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to draw it. This prevented the other tumbrils cowardice and treachery of the Portuguese, who from moving forward, as well as three field pretended to assist the English. The Mahrattas pieces that formed the rear division of artillery, having implored the assistance of the English and the whole line of baggage; and in this di- against this common enemy, commodore Wilvided and defenceless state the rear division of liam James was sent from Bombay on the 22nd the baggage was attacked by the Indians; and of March 1755, with the Protector of forty-four, the whole would have been destroyed, had it not the Swallow of sixteen guns, and two bomb been for the courage and activity of captain ketches; but with instructions not to hazard the Smith, who here commanded forty Caffres and fleet by attacking any of the pirate's forts, only to 200 sepoys, with one six-pounder. Considerable blockade the harbours, while the Mahratta army damage, however, was done, and the Indians re- carried on their operations by land. He had covered their gods. Colonel Heron being tried scarcely commenced his voyage when he fell in by a court-martial for misconduct in this expe- with a considerable fleet of the pirates, which he dition, and found guilty, was declared incapable would have taken, had it not been for the timiof serving the company; soon after which he re- dity and dilatory behaviour of his allies. They turned to Europe, and died in Holland.

had invested three of the forts, but durst not apIn the mean time Nanderauze, an Indian proach nearer than two miles, and even there enprince, formed a scheme to get possession of trenched themselves up to the chin, to be secure Trichinopoli; and communicated his design to against the fire of the fort. The commodore, M. de Saussay, the commander of the French provoked at this pusillanimous behaviour, detertroops : but this gentleman communicated this mined, for the honor of the British arms, to intelligence to the English commander, and the exceed the orders be had received. Running enterprise miscarried. As soon as the company within 100 yards of a fort named Severndroog, he were informed of the acquisitions made by m. in a few hours ruined the walls, and set it on fire; Bussy in the Deccan, it was determined to en- a powder magazine also blowing up, the people, courage the Mahrattas to attack Salabat Zing, in to the number of about 1000, abandoned the order to oblige him to dismiss his French aux- place. The whole force of the attack being then iliaries. It was necessary therefore to select a turned upon Goa, a white flag was soon hung commander well experienced in the political out as a signal of surrender. The governor, systems of the country, as well as in military af- however, did not wait the event of a capitulation, fairs; and for this purpose Mr. Clive, now go- but passed over to Severndroog, where he hoped vernor of Fort St. David's, was invested with a to maintain his ground. The fire was now relieutenant-colonel's commission in the king's newed against this fortress ; and, the seamen troops. Three companies of the king's artillery having cut a passage through one of the gates consisting of 100 men each, and 300 recruits, with their axes, the garrison soon surrendered ; were sent from England on this occasion, and at the same time that two other forts besieged by they arrived at Bombay on the 27th of November: the Mahrattas hung out flags of truce and cawhen on a sudden the presidency of Madras pitulated, and thus were four of Angria's forts, conceived that this expedition could not be pro- hitherto deemed impregnable, subdued in one secuted without infringing the convention made day. These successes were followed by the surwith the French commander. It was therefore render of Bancoote, a strong fortified island, now laid aside, and the presidency of Madras di- called Fort Victoria, which the British retained rected all their force for the present against Tu- in possession : the other forts were delivered up lagee Angria, who had long been a formidable to the Mahrattas. On the arrival of admiral enemy to the English commerce. The dominions Watson in November 1755, it was determined to of this pirate consisted of several islands near root out the pirate at once, by attacking Geriah Bombay, and an extent of land on the continent his capital : but it was so long since any Engabout 180 miles in length, and from thirty to lishmen had seen this place, and the reports of its sixty in breadth. He possessed also several forts strength had been so much exaggerated, that it that had been taken from the Europeans; the was thought proper to first reconnoitre it. It was trade of piracy having, it seems, been hereditary then attacked by such a formidable fleet, that in his family, and indeed followed by most of the Angria, losing courage at their approach, filed to inhabitants of this coast. His fleei consisted of the Mahrattas, leaving Geriah to be defended by two kinds of vessels peculiar to this country, his brother. The fort was soon obliged to surnamed grabs and gallivats; both having gene- render. All its ramparts were either cut out of rally two masts, and some three; the latter being the solid rock, or built of stones ten feet long about 200 tons burden, and the former 150. edgeways : in it were found 200 pieces of They had forty or fifty oars, by which they might brass cannon, six brass mortars, and a great be moved at the rate of four miles an hour; and quantity of ammunition and military stores, he were mounted with six or eight pieces of cannon, sides money and effects to the value of £125,000 carrying balls from 6 to 12 lbs. Angria had About 2000 people were made prisoners; among commonly a fleet of sixty or seventy of these whom were the wife, children, mother, brother, vessels. An unsuccessful attempt had been made and admiral of the pirate ; but they were treated in 1717, by the presidency of Bombay, against with clemency: and his family, at their own rethe forts of Geriah and Kennary, the principal quest, continued under the protection of the strong holds of Angria. Another was made in 1722, English at Geriah. The other forts belonging to under admiral Matthews, against a fort named Angria soon submitted; so that his power on Coilabley, about fifteen leagues south of Bom- the coast of Malabar was entirely annihilated. hay: but this also miscarried, through the While the affairs of the British went on thus Vol. XI.

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. successfully, M. Bussy had been constantly em- tage of the prisoners; for they were not only ployed near the person of Salabat Zing, and deprived of every thing they possessed, but inade use of his influence with that prince to stripped almost naked, and sent to Hoogly, enlarge the possessions of the French : at length where they were closely confined. The nabob, the prime minister of Salabat Zing represented encouraged by this success, marched directly to to him the danger and shame of allowing a small Calcutta, which he invested on the 15th. The body of foreigners thus to give law to a great capture of this city, and the catastrophe that folprince; and, having formed a powerful combi- lowed, are related under the article CALCUTTA. nation against the French, obtained an order for See also HoLWELL. The news of this disaster their dismission. M. Bussy took his leave with- put an end to the expedition projected against

marks of disgust, having under his com M. Bussy; and colonel Clive was instantly desmand about 600 Europeans, 5000 sepoys, and a patched to Bengal with 400 Europeans and 1000 fine train of artillery. Orders were sent to all the sepoys, on board of the fleet commanded by polygars to oppose his passage; but, notwith- admiral Watson. They did not arrive till the standing this opposition, Bussy reached Hydra- 15th of Decenzber at a village called Fulta, bad with very little loss. Here he look possession situated on a branch of the Ganges, where the of a garden belonging to the kings of Golconda, inhabitants of Calcutta had taken refuge after where he resolved to keep his post until succours their misfortune. Their first operations were should arrive from Pondicherry and Masulipa- against the forts of Busbudgia, Tanna, Fort Wil.

Salabat Zing proposed to attack him liere; liam, and Calcutta, now in the hands of the and, the better to attain his purpose, applied to enemy

All these were reduced almost as soon the English presidency at Madras for a body of as they approached them. Hoogly, the place of tronps to assist him in that service. Accordingly rendezvous for all nations who traded to Bengal a detachment of 400 Europeans and 1500 sepoys (its warehouses and shops being always filled was on the point of being ordered to join Satabat, with the richest merchandise of the country); when expresses from Bengal informed them of was likewise reduced and destroyed, with the the greatest danger that bad ever threatened the granaries and storehouses of salt on each side the British settlements in Hindostan. This arose river; which proved very detrimental to the from the displeasure of Surajah Dowia, the new nabob, by depriving him of the means of subpabob of Bengal. His grandfather Aliverdy sistence for his army. Surajah Duwla, enraged Khan having died, in April or May 1756, Surajah at this success of the English, now seemed desucceeded to the nabobship of Bengal, Bahar, termined to crush them at once by a general and Orixa. He was congratulated on his acces- engagement. From this, however, he was intision by Mr. Drake, the English president at midated by a successful attack on his camp, Calcutta, and readily promised protection to which induced him to conclude a treaty, on the his countrymen; but he soon after took offence 9th of February, 1757, on the following condi. at the imprisonment of Omichund, an eminent tions: 1. That the privileges granted to the EngGentoo merchant, who had lived several years lish by the Mogul should not be disputed : 2. under the protection of the English government. That all gouds with English orders should pass, Of this circumstance, however, Surajah did not by land or water, free of any tax: 3. All the directly complain; but founded his pretence of Company's factories which had been seized by war upon the conduct of the English in repair- the nabob should be restored ; and the gaods, ing the fortifications of Calcutta ; which indeed money, and effects, accounted for: 4. That the was absolutely necessary, on account of the great English should have liberty to fortify Calcutta: probability of a war with the French. The nabob, and, 5. To coin their own gold and silver. however, threatened an attack if the works were 5. India from the war with France in 1757 not instantly demolished. With this requisition to the taking of Pondicherry in 1761.-As intelthe president and council pretended to comply; ligence was now received of a war between but nevertheless went on with them. Surajah France and England, an attack was meditated Dowla took the field on the 30th of May 1756, on Chandernagore. It remained therefore only with an army of 40,000 faot, 30,000 horse, and to obtain the consent of the nabob; but, in ten 400 elephants; and on the 2d of June detached days after the conclusion of the treaty, he sent a 20,000 men to invest the fort at Cassumbazar, a letter to admiral Watson, complaining of his large town on an island formed by the west intention, and surmising that the branch of the Ganges. This fort was regularly signed to turn their arms against him as soon as built, with sixty cannon, and defended by 300 they made themselves masters of Chandernagore. men, principally sepoys. The nabob pretending This was strenuously denied by the admiral; a desire to treat, Mr. Watts, the chief of the face and a number of letters passed, in which


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the tory, was persuaded to put himself in his power; latter made use of expressions which were sup which he had no sooner done, than he was made posed to imply a tacit consent that Chandernaa close prisoner, along with Mr. Batson, a sur- gore should be attacked. An attack was therefore geon, who accompanied him. The two prisoners made, and it soon capitulated. This intelligence, were treated with great indignity, and threatened however, seemed to be by no means agreeable to with death; but two of the council who had been Surajah Dowla. He pretended displeasure on sent for by the tyrant's command were sent back account of the English infringing the treaties

, again, with orders to persuade the people of the and complained that they had ravaged some factory to surrender it at discretion. This pro- parts of his dominions. This was denied by the posal met with great opposition; but was at last admiral; but from this time both parties made complied with, though very little to the advan- preparations for war. The nabob returned no



answer till the 13th of June, when he sent a de- 'triumph; and, on the 29th of June, colonel Clive claration of war. The English council at Cal- went to the palace, and in presence of the rajahs cutta now resolved on the deposition of the and grandees of the court solemnly handed him nabob; which at this time appeared practicable, to the musnud (or carpet) and throne of state, by supporting the pretensions of Meer Jaffier where be was unanimously saluted soubahdah or Ali Cawn, who had entered into a conspiracy nabob, and received the submission of all preagainst him. Meer Jaffier had married the sister While these transactions were going forof Aliverdy Cawn, the predecessor of Surajah; ward, the utmost efforts were used to expel the and was now supported in his pretensions by the French entirely from Bengal. By the articles general of the horse, and by Jugget Seet the of capitulation at Chandernagore, the whole of nabob's banker, the richest merchant in all India. that garrison were to continue prisoners of war; By these three the design was communicated to but, about the time of signing the treaty, Mr. Mr. Watts, the English resident at the nabob's Law with a small body of troops made his escape court, and by him to colonel Clive and the se- out of Cassumbazar, and bent his march towards cret committee at Calcutta. The management Patna. There he had been protected by the late of the affair being left to Mr. Watis and Mr. nabob; and, on the commencement of fresh hosClive, it was thought proper to communicate tilities, had collected about 100 French, the only to Omichund, through whom the correspondence remains of that nation in Bengal. With these he that was necessary might be carried on with was within two hours' march of Surajah Dowla's Meer Jaffier. This agent proved so avaricious, camp when the battle of Plassey was fought; on that it was resolved to serve him in his own way; hearing of which he stopped; but afterwards, and, by a piece of treachery to him also, to gain being informed of the nabob's escape, he marched their point with both parties. Two treaties were again to his assistance, and was within a few therefore written out; in one of which it was hours of joining him when he was taken. Three promised to comply with Omichund's demand, days after he was pursued by Major Eyre Coote but in the other his name was not even men- at the head of 223 Europeans, three companies tioned; and hoth these treaties were signed of sepoys, fifty Lascars, or Indian sailors, and by all the principal persons concerned, admiral ten Marmutty men, or pioneers, to clear the roads, Watson alone excepted, whom no political mo- together with two pieces of cannon, six-pounders. tives conld influence to sign an agreement which On this expedition the major exerted his utmost he did not mean to keep. These trcaties, the diligence to overtake his antagonist, and spent a same in every other respect, were to the follow- very considerable space of time in the pursuit; ing purport: 1. All the effects and factories be- for, though he set out on the 6th of July, he did longing to Bengal, Bahar, and Orixa, were not return to Muxadabad till the 1st of Septemto remain in possession of the English, nor ber. Mr. Law, however, had the good fortune should any more of the French ever be allowed to escape. Major Coote now obliged Ramnarain, to settle in these provinces. 2. In consideration the most powerful rajah in the country, to swear of the losses sustained by the English Company, allegiance to Meer Jattier; and laid open the by the capture and plunder of Calcutta, he agreed interior state of the northern provinces. Before to pay one crore of rupees, or £1,250,000 ster- his return, admiral Pocock had succeeded to the ling. 3. For the effects plundered from the command of the fleet on the decease of admiral English at Calcutta, he engaged to pay fifty lacks Watson. News were also received, that the of rupees, or £625,000. 4. For the effects plun. French had been very successful on the coast of dered from the Gentoos, Moors, and other inbaCoromandel. bitants of Calcutta, twenty lacks, or £250,000. Salabat Zing had. applied to the English for 5. For the effects plundered from the American assistance against the French; but, as they were merchants, inhabitants of Calcutta, seven lacks, prevented from performing their agreement by or £87,500. 6. The distribution of all these sums the disaster at Calcutta, he was under the necesto be left to admiral Watson, colonel Clive, sity of accommodating the differences with his Roger Drake, William Watts, James Kilpa- former friends, and admitting them again into trick, and Richard Becher, esquires, to be dis- his service. M. Bussy was now reinforced by posed of by them to whom they think proper. the troops under Law, who had collected 500

Colonel Clive began his march against Surajah Europeans in his journey. With these he unDowla on the 13th of June, the day on which dertook to reduce the English factories of Ingethat chief sent off his last letter. The decisive ram, Bandermalanka, and Vizagapatam : but as action at Plassey followed, in which the trea- the latter was garrisoned by 140 Europeans and chery of Meer Jaffier, who commanded part of 420 sepoys, it was supposed that it would make the nabob's troops, and stood neuter during the some defence; by the conquest of it, however, engagement, rendered the victory easy. The the French became masters of all the coasts from unfortunate nabob fled to his capital, but left it Ganjam to Masulipatam. In the southern prothe following evening, disguised like a faquir, vinces the like bad success attended the British with only two attendants. By these he appears cause. The rebel polygars, having united their to have been abandoned and even robbed; for forces against Mazuphe Cawn, obtained a comon the 3d of July he was found wandering for- plete victory; after which, the English sepoys saken and almost naked on the road to Patna. being prevailed upon to quit Madura, the conNext day he was brought back to Muxadabad; queror seized upon that city for himself. In and a few hours after privately beheaded by the beginning of 1758 the French made au Meer Jaffier's eldest son.

attempt on Trichinopoli. The command was The usurper took possession of the capital in given to M. d'Auteuil, who invested the place

with 900 men in battalion, 4000 sepoys, 100 Madras were equally unsuccessful. The latter lussars, and a great body of Indian horse. The was besieged from the 12th of December, 1758, place was then in no condition to withstand to the 27th of February, 1759, when they were such a force, as most of the garrison had gone obliged to abandon it with great loss. to besiege Madura under captain Caillaud; but The remainder of the year 1759 proved eahearing of the danger he marched back, and tirely favorable to the British arms. D'Ache entered the town by a road which the enemy the French admiral, who had been very roughly bad neglected to guard : when the French gé- handled by admiral Pocock on the 3d of August peral drew off bis forces disconcerted, and re- 1758, having refitted his fleet, and been reinturned to Pondicherry. Captain Caillaud then forced by three men of war at the islands i laid siege to Madura, but was so vigorously re- Mauritius and Bourbon, now ventured once pulsed, that he was obliged to turn the siege more to face his antagonist. A third battle eninto a blockade, and, before any progress could sued on the 10th of September, 1759, when the be made in it, Mazuphe Cawn was prevailed French, notwithstanding their superiority both upon to resign it for the sum of 170,000 rupees. in number of ships and weight of metal

, were A large garrison of sepoys was now again there- obliged to retreat with considerable loss; having fore

put into the place, and Caillaud returned 1500 men killed and wounded, while those on to Trichinopoli. An attempt was next made board the English Heet did not exceed 569. By by colonel Ford on Nellore; but the enterprise the 17th of October the British fleet was comproved unsuccessful, through the unheard of pletely refitted ; and admiral Pocock, having cowardice of a body of sepoys, who, having shel- been joined by a reinforcement of four men of tered themselves in a ditch, absolutely refused war, soon after returned to England. All this to stir a step. Several other enterprises of no time the unfortunate general Lally had been. great moment were undertaken; but the event employed in unsuccessful endeavours to retrieve was on the whole unfavorable to the British, the affairs of his countrymen; but his fate was whose force by the end of the campaign was re at last decided by laying siege ta Wandewash, duced to 1718 men, while that of the French which had lately been taken by colonel Coote. amounted to 3400 Europeans, of whom 1000 The advantage in numbers was entirely in favor were sent to Pondicherry:

of the French general; the British army consistBoth parties now received considerable rein- ing only of 1700 Europeans, including artillery forcements from Europe; admiral Pocock being and cavalry, while the French amounted to 2200 joined on the 24th of March by commodore Europeans. The auxiliaries on the English side Stevens with a squadron of five men of war, and were 3000 black troops, while those of the French the French by nine men of war and two frigates; aniounted to 10,000 black troops, and 300 Cafhaving on board general Lally with a large body fres; nor was the difference less in proportion of troops. The British admiral went in quest of in the artillery, the English bringing into the them, and an engagement took place, in which field only fourteen pieces of cannon and one the French were defeated with the loss of 600 howitzer, while the French had twenty-five pieces killed and a great number wounded; while in the field and five on their batteries against the the English had only twenty-nine killed and fort. The battle began about 11 A. M. on the eighty-nine wounded. The former returned 22d of January, 1760, and in three hours the 10 Pondicherry, where they landed their men, whole French army fled towards their camp: money, and troops. After the battle three but quitted it on finding themselves pursued by of the British captains were tried for misbeha- the English, who took all their canoon except viour, and two of them dismissed from the ser three small pieces. They collected themselves vice. As soon as his vessels were refitted, the under the walls of Cheltaput, about eighteen admiral sailed again in quest of the enemy; but miles from the field of battle, and soon afer Tee could not bring them to an action before the 3d tired to Pondicherry. Colonel Coote now caused of August, when the French were defeated a se the country to be wasted to the very gates of this cond time, with the loss of 251 killed and 602 fortress, by way of retaliation for what the French wounded. Notwithstanding this success at sea, had done in the neighbourhood of Madras. Ile the British were greatly deficient in land forces; then set about the siege of Cheltaput, which the re-establishment of their affairs in Bengal surrendered in one day; a considerable detachhaving almost entirely drained the settlements ment of the enemy was intercepted by captain on the coast of Coromandel. The consequence Smith; the fort of Timmery was reduced by of this was the loss of Fort St. David, which the major Monson, and the city of Arcot hy captain French general Lally reduced, destroying the Wood. This last conquest enabled the British fortifications and villages, and ravaging the to restore the nabob to his dominions, of which country in such a manner as filled the natives he had been deprived by the French; and it with indignation. He proved successful, how- greatly weakened both the French force and in ever, in the reduction of Devicottah, but was terest in India. M. Lally, in the mean time, had obliged to retreat with loss from before Tanjore, recalled his forces from Syringham, by which bis army being distressed for want of sup- means he augmented his army with 500 Europlies from this time the affairs of the French peans. These were now shut up in Pondicherry

; daily declined. On their retreat from Tanjore, which was become the last hope of the French they abandoned the island of Syringham; they in India. To complete their misfortu.nes, admi, took Tripatore, however, but were defeated in ral Cornish arrived at Madras with six men of their designs on the important post of Chingla- war; and, as the French had now no fleet in pet, about forty-five miles south-west of Madras. these parts, the admiral readily engaged to co Tbeir next enterprises on Fort St. George and operate with the land forces. The consequence


was the reduction of Carical, Chellambrum, and imbecility, had been. This last consideration Verdachellum, by a strong detachment under had induced many of the council at first to opmajor Monson; while colonel Coote reduced pose the revolution; and indeed the only plauPermacoil, Almamverpa, and Waldour. He was sible pretence for it was, that the admivistration thus at last enabled to lay siege to Pondicherry of Meer Jaffier was so very weak, that, unless he itself; and the place capitulated on the 15th of was aided and even controlled by some persons January, 1761, by which an end was put to the of ability, he himself must soon be ruined, and power of the French in this part of the world. very probably the interests of the company along

6. Of the British wars with the native powers, with him. Meer Cossim, however, was a man to the appointment of lord Clive as governor of of a very different disposition from his father-inBengal.-While the British were thus employed law. As he knew that he had not been served Meer Saffier, the nabob of Bengal, who had been by the English out of friendship, so he did not raised to that dignity by the ruin of Surajah think of making any return out of gratitude; but, Dowla, found himself in a very disagreable situ- instead of this, considered only how he could ation. The treasure of the late nabob had been most easily break with such troublesome allies. valued at sixty-four crore of rupees (about for a while, however, it was necessary for him £80,000,000 sterling), and in expectation of this to take all the advantage he could of his alliance sum, Meer Jaffier had submitted to the exactions with them. By their assistance he cleared his of the English. On his accession to the govern- dominions of invaders, and strengthened his ment, however, the treasure of which he became frontiers, and he reduced the rajahs who had remaster fell so much short of expectation, that he belled against his predecessor, obliging them to could not fulfil his engagements to them, and pay the usual tribute; by which means he rewas reduced to the extremity of mortgaging his paired his finances, and thereby secured the revenues. In this dilemma his grandees became fidelity of his troops. Having thus, by the factious and discontented, his army mutinous for assistance of the English, brought his government want of

pay, and himself odious to his subjects. into subjection, he took the most effectual means The English themselves, who had raised him to of securing himself against their power. As the supreme power, also brought a variety of charges vicinity of his capital, Muxadabud, to Calcutta, against him. On the 13th of June, 1760, Mr. gave the English factory there an opportunity Holwell wrote from Calcutta to Mr. Warren of inspecting his actions, and interrupting his Hastings, that he had received, by express, intel- designs when they thought proper, he took up ligence of the murder of the princesses of Aliverdy his residence at Mongheer, a place 200 miles Khan and Shah Ahmet in a most inhuman man- farther up the Ganges, which he fortified in the ner, by Meer Jaffier's orders. In like manner best and most expeditious manner. Sensible of we are told that many others of Surajah Dowla's the advantages of the European discipline, he relations had perished; yet when it was thought now resolved to new-model his army. For this proper to replace Meer Jaffier, in 1761, all these purpose he collected all the Armenian, Persian, dead persons were found alive excepting two. Tartar, and other soldiers of fortune, whose miIt must also be remembered, in behalf of the un- litary characters might serve to raise the spirits fortunate nabob, that, besides the sums exacted of his Indian forces, and abate their natural of him by the English at his accession, he bad timidity. He also collected all the wandering ceded to them a large extent of territory, and Europeans who had borne arms, and the sepoys granted them so many immunities in trade, that who had been dismissed from the English serhe had in a manner deprived himself of all his vice, and distributed them among his troops. He resources. There were accounts of this remark- changed the fashion of the Indian muskets from able revolution published at the time materially matchlocks to firelocks; and, as their cannon differing from one another. Our troops accord- were almost as deficient as their small arms, he ing to each of them took possession of the palace; procured a pattern of one from the English, by Meer Cossim was raised to the musnud; and which he soon formed a train of artillery: having the old nabob hurried into a boat, with a few of thus done every thing in his power to enable himhis domestics and necessaries, and sent away to self to withstand the English by force of arms, Calcutta in a manner wholly unworthy of the he resolved also to free his court from their emishigh .ank he so lately held. The servants of the saries, by imprisoning or putting to death every company, who were the projectors of the revolu- person of any consequence in his dominions who tion, made no secret that there was a present had shown any attachment to their interest. promised them of twenty lacks of rupees from His next step was to free himself from those reCossim, who was desirous of making the first act straints which his predecessor Meer Jaffier, and of his power the assassination of Jaffier, and was even he himself, had been obliged to lay upon very much displeased when he found that the the Indian trade, to gratify the avarice of his English intended giving him protection at Cal- European allies. At his accession, indeed, he cutta.

had ceded to the company a tract of land worth It could scarcely be supposed that Meer Cos- no less than £700,000 annually, besides £70,000 sim, raised to the nabobship in this manner, a-year on other accounts. All this, however, would be more faithful to the English than Meer was not sufficient; the immunities granted them Jaffier had been. Nothing advantageous to the in trade were of still worse consequence than interests of the company could indeed be reason- even those vast concessions. He knew by exably expected from such a revolution. No suc- perience the distress which these immunities had cessor of Meer Jaffier could be more entirely in brought upon his predecessor, and therefore desubjection than the late nabob, from his natural termined to put an end to them. In pursuance

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