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28 And base things of 28 Και τα αγενη του κοσthe world, and things μου τα εξουθενημενα which are despised, hath εξελέξατο ο Θεος, και τα μη God chosen, yea, and

οντα, ένα τα οντα καταρthings which are not, to

γηση: bring to nought things that are :

29 That no flesh should 29 Όπως μη καυχησηται glory in his presence. πασα σαρξ ενωπιον αυτου 30 But of him are ye

in 30 Εξ αυτου δε υμεις εςε Christ Jesus, who of God εν Χρισώ Ιησου, ος εγενηθη is made unto us wisdom, ημιν σοφια απο Θεου, δικαιοand righteousness, and

συνη τε και αγιασμος και sanctification, and redemp

απολυτρωσις tion : 31 That, according as

31 Ινα, καθως γεγραπται it is written, He that glo- Ο καυχωμενος, εν Κυριω καυrieth, let him glory in the

χασω. Lord.

“ vanity of the philosophers, the pride of the rulers, the malice of the Jews, “the learning of the Greeks, and the power of Rome !" But the weaker the instruments who converted the world, the greater was the display of the power of God by which they acted. See 2 Cor. iv. 7. notes.

Ver. 28-1. Those wbo are not, are dead persons. Matth. ii. 18. Rachel weeping for her children, because they are not ; because they are dead. Now in the eastern phrase, dead ones are those who, in comparison of others, are to the purposes for which they are chosen, as unfit as if they were dead.

Ver. 30.–1. Wisdom from God, is that scheme of religion, which the wis. dom of God hath contrived for the salvation of the world. See chap. ii. 6. note 1. chap. xji. 8. note 1.

2. Righteousness also ; that is, the author of the righteousness of faith. For it is on his account, that God counts men's faith for righteousness.

28 And the ignoble ones 28 And persons of low birth in the of the world, and the de- world, and despised persons, God hath spised ones, Godhith chosen, chosen to call you, and persons who, and those who are not,' that in the opinion of the scribes and he might bring to nought philosophers, were no persons, perthose who are.

sons utterly unfit for the work, that he might bring to nought the boasting of those who thought themselves the only persons proper for such an un

dertaking: 29 That no flesh might 29 That no man might boast in his boast in his presence. presence, either as having contrived

the gospel, or as having by his own

power brought any one to receive it. 30 Of him, (ds, 106.) 30 It is owing to God, therefore, therefore, ye are in Christ and not to the ability of us preachJesus, who is become to us ers, that ye are believers in Christ (GoDuce ao Osov) wisdom Jesus, who is become to us the author from God, 1 righteousness of the gospel, which is wisdom from also, and sanctification, God, a wisdom better than any and redemption.

scheme of philosophy; the author of righteousness also, and sanctification, and redemption, blessings not to be

obtained by philosophy. 31 So that, as it is 31 So that, as it is written, he who written, (Jer. ix. 23.) He boasteth, on account of his being a who boasteth, let him boast christian, let him boast, not in the in the Lord.

preachers who converted him, but in the Lord who hath brought him into his church.

3

3. And sanctification : Not an external and relative, but a real internal sanctification. See Ephes. iv. 24.

4. And redemption ; namely, from death the punishment of sin, by a glorious resurrection. This is called, The redemption of our body, Rom. viii. 23.

CHAPTER II.

View and Illustration of the Reasonings in this Chapter. Because the learned Greeks had objected to the gospel, the foolishne88 (as they were pleased to call it) of its doctrines, and the weakness of its preachers, the apostle made answer in the foregoing chapter, that by these foolish doctrines and weak preachers, a reformation had been wrought in the minds and manners of multitudes, which the boasted philosophy of the Greeks, and the eloquence of their orators, had not been able to accomplish. But this being a matter of great importance, and the faction having upbraided Paul in particular, with his want of eloquence, he now proceeded in this chapter, to tell the Corinthians, that Christ having sent him to preach, not with the wisdom of speech, (See chap. i. 17.) he acted agreeably to his commission, when he came to them, not with the excellency of speech, or of wisdom, declaring the testimony of God, ver. 1. By thus disclaiming the Grecian philosophy and rhetoric, and by calling the gospel the testimony of God, the apostle insinuated, that the credibility of the gospel depended neither on its conformity to the philosophy of the Greeks, nor on the eloquence of its preachers, but on the attestation of God, who confirmed it by miracles.-And therefore, however ridiculous it might appear in their eyes, he determined to make known nothing among the Corinthians, either in his private conversations, or in his public discourses, but Jesus Christ, and him crucified for the sins of men, ver. 2.-At the same time, knowing the opinion which the learned Greeks would form of that doctrine in particular, as well as that his discourses were neither composed nor pronounced according to the rules of the Grecian rhetoric, his first addresses to them were in weakness, and in fear, and with much trembling, ver. 3.-Yet they were accompanied with the powerful demonstration of the Spirit, who enabled him to prove the things which he preached, by miracles, ver. 4.-that the faith of mankind might be founded, not in the wisdom of men, that method of reasoning and speaking, which human wisdom dictates as best calculated to persuade, but in the power of God, ver. 5.

However, lest the things which are said in the preceding chapter, concerning the foolishness of the doctrines of the gospel, and in this chapter concerning its having no relation to any of the schemes of the Greek philosophy, might have led the Corinthians to think meanly of it; the apostle told them, that in the gospel, he and his brethren made known a scheme of doctrine, which they who were perfectly instructed, knew to be real wisdom. Only it was not the wisdom of this world ; it was none of the mysteries of the idol gods worshipped by the heathens, nor any of the religions established by the heathen rulers, who are all to be made nought, ver. 6.-—What they preached, was the wisdom of the true God; a scheme of religion contrived by the true God, and made known in a real mystery. The apostle called the gospel a mystery, not because it contains doctrines absolutely unintelligible, but because being of divine original, and containing the most important discoveries, it was better entitled to the honourable appellation of a mystery, than any of those which were so named. This excellent scheme of doctrine hitherto kept secret, God determined, before the Jewish dispensation began, to publish to the world by the apostles of his Son, to their great honour; so that they are mystagogues of a mystery more excellent than the Eleusinian, or any other heathen mystery, ver. 7.-Yet when it was published, none of the rulers of this world knew it to be the wisdom of God; for if they had known it to be so, they would not have crucified the Lord, or author of all the glorious things discovered in the mystery of God's wisdom, ver. 8.-This ignorance of the rulers, the apostle observed, was occasioned by the greatness of the things contained in the mystery of God's wisdom. They were what human reason could neither discover, nor fully comprehend; agreeably to Isaiah's description of them; eye hath not seen, &c. ver. 9.These things, however, God hath revealed to us apostles, by his Spirit: for the spirit of God who inspires us, searcheth all things, even the deep counsels of God. So that we are well qualified to discover these counsels to the world, ver. 10, 11.Farther, he told them, that the apostles had not received the inspiration of evil spirits, by which the heathen priestesses, and prophets, and mystagogues were guided, but the inspiration that cometh from God, that they might know and publish the glorious things, (see ver. 9.) which are freely bestowed by the true God, on them who believe, ver. 12.Which things, said he, we apostles effectually make known to the world, not in language taught by human rhetoric, but in words dictated by the Spirit of God; explaining spiritual things, in spiritual words, ver. 13. Nevertheless, the animal man, the man who is guided by his animal passions and notions, does not receive the things revealed • by the Spirit; because they appear to him foolishness; neither can he understand them, because they must be examined spiri

VOL. II.

tually, that is, they must be examined by the light which divine revelation, and not reason, affords, ver. 14.-But the spiritual man, the man who is not guided by his animal passions, and who acknowledges the authority of revelation, and is assisted by the Spirit of God, is able to examine and receive the things revealed by the Spirit. Yet he himself is examined and judged by no animal man : because no animal man can understand the prinOLD TRANSLATION.

GREEK TEXT. . CHAP. II. 1 And I, 1 Καγω ελθων προς υμας, brethren, when I came to αδελφοι, ηλθον ου καθ' υπεyou, came not with excellency of speech, or of ροχην λογου η σοφιας, καταγwisdom, declaring unto

γελλων υμιν το μαρτυριον του you the testimony of God. Θεου. 2 For I determined not

2 Ου γαρ εκρινα του ειδεto know any thing among ναι τι εν υμιν, ει μη Ιησουν you, Save Jesus Christ, Χριςον, και τουτον εςαυρωand him crucified.

μενον. 3 And I was with you 3 Και εγω εν ασθενεια και in weakness, and in fear, εν φοβω και εν τρομω σολand in much trembling.

λω εγενόμην προς υμας. 4 And my speech, and 4 Και ο λογος μου και το my preaching τυαs not with κηρυγμα μου ουκ εν σειδους enticing words of man's

ανθρωπινης σοφιας λογους,

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Ver. 1.-1. Excellency of speech. The apostle means, that nice choice and arrangement of words, that artificial rounding and disposition of periods, those rhetorical connections, transitions, and figures, and those studied tones and gestures, in which, according to the Greeks, the perfection of eloquence consisted.

2. Tbe testimony of God ; that is, the things concerning Christ, which God ordered the apostles to testify; or the things which God himself attested by the miracles which he enabled the apostles to perform. See Ess. iv. 25. In either sense, the expression implies that the evidence of the doc. trines of the gospel, is not founded on proofs drawn from human reason, but on the authority of God, who hath revealed them by his Spirit, and confirmcd them by miracles.

Ver. 2.--1. I determined, udsver, to make known. See Ess. iv. 7. Locke's paraphrase of the passage, agrees with this translation, “ I resolved to own, “or shew, no other knowledge among you.” In like manner Whitby, “I de. “ termined not to discover any thing."

Ver. 3.-1. In weakness, and in fear, and in much trembling. The Greeks could endure no scheme of doctrine that was not conformable to their philo

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