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Report of the Committee appointed at the Meeting of the British

Association at Liverpool, 1870, consisting of Prof. JEVONS, R. DUDLEY BAXTER, J. T. DANSON, JAMES HEYWOOD, F.R.S., Dr. W. B. Hodgson, and Prof. WALEY, with EDMUND Macrory as their Secretary, "for the purpose of urging upon Her Majesty's Government the expediency of arranging and tabulating the results of the approaching Census in the three several parts of the United Kingdom in such a manner as to admit of ready and effective comparison.

Your Committee after their appointment held meetings in London, and agreed upon the following Memorial :

“ UNIFORMITY of Plan for the Census of the UNITED KINGDOM. “ To the Right Honourable Henry Austin Bruce, M.P., &c. &c., Her Ma

jesty's Principal Secretary of State for the Home Department. “Memorial of the Committee of the British Association, appointed in Liver

pool, September 1870, for the purpose of urging upon Her Majesty's Government the expediency of arranging and tabulating the results of the approaching Census in the three several parts of the United Kingdom in such a manner as to admit of ready and effectual comparison.

“Your memorialists beg respectfully to represent that the value of statistical information depends mainly upon the accuracy and expedition with which comparisons can be made between facts relating to different districts.

"They also consider that the ease and rapidity with which researches in the census tables can be made is one principal object to be held in view in determining the form of their publication. They therefore desire that not only should the enumeration of the people be conducted in all places in an exactly uniform manner, so far as is compatible with the terms of the several Census Acts, but that there should be no divergence in the modes of tabulating and printing the results. They wish that the tables for England, Scotland, and Ireland should form as nearly as possible one uniform and consistent whole.

“Your memorialists could specify a great many points in which there was divergence between the tables for 1861, but they will mention only a few of the more important cases.

“1. The detailed population tables of England, Scotland, and Ireland differ as regards the periods of age specified. The Scotch report gives twenty-one intervals of age, the Irish report generally twenty-two, and the English only thirteen. Either one-third of the printed matter in the Scotch and Irish tables is superfluous, or that in the English tables deficient.

“2. The classification of occupations is apparently identical in the three reports, but there is much real discrepancy between the Irish and English reports, rendering exact comparison difficult.

“3. In the Irish report there is no comparison and classification of occupations according to age, classification according to religions being substituted, although such a classification could not be made in England or Scotland.

“4. In the appendix to the English report appears a table (No. 56), giving

Cuses.

most important information as regards the numbers of the population at each year of age. Inconvenience has been felt from the want of similar information concerning the populations of Scotland and Ireland.

“5. In the appendix to the Irish report they find some interesting Tables (II., III., and IV.), to which there is nothing exactly corresponding in the other reports, so far as they have been able to discover.

“6. The tables, even when containing the same information, are often stated in different forms and arrangements, seriously increasing the labour of research.

“Your memorialists therefore beg to suggest : “I. That the principal body of tables relating to the numbers, age, sex,

birthplace, civil condition, and occupation of the people should be drawn up and printed in an exactly identical form for the three

parts of the United Kingdom. “II. That while the Commissioners may with great advantage continue

to exercise their free discretion in drawing up such minor tables as appear to have special interest for distinct localities, they should agree to prepare in a uniform manner such minor or summary tables as may be of importance as regards all the parts of the

United Kingdom. “ III. That a general Index of Subjects should be prepared for the whole

of the reports, appendices, and tables, so that an inquirer can readily ascertain where the corresponding information for different parts of the United Kingdom is to be found, without making, as hitherto, three independent searches through a mass of complex and

almost unindexed information. “ It would appear that the officers engaged in superintending the Census of 1861 acted to a certain extent in concert and agreement.

“ Your memorialists beg respectfully to request that those officers be instructed, on the present occasion, to confer with each other prior to drawing up the tables for 1871, with a view of preserving perfect uniformity in their operations, and avoiding all such divergencies in the three reports as are not required by the Census Acts or the essential differences of the three Kingdoms.

"Signed on behalf of the Committee, 8th December, 1870.

“W. STANLEY JEVONS, F.S.S.,
President of the Statistical Section of the British Association for

the Advancement of Science, Liverpool, 1870.
“ JAMES HEYWOOD, M.A., F.R.S.,

Vice-President of the Statistical Society. “ JACOB WALEY, F.S.S.,

One of the Secretaries of the Statistical Society. “Edmd. MACRORY, M.A., Secretary of the Committee of the British Association for a Uni

formity of Plan in the Census Tables of the United Kingdom.

The above memorial was immediately presented to the Right Hon. H. A. Bruce, M.P., Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the Home Department, and has been by him referred to the Registrars General for their report thereon.

The returns of the Census having only recently been collected, too little time has as yet elapsed for the perfect arrangements of the tables to be completed, but your Committee have reason to believe that the recommendations contained in the above memorial will ultimately be, to a considerable extent, adopted by Her Majesty's Government.

Postscript.-Since the above Report was drawn up, the Committee have received a formal reply from the Home Office (dated 26th September, 1871), informing them that the Home Secretary “has desired the Registrar General for Scotland, and has requested the Lord Lieutenant to desire the Census Commissioners in Ireland, to frame their tables in conformity with those submitted by the Registrar General for England and Wales, and approved by Mr. Bruce, as far as circumstances will admit; and that with this view he has instructed the above-mentioned officers to place themselves in communication with the Registrar General for England and Wales.”

Report of the Committee appointed for the purpose of Superintending

the Publication of Abstracts of Chemical Papers. The Committee consists of Prof. A. W. WILLIAMSON, F.R.S., Prof. H. E. Roscoe,

F.R.S., Prof. E. FRANKLAND, F.R.S. The Committee are glad to be able to announce that regular monthly reports of the progress of Chemistry have been published since April 1st, 1871, by the Chemical Society. These Reports have been rendered, as far as possible, complete by abstracts, more or less full, of all papers of scientific interest, and of the more important papers relating to applied chemistry. The abstracts have been made by chemists, most of whom are members of the Society, whose zeal for the science has induced them to undertake the work for the small honorarium which the Council has been able to offer. A numerous Committee of Publication has been formed, whose Members gratuitously undertake the revision of the proofs and a comparison of the abstracts with the original papers.

The Reports are edited by Mr. Watts, each monthly part being bound up with the corresponding number of the Chemical Society's Journal. Each volume will be furnished with a full index, and will give a complete view of the progress of Chemistry during the year.

The Committee feel that their thanks are due to all those gentlemen engaged in the work for having already so far succeeded in accomplishing a task of such difficulty and importance, and they confidently hope that their continued exertions will still further perfect the details of the scheme so as gradually to increase the usefulness of the Reports.

It is right to state that the funds of the Chemical Society available for the purpose of the Reports, although so opportunely aided by a grant of £100 from the British Association, were insufficient to defray the necessary expenses, and that voluntary contributions to the amount of upwards of £200 have been received towards the cost of publication for the first year, up to April 1872.

There is good reason to believe that the expectations entertained of the usefulness of these Reports will be fully realized by their continuance on the present system, and that they will be found largely to conduce to the progress of the science wherever the English language is spoken.

Report of the Committee for discussing Observations of Lunar Objects

suspected of Change. The Committee consists of the Rev. T. W.

WEBB and EDWARD CROSSLEY, Secretary. TRE Committee have much pleasure in presenting their first Report on the above subject. Though much attention has been given of late years to a large number of lunar objects, your Committee felt that they could not accomplish their purpose better than by confining their Report to the discussion of a limited and well-observed portion of the lunar surface. No person seeking to discorer evidence of geologic change would be constantly travelling over the whole surface of our globe, but would of necessity confine his attention to a small area for a considerable period of time. This has been the course adopted on the moon. Plato, a vast crater, containing 2700 square miles, in 51° N. lat. and 10° E. long., has presented a most interesting and important variety of features, which we have endeavoured to photograph, so to speak, with pen and pencil, with a view, if not at once to obtain our ultimate object, at least to lay out the groundwork for future observers.

The Report has been carefully drawn up by Mr. W. R. Birt on behalf of the Committee. Time has only permitted the discussion of the observations of the bright spots and craterlets seen on the floor of Plato; whereas your Committee consider that it is equally important that the observations of the numerous streaks, with the faults and other peculiar features noticed on the floor and walls of this fine formation, should be likewise discussed, in order that something like a complete description of this object as observed at the present time may be presented to the Association for the use of future selenographers.

Your Committee would therefore request that a further grant of £20 may be placed at their disposal for this purpose during the ensuing year,

Report on the Discussion of Observations of Spots on the Surface of the

Lunar Crater Plato. By W. R. BIRT. In executing the task confided to me of discussing certain observations of the spots on the lunar crater Plato, one of the first points which I deemed it important to ascertain was the effect which the intensity of the sun's light as a function of his altitude might produce on the visibility of the spots. The number of spots actually observed between April 1869 and April 1871 inclusive, amounted to 37, the greater portion (21) having been discovered in this interval. In order to become acquainted with phenomena possibly connected with an increase of light on the floor of the crater, the observations have been arranged under intervals of twelve hours, from sunrise to sunset on Plato, and a ledger formed for each interval, the number of which is 31. From these ledgers the results in Table II. have been deduced, viz. the mean number of spots visible during each interval, and the actual number of spots observed during each interval. For illustrating the results

the curves in fig. 1 have been projected. The first curve is that of solar altitudes at the moon, epoch the equinoxes, locality 50° north or south latitude. The second curve is that of the mean number of spots visible during each interval.

Fig. 1.
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31

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5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 20 27
Curve No. 1. Solar altitudes. Latitude 50° at equinoxes.
Curve No. 2. Curve of mean number of spots visible each interval.

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