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south of the Jumpa, the fort of Gualior, &c. lane, after subduing all the west of Tariary alie On his death, in 1205, the einpire of Gazia Was Asia, iurned his arms against Hindostan, and again divided, and the Patan or Alghan empire made an easy conquest of it. But the bloody was founded by Cuttul), who had the Indian monster, not contented with his victory, ordered part, the Persian remaining to Eldoze. Cuttub a general massacre of the inhabitants, in couseinade Delhi his capital; and in 1210 his succes- quence of which, it is said, that 100,000 of them sor, Altumish, reduced the greatest part of Ilin- were murdered in one hour. In January, 1.399 dostan l'roper. Que of his sons obtained the hedefeated the Indian army, with great slaughter, government of Bengal, and, from this period, and soon after took the city of Delhi, which then one of the emperor's sons had always that go- consisted of three cities, surrounded by walls. vernment. During his reign, the bloody Jenghiz Though no resistance was made, and of course Klan put an end to the other branch of the there was no pretence for bloodshed, yet a quarGazoian empire, as related under the article rel was fomented within a few days by his Tar GAZSA, but Hindostan was left undisturbed. lar soldiers, who pillaged the city, massacres

The kingdom of Malwa, which had been re- most of the people, and sold the rest for slave duced in 1205 by Cuttub, shook off the yoke in The spoils, in place and jewels, were immense 1265, and the Rajpoots revolied. From this After ihis dreadful carnage, Tamerlane marched period the most drezdful confusion and massacres throngh the other provinces of llindostan, defollowed almost to the time that the British feating the Indians every where, and slaughtering government commenced. The empire being the worshippers of fire. On the 25th of March sabemided among a set of rapacious governors, this bloody conqueror retired, leaving Vahmud the people were reduced to the greatest degree of in possession of the throne, and reserving only misery.' To add to their distress, the Moguls Panjab to himself. made such frequent and formidable invasions, The death of Mahmud III., in 1413, put an that at last the emperor Ferose 11. allowed them end to ihe l'atan dynasty. Ile was succeede i to settle in the country in 1292. The emperor by Chizer, a descendant of Mahomet the imwas incited by Alla, governor of Gurrah, to at- postor, and his posterity continued to reign till tempt the conquest of the Deccan; and Alla 1450, when Alla II. abdicated the throne, and being employed in that business, wherein be Belloli, an Afghan, took possession of it. Cinder amassed an immense quantity of treasure, no him a prince who resided at Jionpour became sooner accomplished it, than he deposed and so formidable, that he left him only the shadow murdered Ferose, and assumed the sovereignty of authority. Belloli's son, however, recovered of Hindostan. After this he reduced the forts a great part of the empire, about 1301, when be of Guzerat, Ratanpour, and (heitore; and in made Agra bis residence. In the reign of Ibra1303 the city of Warungole, capital of Tellin- ham II. Sultan Baber, a descendant of Tamergala. After this the remainder of Malwa was lane, conquered a considerable part of the emsubdue?; in 1300 the conquest of the Deccan pire. His first expedition wits in 1518; and in was undertaken; and in 1310 Alla carried bis 1525 he took Delhi. On the death of Baber, army into Dowiatabad and the Carnatic. But who reigned only five years, his son Humaioon all this usurper's expeditions, and those of his was driven from the throne, and obliged to take general Cafoor, seem to have been made more shelter among the Rajpoot princes of Ajimere. with the view of plunder than of permanent The sovereignty was usurped by Sheer Khan, conquest. The quantity of riches Cafcor amassed who in 1545 was killed at the siege of Cheitore. was so great, that it is said his soldiers carried Ilis territories extended from the Indus to Benaway only the gold, leaving the silver behind gal; but the government was so unsettled, that as too cumbersome. In 1322 several places no fewer than five sovereigns succeeded within rebelled, but were reduced; and the Carnatic nine years after his death. This induced a strong was ruvaged from sea tu sea in 1326, when Alla party to join in recalling llumajoon; who is said died. This successors were not able to retain to have been a prince of great virtue and abilithe dominions he leit. Under Mohammed III. ties; but he lived only one year after his return. The inhabitants of the Deccan revolted, and Upon his deatlı, in 1555, his son Acbar sucdrove the Mahommedans completely out of all ceeded, one of the greatest princes that ever their territories, except the city of Dowlatabad. reigned in Ilindostan. He was then only fourTu 1344 Belaldeo, king of the Deccan, who had teen years of age; but, during his long reign of beaded the revolt, founded the city of Bisnagur. fifty-one years, he established the empire on a Many provinces in Bengal, Guzerat, and Panjab, more sure foundation than it had probably ever also revolied. Ferose III., who succeeded Mo- been before. His first years were spent in reham.ned in 1351, was a wise prince, who pre- ducing the revolted provinces, and in securing ferred the improvement of bis empire by the their future obedience, not only by appointing aris of peace, to the extension of it by war and faithful governors, but by attending to the rights conquest. In his reign, which lasted thirty-seven and privileges of the people, and establishing an years, agriculture, commerce, and manufactures, unlimited toleration in religion. In 1585 he inwere encouraged. But upon his death, in 1388, vaded the Deccan; but, though the war continued a civil war broke out, which continued five twenty years, the only progress made was the years, til! Mahmud III. succeeded in 1393. reduction of Candeisl, Tellingana, the west part During this period Hindostan exhibited the in- of Berar, and the north part of Amednagur. The common phenomenon of two emperors residing city of Amednarur was taken in 1601, after a in the same capital, vet at war with each other. tedious and bloody siege. I'nder luis successor, Tu thus wtortunaic situation of affairs, Tainer- Jeban Guire, the war was faintly carried on, the

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empire being disturbed by his rebellious son and killed his brother Kaum-Bush ; after which Shah Jehan, and his councils distracted by the he reduced the Seiks, a new sect of religionists, influence of his mistress Noor Jehan. In this who, in the reign of Shah Jehan, had silently esmonarch's reign Sir Thomas Roe, the first Bri- tablished themselves along the eastern mountish ambassador at the court of Hindostan, ar- tains, and had now taken up arms in Lahore, rived. Jehan Guire died in 1627, and was suc- ravaging the country to the banks of the Jumceeded by his son Shah Jehan, who pushed the nah. Bahader Shah died at Lahore, after a short conquest of the Deccan with vigor, but in so illness, and the empire was again contested destructive a manner, that most of the princes among his four sons. Of these the second, named submitted. A war next broke out with the Por- Azem Coshaum, took possession of the treasures, tuguese which ended in their expulsion from but was opposed by his brothers, who agreed to Hoogly. Shah Jehan was a debauched prince; divide the empire. Azem was defeated and and his rebellion against his father was retaliated killed, in a batile gained chiefly by the valor of by that of his son Aurengzebe, who dethroned Shah Jehan, the youngest, who was willing to him, disguising his ambition under the mask of abide by the agreement. But the intrigues of religion, and committing the greatest crimes under Zoolfecar Khan, an omrah in high trust, prethat pretence. He engaged in a war with his vented this. A new civil war took place, in which brothers, Morad and Dara, whom he defeated Jehan was killed. The two surviving brothers and put to death, and then pretended to lament tried their fortune in a third battle, in which Jetheir misfortune. He, however, treated his father hauder, the eldest, being victor, took possession with tenderness till his death in 1666. From of the throne; but in nine months was de1660, when Aurengzebe attained full possession throned by Furroksere, the son of Azem Ooshaof the throne, till 1678, a profound tranquillity un, assisted by Houssein Ali Khan and Abprevailed throughout the empire; but from a doollah Khan, two brothers, who had extensive jealousy of Sevagee, the founder of the Mahratta governments in the eastern provinces. In 1713 state, he undertook the conquest of the Deccan; the Seiks again took arms; and, in 1916, were and, having quelled a rebellion of the Patans grown so formidable, that the emperor marched beyond the Indus, he persecuted the Hindoos so against them. About this time the English East severely, that the Rajpoot tribes in Ajimere India Company obtained the famous firman, or commenced a war against him. In this war, grant, by which their goods of export and imhaving headed his armies in person, he was port were exempted from duties. Furroksere hemmed in among the mountains, and would was deposed and murdered by the brothers have been taken prisoner, had not the Rajpoots Houssein and Abdoollah, who set up another generously allowed him to escape, as well as his emperor, whom they also deposed and murdered empress, whom they actually had taken prisoner. in the same year; and thus, in eleven years after This did not prevent him from renewing his in- Aurengzebe's death, eleven of his posterity, who cursions into that country in 1681.

had either possessed or been competitors for the He took and razed Checture, committing throne, were exterminated ; and the government great devastations, and destroying the Hindoo declined so rapidly, that the empire seemed temples and idols every where; but was at last ready to fall to pieces. In 1718 the two broobliged to abandon his persecutions, and allow thers raised to the throne Mohammed Shah, the the Hindoos to remain in peace. He reduced, grandson of Bahader : who, warned by the fate bowever, the greatest part of the Deccan, and of his predecessors, soon rid himself of these even during the last five years of his life was two powerful subjects, though at the expense of a employed in the field. His long absence from civil war. But new enemies started

up.

Nizam his capital occasioned rebellions to break out in Al Mulek, viceroy of the Deccan, in 1722, had various parts; and about this period the Jats, or been offered the place of vizier, or prime minisJauts, first made their appearance in the pro- ter, but did not accept it. Independence was vince of Agra. At his death, in 1707, his empire his aim, and the increasing power of the Mahextended from 10° to 350 lat., and nearly as rattas furnished him with a pretence for augmentmany degrees in long. His revenue,' says ing his army. Persuaded that he had a party at major Rennel,' exceeded £35,000,000 sterling, court, he, in 1738, came thither, with a great in a country where provisions are about four body of armed followers; but, finding that the times as cheap as in England. But so weighty interest of the emperor was still too powerful for a sceptre could be wielded only by a hand like him, he invited the famous Persian usurper, Aurengzebe's; and accordingly, in fifty years Nadir Shah, or Kouli Khan to invade Hindosafter bis death, a succession of weak princes and tan. wicked ministers reduced this astonishing empire This invitation was readily accepted, and to nothing.'

Nadir entered the country without opposition; He left four sons; Mausum, Azem, Kaum- yet, when far advanced into Hindostan, he conBush, and Acbar. This last had rebelled against sidered the issue of matters to be so uncertain, his father, and been obliged to fly to Persia thirty that he offered to evacuate the country and reyears before. A civil war commenced between tire for fifty lacks of rupees, about £500,000 Mausum and Azem; and a decisive battle was sterling. The intrigues of the nizam and his fought, wherein 300,000 men were engaged on party hindered the emperor from complying with each side, and Azern was defeated and killed. this demand; instead of which he threw himself Maucum then assumed the title of Bahader Shah, upon the usurper's mercy, who then took posand, during his short reign of five years, gave session of Delhi, and demanded a ransom of proofs of considerable abilities. He defeated £30,000,000 sterling. After a conference with

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the emperor, Nadir seized upon 200 cannon, W.-Carded by his son Nivris Jinng, to the prewith some treasure and jewels which he sent off judice oi hus elder brother Gizi, vizier to the 10 Candahar. He then marched back to Delhi, nominal emperos. where a commotion arose about the price of corn. The contest that followed on this occasion, for While Nadir endeavoured 10 quell it, a shot the throne of the Deccan and the nabobship of was tired at him, and narrowly missed him; Arcot, first engaged the British and French to act upon which the barbariau ordered a general as auxiliaries on opposite sides. Immediately inassacre of the inhabitants, and slaughtered atter the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, the French 120,000, or, according to some, 150,000 persons. commandant, V. Dupleix, began to sow dissenThis was followed by a seizure of ail the jewels, sion among the nabobs, who had by this time plate, &C., which could be found; besides, ex- usurped the sovereignty of the country. Nizam acting the $30,000,000, which was done with Al Julek, viceroy of Deccan and nabob of the utmost rigor.

Arcot, had, as otticer for the Mogul, nominated In the midst of these scenes Nadir caused the Anaverdy hlian to be governor of the Carnatic inarriage of his son to be celebrated with a in 1745. On the death of the nizain bis second grand-daughter of Aurengzebe, and then took son, Nazir Zing, was appointed 10 succeed him leave of the emperor, with professions of friends in his viceroyalty, and his nomination was conship, on the 6th of May 1739. He is said to have firmed by the logul. lle was opposed by his carried off goods and treasure to the value of cousin Muzapher Zing, who applied to Dupleix £125,000,000 sterling. Mohammed had also for assistance. By him he was supplied with a ceded to him all the provinces of Hlindostan west body of Europeans and some artillery ; after of the Indus. The villanous vizam possessed which, being also joined by Chunda Saib, an acalmost all the remaining power of the empire, tive Indian prince, he took the field against which he emploved to establish himself in the Nazir Zing. The latter was supported by a body sovereignty of the Deccan. Bengal had become of British troops under colonel Laurence: and independent in 1738, under Aliverdy Cawn, and the French, dreading the event of an engagement, was not long after invaded by a vast army of retired in the night; so that their ally was obliged Mahrattas in the emperor's name, who, not be- to throw himself on the clemency of Nazir Zing. ing able to pay them his arrears of tribute, sent his life was spared, though he himself was them to Bengal to collect it themselves. About detained as a state prisoner; but the traitor, the same time the Rohillas, a tribe from the forgetting the kindness show him on this ocmountains between India and Persia, erected an casion, entered into a conspiracy against the independent state on the east of the Ganges, life of Nazir Zing, and murdered him in his eighty miles from Delhi. The empire seemed camp; in which infamous transaction he was now to be running fast to its dissolution. Nadir encouraged it is said by Dupleix and Chunda Shah being murdered, Abdallah, one of his ge- Saib, who had retired to Pondicherry. Imnerals, seized on the east part of Persia and the mense riches were found in the tents of Nazir adjacent Indian provinces which Mohammed Zing, great part of which fell to the share Shah had ceded to Nadir, and formed them into of Dupleix, whom Muzapher Zing now asthe kingdom of handahar, or Abdalli. See KAN- sociated with himself in the goverument. By DAHAR.

this association the Frenchman assumed the state 4. India, from the death of Ilohammed Shah to the and formalities of an eastern prince; and he and recovery of Calcutta by the English, in 1757.- his colleague luzapher Zing appointed Chunda In 1739 Mohammed Shah died, and was suc- Saib nabob of Arcot. In 1719 Anaverdy Khan ceeded by his son Ahmed; during whose reign, had been defeated and killed by Muzapher Zing which lasted only six years, the division of the and Chunda Saib, assisted by the French; after remainder of the empire took place; and which his son, Mohammed Ali Khan, had put nothing remained to the family of Tamerlane but himself under the protection of the English at a small tract of territory round Delhi. The Jauts Madras, and was confirmed by Nazir Zing, as his established themselves in Agra; Oude was father's successor in the nabobship or governseized on by Seifdar Jang, father of the late Su- ment of Arcot. This government therefore was jah Dowlah; Allahabad by Mohammed kouli; disputed betwixt Mohammed Ali Khan, apAjmere reverted 10 its ancient lords the Rajpoots; pointed by the legal viceroy Nazir Zing, and Malivah was divided between the l'oonah Mali- supported by the Euglish company, and Chunda rattas and several native zemindars; and the Saib, nominated by the usurper luzapher Zing, Mahrattas, besides their dominion in the Deccan, and protected by Dupleix, who commanded at possessed the greatest part of Berar, Guzerat, and Pondicherry. Muzapher, however, did not long Orissa. Abdallahı, having established his empire enjoy his ill-acquired authority; for in 1751 the of handahar, entered Lahore and Moultan: and nabobs who had been the means of raising hiin now the whole country of lindostan,' says ma to the power he enjoyell, thinking themselves ill jor Rennel, 'was in commotion, each party fear- rewarded for their services, fell upon him suding the machinations or attacks of the other; so denly, defeated his forces, and put him to death; that all regular government was at an end, and proclaiming Salabat Zing next day viceroy of the villany was practised in every form. Perhaps in Deccan. On the other hand, the Mogul appointthe annals of the world it has seldom bappened, ed Gauzedy Kban, the elder brother of Salabat that the bonds of government were so suddenly Zing, who was confirmed by Mohammed Ali dissolved, over a portion of country containing Khan in the government of Arcot; but the affairs at least 60 000,000 of inhabitants.' In 1718 the of the Mogul were at that time in such disorder nizam Al Mulek died, at the age of 104; and that he could not support the nomination he had made. Chunda Saib in the mean time determined exceed 300 Europeans, with as many natives as to recover, by force, the nabobship of Arcot, from were sufficient to give the appearance of an army, which he had been deposed by the Mogul, who he boldly proceeded to a place called Koveripauk, had placed Anaverdy Khan in his room. With about fifteen miles from Arcot, where the enemy this view he had recourse to Dupleix at Pondi- lay to the number of 1500 sepoys, 1700 horse, cherry, who reinforced him with 2000 sepoys, with 150 Europeans, and eight pieces of cannon. sixty Caffrees, and 420 French; upon condition Victory was long doubtful, until Mr. Clive havthat, if he succeeded, he should cede to the ing sent round a detachment to fall upon the French the town of Velur in the neighbourhood rear of the enemy, while the English attacked the of Pondicherry, with its dependencies, consisting entrenchments in front with their bayonets, a of forty-five villages. Thus reinforced, he de- general confusion ensued, the enemy was routed feated 'Anaverdy Khan, who lost his life in the with considerable slaughter, and only saved from engagement, re-assumed the government of Arcot, total destruction by the darkness of the night. and punctually performed the engagements he The French to a man threw down their arms on had come under to his French allies. All this this occasion, and surrendered themselves prisontime Mohammed Ali Khan had been supported ers of war; all the baggage and cannon falling by the English, to whom he fled after his father's at the same time into the hand of the victors. death. By them he was supplied with a rein- On the return of Mr. Clive to Fort St. David's, forcement of men, money and ammunition, under he was superseded in the command by major the conduct of major Laurence, a brave and ex- Laurence. Being detached by him with 400 perienced officer; whereby he gained some ad- Europeans, a few Mahratta soldiers, and a body vantages over the enemy; and, repairing after- of sepoys, to cut off the enemy's retreat to Ponwards to Fort St. David's, he obtained a farther dicberry, he was attended with his usual success, reinforcement. With all this assistance, however, took several forts, vanquished the French comhe accomplished nothing of any moment; and, mander M. d'Anteuil, and obliged him with all the English auxiliaries having retired, he was de- his party to surrender prisoners of war. Chunda feated by his enemies. He now was obliged to Saib, in the mean time, lay encamped with an enter into a more close alliance with the English, army of 30,000 men at Syringham, an island and cede to them some commercial points which near Trichinopoli; but, major Laurence having had been long in dispute ; after which captain intercepted his provisions, he was forced to fly. Cope was despatched to put Trichinopoli in á Being obliged to pass through the camp of the state of defence, while de Gingis, a Swiss officer, Tanjore general, he obtained a pass for that purmarched at the head of 400 Europeans to the pose; but was nevertheless detained by the naassistance of the nabob. On this occasion Mr. bob, who was an ally of the British, and his head (afterwards lood) Clive first appeared in a military was struck off. After the flight of Chunda Saib capacity. He had been employed before as a his army was attacked and routed by major writer, but seemed very little qualified for that Laurence; and the island of Syringham surrenor any other department of civil life. He now dered, with about 1000 French soldiers under marched towards Arcot at the head of 210 Eu- the command of Mr. Law, brother to him who ropeans and 500 sepoys; and in his first expe- schemed the Mississippi Company. M. Dupleix, dition displayed the qualities of a great com- mortified at this bad success, proclaimed Rajah mander. His movements were conducted with Saib, son to Chunda Saib, nabob of Arcot; and such secrecy and despatch, that he made himself afterwards produced forged commissions from master of the enemy's capital before they knew the great Mogul, appointing him governor of all of his march; and gained the affections of the the Carnatic from the Kristnah to the sea. To people by his generosity, in affording protection carry on this deception, a messenger pretended without ransom. In a short time, however, he to come from Delhi, and was received with all found himself invested in Fort St. David's by the pomp of an ambassador from the great Rajah Saib, son to Chunda Saib, an Indian chief, Mogul. Dupleix, mounted on an elephant and pretender to the nabobship of Arcot, at the head preceded by music and dancing women, after of a numerous army; the operations of the siege the oriental fashion, received his commission being conducted by European engineers. Thus, from the hands of this impostor; after which he in spite of his utmost efforts, two practicable affected the state of an easiern prince; kept his breaches were made, and a general assault given; durbar or court, appeared sitting cross-legged on but Mr. Clive, having intelligence of the intend- a sofa, and received presents as sovereign of the ed attack, defended himself with such vigor, that country, from his own council as well as from the assailants were every where repulsed with the natives. Thus the forces of the English and loss, and obliged precipitately to raise the siege. French East India companies were engaged in a Mr. Clive, being reinforced by a detachment from course of hostilities, under the title of auxiliaries Trichinopoli, then marched in quest of the to the contending parties at a time when no war enemy; and, having overtaken them in the existed between the two nations. In the mean plains of Arani, attacked and entirely defeated time Gauzedy Khan assumed the dignity apthem on the 3d of December 1751. This victory pointed him by the Mogul; but had not been in was followed by the surrender of the forts of possession of it above fourteen days when he Timery, Conjaveram, and Arani; after which he was poisoned by his own sister. His son, Shah returned in triumph to Fort St. David's. In the Abadin Khan, was appointed to succeed him by beginning of 1752 he marched towards Madras, the Mogul; but, the latter being unable to give where he was reinforced by a small body of him proper assistance, Salabat Zing remained troops from Bengal. Though the whole did not without any rival, and made a present to the French commander of all the English possessions a large hedge of bamboos in front, so thick that it to the northward. Thus concluded the cam- could not be penetrated but by the hatchet or paign of 1752. Next year both parties received fire. Two lines of this kind were forced, thouch considerable reinforcements; the English by the not without some loss; after which, Lachenaie arrival of adıniral Watson with a squadron of was obliged to submit. The English army now ships of war, having on board a regiment com- marched to Madura, a strong Indian town about manded by colonel Aldercroon; and the French sixty miles south of Trichinopoli. On their by M. Gadeheu, commissary and governor-gene- approach it submitted without opposition, and ral of all their settlements, on whose arrival 1. the inhabitants seemed pleased with their change Dupleix departed for Europe. The new gover- of government. Here a deputation was received nor made the most friendly proposals, and from a neighbouring polygar, desiring an allidesired a cessation of arms until the disputes ance, accompanied with an offer of two settlecould be adjusted in Europe. These being rea- ments on the sea coast, opposite to the island of dily listened to on the part of the British, depu- Ceylon. Before this time they could not have ties were sent to Pondicherry, and a provisional reached Tinevelly, but by a circuitous march of treaty and truce were concluded, on condition 400 or 300 miles; but from the new settlements that neither of the two companies should for the the distance to that place was only fifty miles. future interfere in any of the differences that and reinforcements or supplies of any kind might inight take place in the country. The other ar- be sent them from Madras or Fort Št. David in ticles related to the settlements that should be four or five days. This offer being accepted. retained or possessed by the respective compa- colonel Heron, the English commander, marched nies until fresh orders should arrive from the to attack the governor of Madura, who had Med courts of London and Versailles ; and till then to Coilyoody. The road was so rugged, that it was stipulated, that neither of them should cannon could with difficulty be brought up: aud. be allowed to procure any new grant or as the troops were not furnished with scaling cession, or to build forts in defence of any new ladders, there seemed to be little hope of gaining establishment; nor should they proceed to any the place. The colonel, however, determined to cession, retrocession, or evacuation of what they make an assault after the Indian manner, by then possessed; but every thing should remain burning down the gates with straw; and evenon the same footing as formerly.

tually the place was taken and plundered, not The treaty was published on the 11th of Ja- sparing even the temples. After this exploit the nuary 1755; at the end of which month admiral army returned to Madura; where leaving a garWatson returned with his squadron from Bom- rison, they proceeded to Tinevelly, which subbay; and M. Gadeheu returned to France in the mitted without opposition, and owned the jurisbeginning of February, leaving M. Leyrit his diction of the nabob. It afterwards appeared successor at Pondicherry. M. Bussy, with the that the revenues collected in this expedition had soubahdar Salabat Zing, commanded in the not been sufficient to defray the expenses of the north; and M. de Saussay was left to command army; and a report being spread that Salabat the troops at Syringham. Matters, however, did Zing was advancing into the Carnatic along not long continue in a state of tranquillity. with M. Bussy, the French commander, it was Early in the year it appeared that the French thought proper to recal colonel Heron to Triwere endeavouring to get possession of all the chinopoli. Before this he had been prevailed on Deccan. M. Bussy deinanded the fortress by Mazuphe Cawn, the Indian chief who accomof Golconda from Salabat Zing; and M. Leyrit panied him, to convey to him an investiture of encouraged the governor who rented Velu the countries of Madura and Tinevelly, for an to take up arms against the nabob. He even annual rent of £187,500 sterling. In his way sent 300 French and as many sepoys from he was likewise induced by the same chief to Pondicherry to support this rebel, and oppose make an attempt on a strong fort named Nellythe English employed by the nabob to collect tangaville, situated about thirty miles west of his revenues from the tributary princes. In this Tinevelly, and belonging to a refractory polygar. office they had been engaged ever since the ces. This attempt, however, proving unsuccessful for sation of hostilities; one-half of the revenue want of cannon, the colonel returned with Mabeing paid to the nabob, and the other to the zuphe Cawn to Trichinopoli. The last expecompany, which now involved them in military dition of this commander was against 'a fort expeditions into the country of the polygars, named Volsynatim, situated near the entrance of who had been previously summoned to send the woods belonging to the Colleries. In their agents to settle accounts with the nabob. Four march the English army had to go through the of them obeyed the summons; but one Lache- pass of Natam, one of the most dangerous in naig retused, and it was therefore resolved to the peninsula. It begins about twenty miles attack him. The country was very strong, being north of Trichinopoli, and continues for six fortified both by nature and art : it was sur-miles through a wood; being barely sufficient to rounded by craggy hills, detached from one admit a single carriage, at the same time that a another, and covered with bushes so as to be im- bank running along cach side rendered it impassable for any but the natives. The works, possible to widen it. A detachment of pioneers which the natives had thrown up from hill to hill, and sepoys were sent to scour the woods before were indeed very rude, being formed of larte the main body ventured to pass through such a stones laid one upon another without any ce- dangerous defle; but the march was after all ment, and flanked by round earthen towers; but stopped by one of the heaviest tumbrils sinking before the wall was a deep and broad ditch, with in a slough, out of which the oxen were not able

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