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demanded satisfaction for the insult offered him on the field of battle. On deliberation, the Commander in Chief informed him “ that he should have an opportu. nity to justify himself to the army, to America, and the world, or of convincing them that he had been guilty of breach of orders and misconduct before the enemy." General Lee, expressing his desire for a Court Martial in preference to a Court of Inquiry, was arrested upon the following charges, 1. For disobedience of orders in not attacking the ene

my on the 28th of June agreeably to repeated in

structiins. 2 For misbehaviour before the enemny on the same

day, by making an unnecessary, disorderly, and

shameful retreat. 3. For disrespect to the Commander in Chief, in two


The high colouring of the second charge was in consequence of complaints entered by Generals Wayne and Scott, against General Lee, which on investigation appeared to have been founded in their misapprehending his movements. Lord Sterling presided at the court, which found him guilty of aıl the charges, but softened the language of the second, and found him guilty of misbehavic ur, by making an unnecessary, and in some few instances, a disorderly retreat. The court sentenced him to be suspended from his command for one year.

Congress, with some hesitation, almost unanimously approved the sentence

The suspension of General Lee was highly satisfac. tory to the army. They keenly resented his abuse to the Commander in Chief, and his continuance in rommission probably would have produced great inconvenience.

Scarcely had Sir Henry Clinton reached New-York, when a French fleet appeared off the Chesapeak, un der the command of Count d'Estaing. He had been Vol. I.


eighty-seven days in crossing the Atlantick. Ilad his passage been an ordinary one, he would have found Lord Howe in the Delaware, and the capture or dostruction of tho British Neet in that river, and proba. bly of the army in Philadelphia, must have been the consequence. Count d'Estaing being disappointed at the Delaware, sailed along the coast to Sandy Hook. General WASHINGTON moved his army lo the White Plains, that he might be in a situation to co-operate with the French Admiral against New-York.

In the mean time, Sir Henry Clinton employed his whole force to strengthen his lines. The French Admiral finding an attack upon New-York impracticable, a conjoint expeditioa was planned against RhodeIsland.

At the critical moment when the success of the united action of the French and American arıny was reduced to a moral certainty, Count d'Estaing sailed out of the harbour of Newport to fight Lord Howe Being overtaken by a violent storm, his fleet was greatly damaged, and he thought it adviseable to repair to Boston harbour to refit.

In conseqi ence of the harbour of Newport being opened to the British, General Sullivan, the commanding oflicer upon Rhode-Island, was compelled to retreat. He and his general officers had remonstrated against Count d'Estaing leaving Newport, and in the moment of disappointment and irritation at the failure of the expedition, General Sullivan in or ders, used expressions which were construed into a severe reflection upon the French Admiral and other marine officers, and which they resented.

General Washington, alarmed at the probable consequences of a misunderstanding and jcalousy between the French and Americans, so soon after the alliance was formed, and in the very commencement of their · united operations, immediately adopted nieasures to prevent them. In letters to Generals Heath and Sulli

van, he communicated the mode of conduct which he wished might in this delicate transaction be pursued.

To Heath, who commanded in Boston, he expressed his apprehension that resentment of the conduct of the Count might prevent the proper exertion to repair and victual the French fleet, and he urged Heath to counteract such prejudices.

“ It will certainly be sound policy to combat the effects, and whatever private opinions may be entertained, to give the best construction of what has hap. pened to the publick; and at the same time to -exert ourselves to put the French fleet, as soon as possible, in a condition to defend itself, and be useful to us The de parture of the flet from Rhode Island is not yet publickly announced here ; but when it is, I intend to ascribe it to necessity produced by the damage received in the late storm. This, it appears to me, is the idea which ought to be generally propagated. As I doubt not, the force of these reasons will strike you equally with myself, I would recommend to you to use your utmost influence to palliate and soften matters, and to induce those, whose business it is, to provide succours of every kind for the fleet, to employ their utmost zeal and activity in doing it. It is our duty to make the best of our misfortunes, and not suffer passion to interfere with our interest and the publick good.”

To General Sullivan he mentioned “his apprehension that should the expedition fail, in consequence of being abandoned by the French fleet, loud complair.ts might be made by the officers enıployed on it. Pru. dence," he said, “ dictated the propriety of giving this affair the best appearance, and of attributing tho withdrawing the Acet from Rhode Island to ahsolute necessity. The reasons," he added, “ for this line of conduct, were too obvious to need explanation. That of most importance was, that their enemics, both in

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ternal and external, would seize the first cause of dis
gust between the allies, and endeavour to convert it
into a serious rupture.”

When the General received the resolution of Con-
gress, directing him to take every measure in his
power to prevent the publication of the protest enter-
ed into by General Sullivan and his officers, he com-
municated the resolution and with it the following
letter. “ The disagreement between the army under
your command, and the fleet, has given me very singu-
lar uneasiness. The continent at large is concerned
in our cordiality, and it should be kept up by all possi-
ble means consistent with our honour and policy,
First impressions, you know, are generally longest re-
tained, and will serve to fix, in a great degree, our
national character with the French. In our conduct
towards them, we should remember, that they are ą,
people old in war, very strict in military etiquette, and
apt to take fire when others scarcely seem warned.
Permit me to recommend, in the most particulaz man-
ner, the cultivation of harmony and good agreement,
and your endeavours to destroy that ill humour which
may have found its way among the officers. It is of
the utmost importance too, that the soldiers and the
people should know nothing of this misunderstanding,
or, if it has reached them, that means may be used to


progress and prevent its effects.”
In a correspondence with Count d'Estaing, General
Washington strove to soften his resentments, to sooth
the chagrin of disappointment, and to conciliate his
good affections towards the United States.

These prudent measures were attended with the
most salutary effects.

With the battle of Monmouth, active operations for the campaign closed in the Middle States. On the approach of winter, the American army went into 4liarters in the neighbourhood of the High Lando.

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Being better clothed and fed than in the preceding winter, their situation was greatly ameliorated, and their sufferings were comparatively nothing.

At the close of the campaign of 1778, the local situation of the hostile armies did not greatly differ from that at the commencement of the campaign of 1770, except the possession of New York by the British.

This fact is impressively stated by Gencral Wash Ington, in a letter written to a friend.

“ It is not a little pleasing, nor less wonderful to contemplate, that after two years maneuvring, and undergoing the strangest vicissitudes, both armies are brought back to the very point they set out from, and the offending party in the beginning is now reduced to the use of the pickaxe and the spade for defence. The hand of providence has been so conspicuous in all this, that he must be worse than an infidel that lacks faith, and more than wicked that has not gratitude to acknow. ledge his obligations.”

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