Imagens das páginas

controversy, with its hateful train of paltry jealou- | entrusted with the education of the young, we sies and animosities, can never enter. There is commend our work in an especial manner, as one Science in all its varied departments, before whose peculiarly fitted to promote their wishes in the serene glance every angry feeling is hushed into training of those under their charge. It will not submissive reverence for truth; there is Fancy, teach them all that they must know; it is not its whose light laugh disarms controversy; and Poetry, purpose to do so; no Magazine can do so; and whose chaste dignity passes it contemptuously by. those under whose charge they are placed will of

If it be said, as probably it will be, that, in thus course carefully guard them against the mistake of sketching the character which a Magazine like this expecting from it, or from any similar publication, ought to bear, the subjects which it should take what can only be obtained by severe study and unup, and the manner in which it should handle wearying application, from books of probably a less them, we are inviting a kind of criticism from inviting character. Its use in their case will be to which, whatever our own opinion may be, the incite them to, and prepare them for, those severe world will scarcely think we can come off with studies, in a way suited to their several dispositions, honour, we have a twofold answer. In the first while at the same time furnishing a profitable replace, the world cannot well have a more humble | laxation from occupations, which, if unremittingly opinion of us than we have of ourselves, nor be pursued, would crush the feeble,disgust the indolent, more keenly sensible how far our execution of our and wear out the prematurely expanded energies plan comes short of our conception of it. But it is of those whose genius is of a higher cast. Such soinething to have such a plan before us,-to have as cannot be prevailed upon to go any further a point in our view which we are continually strug- will, if they read this Magazine, find they have gling, though we may be never able, to reach. It is a gained some knowledge, and that not little; for it pledge of a progressive advance towards excellence, will be the result of a great deal of that severe -of a daily casting off of some fault or imperfec- study which they themselves decline. But to those tion. And, as it is notoriously but a small part of of the young whose curiosity is ardent, and their a publication whose contents are of so miscella- love of knowledge sincere, it will open up conneous a character, the merit of which (whatever that tinual glimpses into the wide field which lies before inay be) can be claimed by him who has its general them, furnishing hints and suggestions by which management, we can, without offending against they will be sure to profit, at once stimulating and modesty or good taste, venture to express our directing them in the noble pursuit. And all this confident persuasion, that, with the assistance without a line or a word from which they can which we have secured, this Magazine will be suffer injury, by which the fine edge of early sensifound, as it gets rid of the imperfections and irre bility can be blunted, the generous ardour of youth gularities incident to every newly-constructed in- for what is good and noble damped, orits reverence strument, to approach as near to the realization of for what is venerable by age, character or profesthe beau ideal we have sketched, as, looking to its | sion weakened; but, on the contrary, with much by price and expensive decorations, fair and candid cri- which all these can be strengthened and improved. ticism can reasonably demand. In the next place, Clergymen, whose interest in the welfare of their happily for us, the world has already expressed a flocks is not limited to the performance of their more tavourable opinion, trying us by no low-pitched peculiar and sacred duties, will find, we trust, in this standard, than the objection we have supposed Magazine, wbat they can sately place in the hands suggests. We have now before us a whole bundle of the people over whose spiritual interests they of opinions-not one of them the mere quid pro quo watch, in full security, that, while they are giving of a venal criticism--the return in kind for the | tbem what will be a source of much harmless favour of an advertisement-but bona fide discri- enjoyment --what will add greatly to their knowminating judgments, marked by the taste, good ledge of men and their doings, of nature and its sense, and abuty by which the newspaper-press of works,--it will never weaken the hold which they, the present day is, generally speaking, so remarkably | or the doctrines they preach, have upon their ailecdistinguished, in which our labours are spoken of tions-will not raise on their faces one sneer at the in terms to which, were it not that much the holy mysteries of our faith, nor suggest one doubt greater part of the praise must be dealt out to con- regarding the sure foundation of our hopes. tributors by whom we are proud to be assisted, To the rich, eo nomine, we have not much to say, we should almost blush to refer. These favourable except to beg them not to despise us because of opinions, we may add, have been not the less the lowness of our price; nor to cast aside convalued, that they have been in many cases accom- temptuously a work of which neither the appearpanied by criticisms and suggestions, by which we ance, nor, may we be permitted to say, the intrinsic have used our utmost endeavour to protit.

qualities, are unworthy of a place on their drawingMay we be permitted here to recapitulate the room tables, merely because it is sold so cheap as claims which we conceive ourselves to possess to admit of its being also found in the cottager's upon the support of the various classes of the window. We shall not presume to say that we can public.

instruct them; but we promise them amusement To parents and guardians, and those who are and gratification of a character not out of harmony

with the tastes and associations of men of cultivated productions, now common throughout the year, is prinminds and manners.

cipally to be ascribed the almost total extirpation of

leprosy, which formerly made such havoc among manBut to those who are not rich we make an espe- kind: though the introduction of linen tea ani

and tobacco cial appeal. They are not often addressed as patrons. are considered as having contributed very much to that They can be patrons to us. Our price has been fixed happy effect.” for their sakes at a sum so low as to be extremely | November was anciently represented as a man

clothed in “a robe of changeable green and black; or, hazardous to ourselves. Those who can afford

| as it is usually termed, shot-coloured;" his head adorned little else can afford this Magazine, and thereby with a garland of fruit and olive branches, holding in obtain access to what would otherwise have his left hand turnips and parsnips, and in his right the remained hopelessly closed against them for ever. sign Sagittarius, or the Archer, which the sun enters on for their sakes we extract the essence of works the 22d of this month; "thereby emblematically ex

pressing that the cold ether, which in the former which the savings of a lifetime could scarcely month was gaining a predominance over the sun's enable them to buy, and lay before them trea- heat, now shot and prerced its way into the pores of the sures of knowledge and art which were for- earth and suspended vegetation." Our great Elizamerly the exclusive enjoyment of the rich. We

bethan poet writes :come to them with our price as to the poor, but

“ Next was November; he full-grown and fat,

As fed with lard, and that right well might seem; with nothing else. We assume no supercilious airs

For he had been a fatting hogs of late, of bringing ourselves down to the level of their

That yet his brows with sweat did reek and steam, capacities and their tastes. We do not insult them And yet the season was full sharp and breen ;'

In planting eke he took no small delight : by imagining that they will not relish a style of

Whereon he rode, not easy was to deem, writing and thinking with which we do not fear to

For it a dreadiul centaur was in sight, approach the richest and noblest in the land. Our The seed of Saturn and fair Nais, Chiron hight.” ? writings may, and we trust will, help to raise them! This is generally a windy, gloomy, and foggy month, in the social scale; but will never be so conceived “in which,” remarks Leigh Hunt, “we are said by as to degrade them in their own esteem.

Frenchmen to hang and drown ourselves.” Intervals of

clear and pleasant weather, however, frequently occur. In one word, ours is a theatre in which the per

The writer above quoted observes : “ There are many formances are carefully selected to suit the taste of pleasures in November, if we will lift up our matter of fact the boxes, with admission to the whole house at eyes, and find that there are matters-of-fact we seldom gallery price.

dream of. It is a pleasant thing to meet the gentle fine

days that come to contradict our sayings for us; it is a To all our friends we say—Go on as you have

pleasant thing to see the primrose come back again in done. Continue to support us as you have sup woods and meadows; it is a pleasant thing to catch the ported us during our first year; and our exertions whistle of the green plover, and see the greenfinches for your advantage and gratification will be as un congregate; it is a pleasant thing to listen to the deep Wearied as our gratitude will be boundless.

amorous note of the wood-pigeons, who now come back again; and it is a pleasant thing to hear the deeper voice of the stays, making their triumphant love among the falling leaves."

In November the mornings are often somewhat Popular Year-book.

frosty, but the thin ice soon vanishes after sunrise. As

the preceding month was marked by the change, so this November.

is distinguished by the fall of the leaf. There is someThe name of this month was assigned to it in the thing extremely melancholy in this gradual process, by Alban Kalender, and is taken from nover, pine. No.

which the trees are stripped of all their beauty, and left vember, as its title denotes, was originally the ninth

so many monuments of decay and desolation. They of the twelve months; it is now the eleventh. Diana usually lose their foliage in the following succe ession : was considered its tutelary deity. The Saxons styled

led walnut, mulberry, horse chestnut, sycamore, lime, ash; it wint-monat, i.e. wind-month ; and it afterwards

then, after an interval, elm ; then beech and oak ; then obtained the appellation of blot-monat, or blood-month,

apple and peach trees, sometimes not till the end of the to denote that it was usual at this period of the

month ; and lastly, pollard oaks and young beeches, year to kill oxen, sheep, and hogs, for purposes of

which retain their withered leaves till pushed off by sacrifice, and for food during the ensuing winter; arti

their new ones in spring. Wild animals put on their ficial pasturage, drying of grass into hay, &c. having

winter coats in November; and the Alpine hare, which been then unknown. The stock of salted meat prepared

abounds in Scotland, becomes white. Lizards, badgers, was to last until vegetation again became sufficiently

and the hedgehogs creep into holes in the earth ; bats forward to permit the resumption of the use of fresh

get into old barns and caves; squirrels, rats, and fieldprovisions. “ The custom,” says Brady,“ of salting meat

mice shut themselves up with their hoarded provisions ; at this season, for winter consumption, was universal

dormice begin their long annual sleep; frogs hide themin this island, and throughout all the nations on the con

selves in the mud at the bottom of ponds and ditches; tinent of Europe. In Scotland it was generally in use

and moles make the nests in which they lodge during within the memory of man, and is still practised in the

the winter. Flocks of wood-pigeons, or stock-doves (the highlands. We have yet our Martlemass, or Martin

latest in their arrival of the birds of passage,) appear at inase beef, or beef cured about the festival of St. Martin,

the end of the month, before which silk-tail, golden on the eleventh of this blot-monat. And the Spanish

plover, and pocher are seen. Salmons now ascend the proverbs of His Martinmass will come, as it does to

rivers to spawn. Their force and agility in leaping every hog,' and His Martinmass is coming, when we

over cataracts and other obstacles to their ascent are shall be all bogs alike,' that is, meet the same fate,

| very surprising. They are frequently taken in this emphatically allude to the slaughter of swine at this attempt by nets and baskets placed directly below the period. To the change from the use of salted to that of fresh meat, joined to the advantage of the vegetable

(1) Fierce.

(2) Named.


fall, into which they are carried after an unsuccessful some of their grounds upon the eve of All Souls, by

bearing round them straw, or other fit materials, Dur gardens retain a number of the flowers of last kindled into a blaze. The ceremony is called a Tinley, month; and, in addition to several of the flowering and the vulgar opinion is that it represents an emblematrees and shrubs, they have the fertile and glowing tical lighting of souls out of purgatory." China-roses in bloom; and in fruit the pyracantha, with its lustrous red berries, that cluster so beautifully

November 2.-all Souls' Day. on the walls of cottages. November is a busy farming “ The memory of the departure of all Christian month. The husbandman finishes his ploughing and souls," writes an old author, “ is established to be sowing; winter fallows are turned up, and the fields solemnized in the Church on this day, to the end drained ; cattle and horses are kept in the farm-yard that they may have general aid and comfort, whereas or stable; sheep are sent to the turnip-fields, or, in they may bave none specially." Odillon, Abbot of bad weather, fed with hay; bees are put under shelter, Cluny, in the ninth century, first enjoined the ceremony and pigeons fed in the dove-house. Threshing begins, of praying for the dead on this day in his own monasforest and fruit trees are planted, and timber felled. tery ; and the practice was partially adopted by other

November originally consisted of thirty days, which religious houses until the year 998, when the feast of were continued both by Romulus and Numa. Julius All Souls was appointed throughout the Western Cæsar gave it thirty-one, but Augustus reduced it Church. “ To mark,” says Brady, “the pre-eminent again to thirty, which it has ever since retained. importance of this festival, if it happened on a Sunday November 1.- Feast of All Saints.

it was not postponed to the Monday, as was the case

with other such solemnities, but kept on the Saturday “Because," says Bishop Sparrow, “we cannot par- l in order that the Church might the sooner aid the sufticularly commemorate every one of those saints in

fering souls, and that the dead might have every whom God's graces have been eminent, for that would

benefit from the exertions of the living. The remembe too heavy a burden ; and because in those particular

brance of this ordinance was kept up by persons dressed feasts which we do celebrate we may justly be thought

in black, who went round the different towns, ringing to have omitted some of our duty through infirmity or a loud and dismal-toned bell at the corner of each street, negligence ; therefore holy church appoints this day in every Sunday evening during the month of November: commemoration of the saints in general.” This festival, and

and calling upon the inhabitants to remember the also called the Feast of Allhallows, is celebrated by the

deceased suffering the expiatory flames of purgatory, Latin and English churches. Its origin is referred to

and to join in prayer for the repose of their souls. This the year 607, when Phocas, the emperor, wrested the

custom was general in this country until the ReformaPantheon from the pagans, and bestowed that splendid

tion was completely established.” edifice upon the faithful. In A. D. 837, Gregory the Fourth, at the wish of Louis le Debonnaire, altered the

OLD AND POPULAR CUSTOMS. anniversary of this feast from the first of May to the In the Gentleman's Magazine for November, 1784, it first of November, where it has remained until the is stated that at the village of Findern, Derbyshire, the present time; assigning as the motive of such change, boys and girls go every year in the evening of the 2d of that, as the harvest was then gathered in, less incon- November to the adjoining common, and light up a venience would arise from the vast concourse of pious number of small fires amongst the furze growing there, poor who resorted to Rome, for the purpose of join- and call them by the name of Tindles : this usage has ing in devotion at this high festival. "Allhallows long been discontinued. “In Wales," relates Pennant, Day,” remarks the author of Morus, "closed the fes-“ they have a custom of distributing soul cakes on All tivity of the harvest. As the labourer and vintager had Souls' Day, at the receiving of which poor people pray now received the fruit of their pains, so it was proper to God to bless the next crop of wheat." On this day that the labourers in the Lord's vineyard - should be formerly, in Lancashire and Herefordshire, it was usual honoured with praises. The face of the country was now for wealthy Romanists to dispense oaten cakes, called changed by the advance of the year, and the success of soul-mass-cakes, to the poor, when, by way of expressing the husbandmen ; the fields were naked, the leaves were gratitude, the partakers of this liberality offered the falling fast from the trees, the dark clouds poured down following homely benediction :rain, and brooks were swoln to rivers. All Halloween

« God have your soul, Day was the last joyful feast of the year."

Bones and all.”

Aubrey relates that, in his time, in Shropshire, &c., On this festival, in many parts of England, apples are there was set upon the board a high heap of soul-cakes, ducked for, and nuts cracked, &c., as upon its vigil, lying one upon another like the picture of the shewAllhallow Éve. Tollett relates, “ that on All Saints' | bread in the old Bibles. They were about the bigness Day, the poor people in Staffordshire, and perhaps in of twopenny cakes, and every visitant on the feast of other country places, go from parish to parisli a-souling, | All Souls took one. He adds, “ There is an old rhyme as they call it; i.e. begging for soul cakes, or any or saying, “ A soul-cake, a soul-cake, have mercy on all good thing to make them merry.” Another writer

Christian souls for : soul-cake.'' observes that in the county of Monmouth a custom prevails among the lower classes of the inhabitants,

RELIGIOUS OBSERVANCES. both Romanists and Protestants, of begging bread for I "All Souls' Day was formerly devoted in England to the souls of the departed on the first of November; the prayer and masses for the dead, and to the remembrance bread thus distributed is called dole bread. This is, of the death which awaited the living. The altars were no doubt, the same antique usage as is thus referred to hung with black, men kneeled upon the graves of their in the “ Festival " (printed in 1511) :--" We read in relations, and strewed them with flowers, and held old time good people would, on Allhallowen-day, bake lonely vigils, and strengthened their own hearts. bread, and deal it for all Christian souls." We shall | During this lugubrious festival, it was the custom, as in have occasion to say more about this subject in our Italy at present, for every one to appear in mourning. notice of All Souls' Day. The first of November was " When that ghostly era arrives,” says Mr. Digby, “a considered among the ancient Welsh as the conclusion devout multitude leaves every city, and repairs to the of summer, and celebrated by them with bonfires, ac- holy field for the dead, bearing lighted torches, to assist companied with ceremonies suitable to the event. A at the benediction there given solemnly. The poor, writer in 1788 speaks of a custom observed in some the lame, the blind, meekly and in silence line the parts of England " among the Papists, of illuminating ways, and alms are largely given to them. After the ofice each family visits its ancestral tomb and prays | by drink, and fighting their way against each other. for the souls of its members departed. All that night This fiery zeal has gradually decreased : men no longer the bells of the churches and monasteries send forth a take an interest or part in such an observance of the solemn peal. In some places, as at Bayeux, in conse-fifth of November in the metropolis, and the tumultuous quence of the affluence of the people there was the proceedings, &c. above described, have long since fallen fair of the dead."

into desuetude. November 5.-Guy Fawkes's Day.

At almost every village in England this day is still

| celebrated with bonfires and rejoicings. This is the anniversary of the GUNPOWDER Plot. “ This," writes Hone, " is a great day in the Kalendar of the Church of England : it is duly noticed by the almanacks, and kept as a holiday at the public offices." Appended to the “Book of Common Prayer" is “ A Biographical Sketches of Eminent Painters. Form of Prayer, with Thanksgiving, to be used yearly upon the fifth of November, for the happy deliverance of King James I., and the three Estates of England,

VANDYCK. from the most traitorous and bloody-intended Massacre by Ganpowder." The particulars of this execrable plot

The celebrity of this eminent artist arises chiefly and its discovery are too well known to require any

from the excellence of his portraits, in which relation in these pages.

branch of the art he has been compared to Titian.

Anthony Vandyck was born at Antwerp, on the POPULAR CUSTOMS.

22d of March, 1599; and it is a singular coinciPoor Robin's Almanack for the year 1677 contains dence that the much-admired Spanish painter, the lines on the fifth of November :

Velasquez, was born in the same year. “ Now boys with :

Vandyck's father painted on glass with some Squibs and crackers play,

skill, and his mother excelled in embroidery. His And bonfires' blaze

first instructor was Hendrick Van Balen, who had Turns night to day.”

studied the works of the great masters in Italy; "It is still customary," observes Brand," for the boys but Vandyck soon rivalled his preceptor, and, being to dress up an image of the infamous conspirator, Guy an ardent admirer of Rubens and his works, he

Farkes, holding in one hand a dark-lantern, and in the placed himself under the guidance of that illus1, other a bundle of matches, and to carry it about the trious man, who conceived a great affection for him,

streets, begging money in these words,-- Pray remem- and foresaw his future excellence. Ji ber Guy Fawkes !' In the evening there are bonfires,

Vandyck improved rapidly, and became very and these frightful figures are burnt in the midst of

useful to his master, whose manner he copied so them." The following stanza is ordinarily shouted !! before every house by the retinues of the effigies above

well, that many of his productions have been | described :

ascribed to Rubens. The following anecdote affords

a proof of Vandyck's powers of imitation in that * Please to remember the fifth of November,

respect. Gunpowder treason and plot ; We know no reason why gunpowder treason

It was the custom of Rubens, when the labours Shall ever be forgot.

of the day were ended, to go out towards evening, Holla, boys! holla, boys! huzza--d-a!” and enjoy the relaxation of exercise in the air. On " Scuffles," remarks Hone, “ seldom happen now; but

these occasions his pupils sometimes obtained perin my youthful days, 'when Guy met Guy, then came

mission from his old servant, Valviken, to enter the tug of war!' The partisans fought, and a decided

Rubens's cabinet, and examine his different sketches, victory ended in the capture of the · Guy' belonging to

and his method of finishing his pieces. It hapthe vanquished. Sometimes desperate bands, who | pened, one day, when the young men were all omitted or were destitute of the means to make 'Guys,' eagerly pressing forward to observe a picture went forth, like Froissart's knights, "upon adventures.” | which Rubens had been painting during the mornAn enterprise of this sort was called "going to smug a ing, that one of them stumbled against the object Guy;" that is, to steal one by “ force of arms,” fists, and of their curiosity, and effaced the arm of a Magsticks, from their rightful owners. In such times, con- dalen, and the cheek and chin of a Madona. The tinues our informant, the burning of “ a good Guy" |

| accident excited general alarm, and the whole was a scene of uproar unknown to the present day.

school appeared lost in confusion and dismay, when The bonfire in Lincoln's-inn-fields was of this superior

John Van Hock exclaimed, “ We have no time to order of disorder. It was at the Great Queen-street

| lose; we must find some expedient to screen us corner, immediately opposite Newcastle-house. Fuel | came all day long, in carts properly guarded against

from discovery. Let the most skilful among us sorprise. Old people have remembered when upwards

vards endeavour to repair the mischief we have occaof two hundred cart-loads were brought to make and sioned. I, for one, give my voice for Vandyck, feed this bonfire, and more than thirty “ Guys" were the only one capable of succeeding.” This sugburnt upon gibbets, between eight and twelve o'clock at gestion was unanimously approved of. Vandyck night. At the same period, the butchers in Clare alone hesitated; but the entreaties of his comMarket had a bonfire in the open space of the market, panions, and his dread of encountering the anger of next to Bear-yard, and they thrashed each other“ round | Rubens, induced him to comply; and he performed about the wood fire" with “the strongest sinews of his task so well, that, the next day, Rubens, on exslaughtered bulls." Large parties of butchers from all

amining the picture, said to his pupils, “ That arm the markets paraded the streets, ringing peals from marrow-bones-and-cleavers, so loud as to overpower the

and head are among the best things I ever did.” storms of sound that came from the rocking belfries of

Many have asserted, that, when Rubens was at the churches. By ten o'clock, London was so lit up by!

length apprised of the circumstance, he effaced the bonfires and fireworks, that from the suburbs it looked whole; whilst others maintain that he suffered it in one red heat. Many were the overthrows of horse to remain as Vandyck had finished it. The picture men and carriages, from the discharge of hand-rockets, was the celebrated Descent from the Cross, in the and the pressure of moving mobs inflamed to violence cathedral of Antwerp.

In his twentieth year Vandyck went to Italy, by | Apartments at Hampton Court, and in the palace the advice of Rubens. On leaving Antwerp, he of Eltham, were likewise given to him. Vandyck presented his kind friend and master with three proved himself worthy of the king's munificence, excellent pictures. One was the portrait of Ru- for in a short time he enriched this country with bens's wife; the second was an Ecce Homo; and many chefs-d'æuvre, and supplied the continual the third represented our Blessed Saviour in the demand for portraits, not only for the galleries in Garden of Olives, when the Jews came to take the royal palaces, but for noble and wealthy famihim. Rubens valued these paintings highly, and lies. The king often condescended to visit the placed them in his best apartment. The last, in artist, and took great delight in conversing with which the figures were extremely well designed, him. beautifully coloured, and the effect of torchlight Vandyck's portraits of the unfortunate Charles, most powerfully displayed, Rubens placed over the his Queen, and family, are very numerous; and it chimney-piece, and always bestowed upon it the is observable that those of the king have all that highest encomiums. In return, he gave Vandyck melancholy cast of countenance for which his one of the finest horses he possessed; and, in his majesty was remarkable, even before those calacelebrated picture of St. Martin dividing his cloak mities which might naturally have produced it. with a mendicant, Vandyck has painted bimself But Vandyck has represented him as handsomer mounted upon that horse.

| than any other painter has done. After having visited Rome and other parts of The artist's prosperity was now very great, but Italy, Vandyck took up his abode at Venice, where he was unreasonably expensive in his habits. He he studied the superior productions of Titian and kept brilliant equipages, and a sumptuous table, to Paul Veronese; and acquired that facility of out- which all his friends and acquaintance were welline, and delicacy of manner, by which his pictures come. His establishment of domestics and horses are distinguished.

equalled that of any nobleman of that period ; He observed minutely every tint in the works of but his gains were so great that he might have Titian, and, by the superiority of his genius, he continued even these superfluous expenses, had he was enabled to discover the true principles which not absurdly wasted his money and his time in the guided the celebrated masters of the Venetian pursuit of Alchymy. school to the high degree of excellence which they He built a laboratory at a great expense, and attained.

the gold which was hardly and honourably earned On quitting Venice be repaired to Genoa, and, by his pencil, soon evaporated in the crucible. whilst there, his reputation and pecuniary advan- | The fumes from the coal, and grief at finding his tages increased rapidly.

attempts fruitless, added to the irregularity of his After a short visit to his native country, where life, produced an illness which appeared likely to he was warmly applauded by Rubens, and other terminate fatally. He recovered, however, and eminent judges,-though he was assailed by the some time afterwards he married, with the sancjealousy and envious criticisms of inferior artists, tion of the king, one of the handsomest women of -he went to the Hague, where he painted the the court, the daughter of the Earl of Gowrie, a portraits of the Prince and Princess of Orange, Scottish nobleman. their children, and most of the nobility, ambassa- Vandyck went to Antwerp, after his marriage, dors, and wealthy merchants. He was highly paid with his wife, on a visit to his family and friends; for these portraits, in which, as in all he painted, and thence he proceeded to Paris, with the intenhe united the perfection of the art with the charmtion of offering to paint the Gallery of the Louvre; of truth.

but Poussin was already engaged for that underAt length, having heard how liberally the fine taking; therefore, after a sojourn of only two arts were patronized in England, he departed for months in the French metropolis, he returned to London. There he painted some admirable pic- | London. His state of health soon became alarmtures; but, strange to say, he met with so little ing, and he gradually sank under an accumulation encouragement, that he returned to Antwerp dis- of diseases. It is said that the king promised to appointed and disgusted.

give his physician three hundred guineas if he He then resolved to retrieve the time which he could save Vandyck's life. But his complaints said he had lost in other countries, and to signalize were beyond the reach of medical skill, and he his return home by some of his best productions; expired in 1641, at the age of forty-two, and was amongst which was a picture of the crucifixion. buried with funeral honours in St. Paul's catheHe also painted a St. Anthony, at this period, for dral. the Infanta of Spain.

He left a widow and one daughter, who married Some excellent engravings from his works having Sir Jolin Stepney, a gentleman of good family in found their way to England, a general regret was Wales. Her mother was re-married to Sir Richard felt that greater regard had not been evinced for Prvce, of Coguthan, in Cardiganshire. his uncommon talents; and Charles I. sent him a Vandyck was a remarkably rapid painter. It is pressing invitation to visit his court.

| well known that he would commence a head in the Vandyck was at first unwilling to return to a morning, and, in order not to delay his work, he country where he had been so unfavourably re- / generally invited the person who sat to him to ceived, and it was only at the urgent solicitation of dine with him, and in the afternoon he finished the Sir Kenelm Digby that he consented to accompany picture. He seldom retouched a piece after the him,

first day. The king received him most graciously, and He gave to his heads an appearance of nature presented him with a gold chain, and the royal and truth that could not be surpassed, and he portrait richly set in diamonds. Soon afterwards excelled in painting the hands, which were always his majesty conferred on him the honour of knight- | beautifully formed, and delicately exact in their hood, and allowed him a considerable pension. proportions. His power of expression was so

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