattala, now Tatta, at the upper the death of Alexander; and, according to the part of the Delta, or continued their course to few hints we have concerning it in ancient some other emporium on the west part of the authors, carried on a great traffic with India. Indian coast. A more convenient course was Nay, the Bactrian monarchs are said to have afterwards found by sailing directly to Zizenis, conquered more extensive tracts in that region a place concerning which there is now some than Alexander himself had done. Six princes dispute. Montesquieu believes it to have been reigned over this new kingdom in succession; the kingdom of Sigertis, on the coast adjacent some of whom, elated with the conquests they to the Indus, and which was conquered by the had made, assumed the title of the great king, by Bactrian monarchs; but major Rennel is of opiwhich the Persian monarchs were distinguished nion that it was a port on the Malabar coast, in their highest splendor. Strabo informs us, Dr. Robertson thinks that during the time of that the Bactrian princes were deprived of their the Ptolemies very little progress was made in territories by the Scythian Nomades, who came the discovery of India, and contests the opinion from the country beyond the Saxartes, and were of major Rennel, that under the Ptolemies known by the names of Asii, Pasiani, Tachari, the Egyptians extended their navigation to the and Scaurauli. This is confirmed by the testi- extreme point of the Indian continent, and even mony of the Chinese historians, quoted by M. sailed up the Ganges to Palibothra, now Patna.' de Guignes. According to them, about 126 In this case, he thinks, that the interior parts of years before the Christian era, a powerful horde India must have been much better known to the of Tartars pushed from their native seats on the ancients, than we have any reason to believe they confines of China, and obliged to move farther were. The extreme danger of navigating, the to the west, passed the laxartes, and, pouring in Red Sea in ancient times seems to have been upon Bactria like an irresistible torrent, over-the principal reason which induced Plolemy to whelmed that kingdom, and put an end to the remove the communication with India, from Ardominion of the Greeks, after it had lasted nearly singe to Berenice, as there were other hartours - 130 years. From this time to the close of the on the same coast considerably nearer the Nile
than it. After the ruin of Coptos, by the empe- to the wind by which he performed the voyage. ror Dioclesian, the Indian commodities were Pliny gives a very particular account of the conveyed from the Red Sea to the Nile from manner in which the Indian traffic was now car. Cosseir, supposed by Dr. Robertson to be the ried on, mentioning the particular stages, and the Philoteras Portus of Ptolemy, to Cous, the Vicus distances between them: viz. From Alexandria Apollinis, a journey of four days. Hence Cous, to Juliopolis, according to this writer, was two from a small village, became an opulent city; miles; and there the cargo destined for India but in process of time the trade from India re- was shipped on the Nile, and carried to Coptos, moved to Kene, farther down the river. It was distant 303 miles, the voyage being usually perto this monopoly of Indian commerce, that formed in twelve days. From Coptos they were Egypt owed its vast wealth and power, during conveyed by land to Berenice, distant 258 miles, the time of its Macedonian monarchs; but it and halting at different stations as occasion reappears surprising that no attempt was made quired. The journey was finished on the twelfth by the Syrian monarchs to rival them in it, day; but on account of the beat the caravan especially as the latter were in possession of the travelled only in the night. The ships left BePersian gulf, from whence they might have renice about midsummer, and in thirty days imported the Indian commodities by a much reached Ocelis, now Gella, at the mouth of the shorter navigation than could be done by the Arabian Gulf, or the modern Cape Fartaque on Egyptians.
the coast of Arabia Felix; from whence they On the conquest of Egypt by the Romans, sailed in forty days to Musiris, already mentithe Indian commodities continued, as usual, to oned. Their homeward voyage began early in be imported to Alexandria in Egypt, and from December; when setting sail with a north-east thence to Rome; but the most ancient commu- wind, and meeting with a south or south-west nication betwixt the east and west parts of Asia one when they entered the Arabian Gulf, the seems never to have been entirely given up. voyage was completed in less than a year. With Syria and Palestine are separated from Mesopo- regard to the situation of Musiris, as well as of tamia by a desert; but the passage through it Barace, another Indian port to which the ancients was much facilitated by its affording a station traded, major Rennel and Dr. Robertson agree which abounded in water. Hence the possession that they stood between Goa and Tellicherry; of this station became an object of such con- and that probably the modern Meerzaw or Mersequence, that Solomon built upon it the city jee is the Musiris, and Barcelore the Barace of called in Syria Tadmor, and in Greek Palmyra. the ancients. Ptolemy, who flourished about Both these names are expressive of its situation A. D. 200, having the advantage of so many in a spot adorned with palm trees. Though its previous discoveries, gives a more particular desituation for trade may to us seem very unfavor- scription of India than is to be met with in any able; being sixty miles from the Euphrates, by of the ancient writers; notwithstanding which which alone it could receive the Indian commo- his accounts are frequently inconsistent not only dities, ar.d 203 from the nearest coast of the with modern discoveries, but with those of more Mediterranean; yet the value and small hulk of ancient geographers than himself. A capital the goods in question rendered the conveyance error in his geography is, that he makes the penof them by a long carriage over land not only insula of India stretch from the Sinus Barygapracticable but lucrative and advantageous. zenus, or gulf of Cambay, from west to east; Hence the inhabitants became opulent and pow- instead of extending, according to its real direcerful, and this place long maintained its inde- tion, from north to south; and this error appears pendence after the Syrian empire became subject the more extraordinary, that Megasthenes had to Rome.
published a measurement of this peninsula, 2. India from its intercourse with the Romans, nearly consonant to truth, which had been until the erection of the Garnian empire.-The adopted with some variations by Eratosthenes, excessive eagerness of the Romans for Asiatic Strabo, Diodorus Siculus, and Pliny. His inluxuries of all kinds kept up, an unceasing in- formation concerning the situation of places, tercourse with India, during the whole time that however, was much more accurate. the empire continued in its power; and, even spect to some districts on the eastern part of the after the destruction of the western part, it was peninsula, as far as the Ganges, he comes very kept up between Constantinople and those parts near the truth. M. d'Anville, has determined of India which had been visited formerly by the modern names of many of Ptolemy's stamerchants from the west. Long before this tions, as Kilkare, Negapatam, the mouth of the period, however, a much better method of sail- river Cauveri, Masulipatam, &c. The peninsula ing to India had been discovered by one Hip- of Malacca was in all probability the boundary palus, the commander of an Indian ship, who of the ancient discoveries by sea, but by land lived about eighty years after Egypt had been they had correspondence with countries still annexed to the Roman empire. This man hav- farther distant. ing observed the periodical shifting of the mon- While the Seleucidæ continued to enjoy the soons, and how steadily they blew from the east empire of Syria, the trade with India continued or west during some months, ventured to leave to be carried on by land in the way already menthe coast, and sail boldly across the Indian tioned. The Romans, having extended their Ocean, from the mouth of the Arabian Gulf to dominions as far as the Euphrates, found this Musiris, a port on the Malabar coust; which method of conveyance still established, and the discovery was reckoned a matter of such im- trade was by them encouraged and protected. portance, that the name of Hippalus was given But the progress of the caravans being frequently
interrupted by the Parthians, particularly when ed as missionaries in different parts of the east, they travelled towards those countries where and had penetrated as far as the country of the silk and others of the most valuable manufac- Seres or China, induced by the liberal promises tures were procured, it became an object to the of Justinian, brought a quantity of the eggs of Romans to conciliate the friendship of the sove- silkworms in a hollow cane. They were then reigns of those distant countries. This attempt hatched by the heat of a dunghill; and, being seems to have been made; for the Chinese fed with the leaves of the mulberry, worked historians tell us, that Antoun, by whom they and multiplied as well as in those countries of mean the emperor Marcus Antoninus, the king which they are natives. Vastunumbers were soon of the people of the western ocean, sent an reared in Greece; from whence they were exembassy to Ounti, who reigned in China A.D. ported to Sicily, and from thence to Italy; in all 166,
which countries silk manufactures have since With regard to the Indian islands, considering been established. On the conquest of Egypt the little way they extended their navigation, the by the Saracens, in 640, the India trade was of ancients could not be acquainted with many of course transferred to thein; and they soou began them. Ceylon, however, they called Taprobane: to pursue it with much more vigor than the Rothe name was entirely unknown in Europe be mans had done. The city of Bassora was built fore the time of Alexander the Great; but that by the caliph Omar, upon the west banks of conqueror, though he did not visit, had heard of the great river formed by the union of the Fuit; but all the accounts of ancient geographers phrates with the Tigris. Thus the command of concerning it are confused and contradictory. both rivers was secured, and the new city soon The other islands described by Ptolemy to the became a place of almost as much consequence eastward of Taprobane are, according to Dr. as Alexandria itself. Robertson, those called Andaman and Nicobar Dr. Robertson takes notice, that, from the in the Gulf of Bengal. From the time of Pto- evidence of an Arabian merchant who wrote in lemy to that of the emperor Justinian we have 852,
it appears, that not only the Saracens, but no account of any intercourse of the Europeans the Chinese also, were destitute of the mariner's win India, or of any progress made in the geo- compass; contrary to a common opinion, that graphical knowledge of the country. Under this instrument was known in the east long that emperor Cosmas, an Egyptian merchant, before its discovery in Europe. Notwithstandmade some voyages to India, whence he ac- ing this disadvantage, they penetrated far beyond quired the surname of Indicopleustes. Having Siam, which had set bounds to the navigation of afterwards turned monk, he published several Europeans. They became acquainted with works; one of which, named Christian Topo- Sumatra and other Indian islands; extending graphy, has reached us. In this, though mixed their navigation as far as Canton in China. A with many strange reveries, he relates, with great regular commerce was now carried on from the simplicity and appearance of truth, what he had Persian Gulf to all the countries lying betwixt it seen in his travels or bad learned from others; and China, and even with China itself. Many and describes several places on the western Saracens settled in India properly so called, as coast of the hither peninsula, which he calls the well as in the countries beyond it. In the city chief seat of the pepper trade. From one of of Canton they were so numerous, that the entthe ports on that coast, named Male, Dr. Roberta peror permitted them to have a cadi or judge of son thinks that the name of Malabar may pro- their own religion; the Arabian language was bably be derived, as well as that of Maldives, understood and spoken in every place of consegiven to a cluster of islands at no great dis- quence; and ships from China are even said to
Cosmas informs us also, that in his have visited the Persian Gulf. According to the time the island of Taprobane had become a great Arabian accounts of those days, the peninsula of staple of trade. He supposed it to lie about India was at that time divided into four kinghalf way betwixt the Persian Gulf and the coun doms. The first was composed of the provinces try of the Sinæ : in consequence of which com- situated on the Indus and its branches, the capimodious situation it received the silk of the ta] of which was Moultan. The second had the Sinæ, and the precious spices of the remote city of Canoge, which, from its remaining ruins, regions of the east, which were from thence con- appears to have been a very large place. The veyed to all parts of India, Persia, and the Ara- Indian historians relate, that it contained 30,000 bian Gulf. He calls it not Taprobane, but shops, in which betel nut was sold, and 60,000 Sieldibia, derived from Selendib, or Serendib, a sets of musicians and singers who paid a tax to name by which it is still known in the east.
government. The third kingdom' was that of From him also we learn, that the Persians, hav- Cachemire, first mentioned by Massoudi, who ing overthrown the empire of the Parthians, gives a short description of it. The fourth king. applied themselves with great diligence and suc- dom, Guzerat, is represented by the same author cess to maritime affairs ; in consequence of which as the most powerful of the whole. Another they became formidable rivals to the Romans in Arab writer, who flourished about the middle of the Indian trade. The latter being thus in dan- the fourteenth century, divides India into three ger of entirely losing that lucrative branch, parts; the northern comprehending all the proJustinian formed a scheme of preserving some vinces on the Indus; the middle extending from share of it by means of his ally the emperor of Guzerat to the Ganges; and the southern, which Abyssinia. In this he was disappointed, though he denominates Comar, from Cape Comorin
. afterwards he obtained his end in a way entirely from
the relation of the Arabian merchant above unexpected. Two monks who had been employ- mentioned, explaiced by the commentary
another Arabian who had likewise visited the time the cities of Amalfi and Venice, with some eastern parts of Asia, we learn many particulars others in Italy, having acquired a great degree concerning the inhabitants of these distant of independence, began to exert themselves in regions at that time, which correspond with promoting domestic manufactures, and importwhat is observed among them at this day. They ing the productions of India. Some traces of take notice of the general use of silk among the this revival of a commercial spirit, according to Chinese, and the manufacture of porcelain, Dr. Robertson, may be observed from the end of which they compare to glass. They also de- the seventh century. But, during the seventh scribe the tea-plant, with the manner of using and eighth centuries, it is very probable that no its leaves; whence it appears, that in the ninth commercial intercourse whatever took place century the use of this plant in China was as betwixt Italy and Alexandria; for, prior to this common as it is at present. They mention like- period, all the public deeds of the Italian and wise the great progress which the Indians had other cities of Europe were written upon paper made in astronomy; a circumstance which seems made of the Egyptian papyrus, but after that to have been unknown to the Greeks and Ro- upon parchment About the end of the tenth mans; they assert, that in this branch of science century, a considerable revolution took place in they were far superior to the most enlightened India, by the conquests of Mahmud Gazni, nations of the west, on which account their who erected the empire of Gazna. sovereign was called the King of Wisdom. The 3. India, from the erection of the Guznian superstitions, extravagant penances, &c., known empire, to the death of Mohammed Shah.— The to exist at this day among the Indians, are also authentic history of Ilindostan is reckoned to mentioned by those writers; all which particu- commence with the conquests of Mahmud Gazlars manifest that the Arabians had a knowledge ni. Major Rennel thinks nothing before that of India far superior to that of the Greeks or period is to be depended on. Mahmud's kingRomans. The industry of the Mahommedans, com had arisen out of that of the Saracens, who in exploring the most distant regions of the had extended their conquests immensely, under east, was rivalled, however, by the Christians of the caliph Al-Walid, both to the east and west. Persia, who sent missionaries all over India and Mahmud was the third from Abistagi, a goverthe countries adjoining, as far as China itself. nor of Khorasan, who had revolted from the But, while the western Asiatics thus kept up a king of Bucharia. He possessed great part of constant intercourse with these parts, the Euro- the ancient Bactria. Gazna, near the source of peans had in a manner lost all knowledge of the Indus, and Balkh, were his chief cities. them. The port of Alexandria, from which they After conquering the rest of Bactria, he invaded had formerly been supplied with the Indian Hindostan, A. D. 1000, and reduced the province goods, was now shut against them; and the of Moultan, which was inhabited by the Kuttry Arabs, satisfied with supplying the demands of and Rajpoot tribes (the Catheri and Malli of their own subjects, neglected to send any by Alexander), who still retained their ancient the usual channels to the towns on the Mediter- bravery, and made a very formidable resistance. ranean. The inhabitants of Constantinople and Mahmud being equally influenced by a love of some other great towns were supplied with conquest, and a superstitious zeal to exterminate Chinese commodities by the most tedious and the Hindoo religion, a league was at last formed difficult passage imaginable. The silk of that against him among all the Indian princes, from country was purchased in the most westerly pro- the Ganges to the Nerbudda. Their allied troops vince 'named Chensi; thence it was conveyed were, however, defeated; and in 1008 the faby a caravan, which marched eighty or 100 days mous temple of Nagracut in the Panjab was to the banks of the Oxus. Here it was em- destroyed." In 1011 Mahmud destroyed the barked, and carried down the river to the Cas- city and temple of Tanafar, and reduced Delhi. pian; whence, after a dangerous voyage across In 1018 he took Canoge, and demolished the that sea, it was carried up the river Cyrus as far temples of that and several other cities; but as it is navigable; after which it was conducted failed in his attempts on Ajimere. In bis by a land-carriage of five days to the river twelfth expedition, in 1024, he reduced the Phasis, then down that stream into the Euxine, whole peninsula of Guzerat, and destroyed the and thence to Constantinople. The passage of famous temple of Sumnaut, as well as those of goods from Hindostan was less tedious; being all the other cities he conquered. At his death, carried either directly to the Caspian or to the in 1028, he possessed the east and largest part of Oxus, but by a passage much shorter than that Persia, with the Indian provinces from the west from China ; after which they were conveyed part of the Ganges to Guzerat, and those down the Phasis to the Euxine, and thus to between the Indus and the mountains of AjiConstantinople. In spite of every difficulty, mere. however, this commerce flourished, and Con- But in 1158 this extensive empire began to stantinople became a considerable mart for East fall to pieces. The west and largest part was Indian commodities; and from it all the rest of seized by the Gauri, while the east contiguous to Europe was chiefly supplied with them for more the Indus remained in the possession of Custhan two centuries. The perpetual hostilities in roe, whose capital was Lahore. In 1184 his which the Christians and Mahommedans were sons were expelled by the Gauri, and in 1194 during this period engaged, contributed still to Mohammed Gori penetrated into Hindostan as increase the difficulty; but, the more it increased, far as Benares, committing as great devastation the more desirous Europeans seemed to be of as Mahmud Gazni had done. He also reduced possessing the luxuries of Asia. About this the south part of Ajimere, and the territory