Imagens das páginas

BOYET. An if
my hand be out, then, belike

your hand is in. Cost. Then will she get the upshot by cleaving

the pin. Mar. Come, come, you talk greasily, your lips

grow foul.

Cost. She's too hard for you at pricks, fir; chal

lenge her to bowl. Boyet. I fear too much rubbing; * Good night,

my good owl.

Exeunt Boyet and MARIA. Cost. By my soul, a swain! a most simple clown! Lord, lord! how the ladies and I have put him

down! O' my troth, most sweet jests! most incony vulgar

wit! When it comes so smoothly off, fo obscenely, as it

were, fo fit.


Armatho o'the one side,-0, a most dainty man! To see him walk before a lady, and to bear her fan! To see him kiss his hand! and how most sweetly

a' will swear !

3 by cleaving the pin. ) Honest Costard would have befriended Dean Milles, whose note on a song in the Pseudo-Rowley's ELLA has exposed him to so much ridicule. See his book, p. 213. The present application of the word pin, might have led thc Dean to suspe& the qualities of the basket. But what has mirth to do with archæology? STEEVENS.

4 I fear too much rubbing;! To rub is one of the terms of the bowling green. Boyet's further meaning needs no comment.

MALONE. to bear her fan!] See a note on Romeo and Juliet, A& II. sc. iv. where Nurse asks Peter for her fan. STEEVENS.

e' will swear!) A line following this scems to hago. been loft. MALONE.

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And his page o't' other side, that handful of wit!
Ah! heavens, it is a most pathetical nit!
Sola, fola!

[ Shouting within. [ Exit Coştard, running.


The same.


Nath. Very reverent sport, truly; and done in the testimony of a good conscience.

7 Enter Holofernes,} There is very little personal reflexion in Shakspeare. Either the virtue of those times, or the candour of our author, has so effe&cd; that his fatire is, for the most part, general, and, as himself says,

his taxing like a wild-goose flies, " Unclaim'd of any man. The place before us seems to be an exception. For by Holofernes is designed a particular chara&er, a pedant and schoolmaster of our author's time, one John Florio, a teacher of the Italian tongue in London, who has given us a small di&ionary of that langnage under the title of A World of Words, which in his epiftie dedicatory he tells us, is of little lefs value than Stephens's Treasure of the Greek Tongue, the most complete work that was ever yet compiled of its kind. In his preface, he calls those who had criticised his works, Jea-dogs or land-crilias; monfiers of men, of roi beajls rather than men; whose teeth are canibals, their toongs adders forks, their lips afpes poiJon, their eyes bafiliskes, their Ireath the breath of a grave, their words like Swordes of Turks, thai strive which shall dirie deepest into a Chris. tian lying bound before them. Well therefore might the mild Nathaniel desire Holofernes abrogale fcurrility. feffion too is the reason that Holoiernes deals so much in Italian sentences.

There is an edition of Love's Labour's Loft, printed in 1598, and said to be presented before her high neys this last Christmas, 1597. The next year 1598, comes oui oui John Florio, with his World of Words, recentibus odiis; and in ihe preface, quoted above, falls upon the comic poet for bringing him on the stage. There is angther


His pro

Hol. The deer was, as you know, in fanguis, blood; 8 ripe as a

ripe as à pomewater, who now hangeth


fort of leering curs, that rather snarle than bite, whereof I could instance in one, who lighting on a good fonnet of a gentleman's, a friend of mine, that loved better to be a poet than to be counted so called the author a Rymer - Let Ariftophanes and his comedians make plaies, and scowre their mouths on Socrates; those very mouths they make to vilifie, Jhall be the means to amplifie his virtue, &c. Here Shakspeare is so plainly marked out as not to be mistaken. As to the fonnet of the gentleman his friend, we may be assured it was no other than his

And without doubt was parodied in the very soonet beginning with The praiseful princess, &c. in which our author makes Holofernes say, He will Something aft& the letter, for it argues for cility. And how much John Florio thought this affectation argued facility, or quickness of wit, we see in this preface where he falls upon his enemy, H, S. His name is H. S. Do not take it for the Roman H. §. unless it be as H. S. is twice as much and an ialf, as half an AS. With a great deal more to the same purpose; concluding his preface in these words, The refoluie John Florio. From the ferocity of this man's temper it was, that Shakspeare chose for biin the name which Rabelais gives to his pedant, of Thubal Holoferne. WARBURTON.

I am not of the learned commentator's opinion, that the fatire of Shakspeare is so seldom personal. It is of the nature of persona! inveđives to be foon unintelligible;. and the author that gratilies private malice, animam in vulnere ponit, destroys the future efficacy of his own writings, and facrifices the efteem of {ucceeding times to the laughter of a day. It is no wonder, therefore, that the sarcasms, which, perhaps, in the author's time, set the playhouse in a roar, are now lost among general reflexions. Yet whether the character of Holofernes was pointed at any particular man, I am, notwithstanding the plausibility of Dr. Warburton's conjecture, iuclined to doubt. Every man adheres as long as he can io his own pre-conceptions. Before I read this noie I confidered the character of Holofernes as borrowed from the Rhombus of Sir Philip Sidney, who, in a kind of paftoral entertainment, exhibited to Queen Eli. zabeth, has introduced a school-mafter so 'called, speaking a leash of languages at once, and puzzling himself and his auditors with a jargon like that of Holofernes in the presen't play. Sidney himself might bring the chara&er from Italy; for, as Peacham observes, the schoolmaster las long been one of the ridiculous personages in the farces of that country. JOHNSOM. VOL. VII.



like a jewel in the ear of cælo,'—the sky, the welkin, the heaven ; and anon falleth like a crab,

Dr. Warburton is certainly right in his supposition that Florio is meant by the chara&er of Holofernes. Florio had given the first affront. “ The plaies, says he, that they plaie in England, ale neither right comedies, nor right tragerlies; but representations of histories without


decorum." The scraps of Latin and Italian are transcribed from his' works, particularly the proverb about Venice, wbich has been corrupted so much. The affectation of the letter, which argues facilitie, is likewise a copy of his manner. We meet with much of it in the sonnets to his patrons.

so in Italie your lordship well hath seene

Their manners, monuments, magnificence, " Their languages learni, in sound, in style, in sease, “ Prooving by profiting, where you have beene.

"To adde to fore-lcarn'd facultie, facilitie." We see then, the chara&er of the schoolmaster might be written with less learuing, than Mr. Colman conjedured: nor is the use of the word thrasonica!, [See this play, A& V. fc. i. ] any argument that the author had read Terence. It was introduced to our lan. guage long before Shakspeare's time. Stanyhurst writes, in a translation of one of Sir Thomas More's epigrams:

Lynckt was in wedlocke a loftye thrasonical hufsnuffe." It can scarcely be necessary to animadvert any further upon what Mr. Colman has advanced in the appendix to his Terence. If this gentleman, at his leisure from modern plays, will condescend 10 open a few old ones, he will soon be satisfied, that Shakspeare was obliged to learn and repeat in the course of his profeffion, such Latin fragments, as are met with in his works. The formidable one, ira furor brevis est, which is quoted from Timon, may be found, not in plays only, but in every tritical essay from that of king James to that of dean Swift inclusive. I will only add, that if Mr. Colman had previousy looked at the panegyric on Cartwright, he could not so strangely have misrepresented my argument from it: but tlius inust ever be with the most ingenious men, when they talk without-book. Let me however take this opportunity of acknowledging the very genteel language which he has been plcased 18 use on this occafion.

Mr. Warton informs us in his life of Sir Thomas Pope, that there was an old play of Holophernes aced before the princess Elizabetha in the year 1556. FARMER. Thc verses above cited, are prefixed to Florio's Dict: 1598.


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on the face of terra, the soil, the land, the earth.



In support of Dr. Farmer's opinion, the following pasage from Orlando Furioso, 1594, may be brought:

Knowing him to be a Thrasonical mad cap, they have sent me a Gnathonical companion, " &c. Greene, in the dedication to his Arcadia, has the same word:

as of some thra fonical huffe-snuffe," Florio's first work is registered on the books of the Stationers' Company, under the following title. Aug. 1578. Florio his firf Frute, being Dialogues in Italian and English, with certen Instruca tions, &c. to the learning the Italian Tonge." In 1595, he der dicated his Italian and English di&ionary to the earl of Southampton. In the year 1600, he published his translation of Montaigne. Florio pointed his ridicule not only at dramatic performances, but even at performers. Thus, in his preface to this work, if an owle should represent an eagle, or some tara-rag player should ad the princely Telephus with a voyce as rag'd as his clothes, a grace as bad as his voyce." STEEVENS.

in fanguis, -- blood i] The old copies read -- fanguis, in blood. The transposition was proposed by Mr. Steevens, and is, I think, warranted by the following words, which are arranged in the same manner:

in the car of cælo, the sky," &c. The same expression occurs in K. Henry VI, P. I:

“ If we be English deer, be then in blood." MALONE,

- ripe as a pomewater, ] A species of apple formerly much esteemed. Malus Carbonaria. See Gerard's Herbal, edit. 1597. p. 1273. Again, in the old ballad of Blew Cap for Me: ci Whose cheeks did reseable two rosting pomewaters."

STEEVENS, In the first ad of the Puritan, Pyeboard says to Nicholas: “ The captain loving you so dearly, aye as the pome-water of his eye. Meaning the pupil, or apple of it, as it is vulgarly called.

M. MASON. in the ear of cælo, &c.] In Florio's Italian Didionary, Cielo is defined o heaven, the Jhie, firmament, or welkin;" and terra is explained thus : “ The element called carth; anie ground, carth, countrie, - land, Joile," &c. If there was any edition of this Didionary prior to the appearance of Love's Labour's Loft, this might add some little freugth to Dr. Warburton's conje&ure, though it would by no means be decisive; but my edition is dated 1598, (posterior to the exhibition of this play,) and it appears to be the first. MALONE.


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