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enchain', complain', explain', domain', refrain', &c.; twain, swain, wain, vain, stain, &c. (ain, s. an, in) chil'blain, por'celain, mort'main. (ain, s. en, in) again', against'.
$0. ain, unaccented, s. in, in villain, chap'lain, cham'berlain, murʼrain, qua'train, chief'tain, plan'tain, quin'tain, foun'tain, moun'tain, &c. (ain, sān, in) cas'tellain-cockswain and boatswain are pronounced kok'-sn and bōt'swan, or bō' sn.
$1. ion. preceded by l or n, accented, s. yun, in battalion, vermilion, pavilion, medallion, rebellion, billion, million, postil'ion, &c. companion, minʼion, domin'ion, opin'ion, onʼion, &c.
$2. sion, preceded by a, e, i, o, or u, s. zhun, in occa'sion, evaʼsion, invasion, persuaʼsion, dissuaʼsion: adhesion, inhe'sion, cohe'sion, exe'sion; decision, precision, incision, collision, division, provision: effo'sion, disploʻsion, explosion, ero'sion, arro'sion, corro'sion: fu'sion, diffu'sion, infuʼsion, confu'sion, conclu'sion, &c. 53. sion, preceded by any of the consonants, s. shun, in impul'sion, compul'sion, expanʼsion, comprehen'sion, dimenʼsion, merʼsion, aversion, incursion, &c.
54. ssion, s. shun, in passion, compassion, cession, concession, profession, egression, pression, sessi'on, possession, &c.
55. tion, s. shun, in constitu'tion, solution, elocu'tion, cau'tion, por
tion, option, perception, atten'tion, contriti'on, addition, &c.
56. tion, preceded by s, or x, s. tyun, in ambus'tion, combusʼtion,
que 'tion, congestion; mix'tion, admix'tion, commix'tion, &c. 57. xion, s shun, in flex'ion, complex'icn, annex'ion, connex'ion, prefix'ion, affix'ion, crucifix'ion, commix'ion, flux'ion, deflux'ion, afflux'ion, efflux'ion.
58. son, s. zn, in rea'son, trea'son, sea'son, den'ison, ven'ison, foi'son, poi'son, empoi'son, coun'terpoison, disinher'ison, pris'on, impris'on, dam'son, crim'son. (son, s. zun, in) diapa'son, or'aison, ben'ison, advow'son. (son, s sun, in) son, grandʼson, god'son, uʼnison, capar'ison, comparison, (son, s. sn, in) maʼson, garʼrison, parʼson, person, les'son. (son, s. sûn, in) caisson'.
59. own, s. own, in down, adown', upside-down', gown, lown, clown, renown', brown, &c. (own, s ōn, in) own, shown, blown, flown, high'flown, known, unknown', grown, sown, disown', unsown'.
60. ear, s. ēr, in ear, dear, endear', fear, gear, hear, rehear', overhear', shear, blear, clear, tear (n water), &c. (ear, s. ār, in) bear, bugʻ. bear, upbear', underbear', overbear', forbear', pear, tear (v.), tear, (n. a rent), wear, swear, unswear', forswear', outswear'. (ear, s. ear, in linear, rectilin'ear, curvilinear.
61. er, s. ĕr, in am'ber, cham'ber, octo'ber, cum'ber, of'ficer, offend'er, pretend′er, fin'ger, linʼger, lexicogʻrapher, geog'rapher, orthographer, biographer, historiographer, cosmog'rapher, &c. (er, accented, s. er, in) defer', refer', prefer', infer', misinfer', deter', &c. (eer, s. ēr, in) beer, deer, rain'deer, cheer, fleer, mountaineer', engineer', domineer', &c. (eer, s. er, in chan'ticleer e'er, s. ar, in) e'er, ne'er, whene'er, where'er'. (ier accented, and in one syllable, s. ēr, in) pier, cashier', cavalier', chandelier', gondolier', carabinier', cannonier', &c.
62. or, s. ur, in ambass'ador, me'teor, an'chor, met'aphor, au'thor, ma'jor, se'nior, juʼnior, infeʼrior, supeʼrior, inte'rior, war'rior, sail'or, demean'our, minor, &c. (or, s. or, in) or, a'chor, i'chor, nor, sa'por,
pre'tor, flu'or, for, unlooked for, unhoped'for, &c. (or and oor, s. ōr in) louis d'or', corridor', door, bat'tledoor, back'door, trapdoor', death's'door, floor, ground'floor, thrash'ingfloor. (oor, s. ûr, in) boor, moor, poor, unmoor',--oor, s. ăr, in black'amoor.--or, s. âr, in abhor'.
63. our, s. ur, in la'bour, ta'bour, arʼbour, har'bour, suc'cour, ran'cour,
67. ious and cous, preceded by d, s. yus, in teʼdious, perfid'ious, fastid'-
69. tious, s. shus, in ostenta'tious, vexa'tious, fac'tious, ambitious,
71. eat, s. et, in eat, beat, brow'beat, feat, defeat', heat, cheat, escheat',
12. ct, s. kt, in act, enact', compact', defect', infect', per'tect, deject', select', as'pect, respect', inspect', pros'pect, &c. (ct has the same sound when s is added, thus) acts, enacts, defects', intects', dejects', respects', inspects', prospects, directs', &c. (iot, s. it, in endict', and indict'.
73. ight, s. it, in dight, bedight', fight, hight, light, alight', blight,
15. aught, s. ât, in aught, caught, haught, naught, fraught, ful'fraught.
16. ought, s. At, in ought, bought, dear'-bought, fought, thought,
methought', fore' thought, af'ter-thought, mer'ry-thought, nought, brought, wrought, high' wrought, inwrought', unwrought', overwrought', sought, besought'. (ought, s. owt, in drought.) 77. scent, s. sent, in scent, ascent', renas'cent, herbes'cent, descent', quies'cent, convales'cent, evanes'cent, cres'cent, excres'cent, &c. 78. ow, s. o, in elbow, rainbow, mead'ow, shadow, overshad 'ow, wid'ow, window, bow'-window, &c. (ow, s. ō, in) bow (n.), to shoot arrows; imbow', show, ra'ree-show, foreshow', pup'petshow, low (adj. or adv), blow, overflow' (v), glow, slow, mow (v.), know, overthrow' (v.), strow, sow, (v.), tow, stow, bestow', &c. (ow, s. ow, in) bow (n. an act of reverence, or v. to bend), cow, endow', how, some how, low (v.), to bellow; allow', disallow', mow (n), now, enow', brow, eye'brow, prow, sow (n.), vow, avow'.
79. ay, s. a, in bay, decay', alack'aday', noon'day, fay, gay, delay', relay', allay', inlay', play, display', &c. (ay, s. à in) monʼday, tues'day, wednes'day, thurs'day, fri'day, sat'urday, sun'day, yes'terday, hey'-day, holy'day, nose'gay, round'clay, &c.—ay, s. ǎė.quay, s. ke.
80. fy, a verbal termination, s. fï, in jus'tify, rec'tify, pu'rify, tes'tify, pac'ify, crucify, not'ify, ter'rify, for'tify, cal'efy, tu'mefy, beau'tify, sanc'tify, sig'nify, quaʼlify, glo'rify, &c. fy, or fi, in the participles of such verbs, has the same sound, thus) jus'tifying, jus'tified; rec'tifying, rec'tified; pu'rifying, pu'rified, &c. (the same sound of fi prevails in the nouns derived rom such verbs as these signifying an actor, thus) justifier, rec'tifier, pu'rifier, &c. (but in nouns from these verbs signifying an act, fi takes the sound of fe, thus) justifica'tion, purifica’tion, testification, &c. (fi has the sound of fe also in such words as) justifica'tor, testifica'tor, &c. (fy sounds fi, in the verbs defy and affy, also in the interjection fy.-fy sounds fe, in the adjectives lea'fy, chaf'fy, draf'fy, puf'fy, shelf'y, gulf'y, turf'y.
81. ly, unaccented, s. lė, in a'bly, prob'ably, af'fably, remarkʼably, sea’sonably, du'rably, suitably, learn'edly, sa'credly, assuredly, i'dly, friendly, timely, humane'ly, &c. (ly, accented, and in monosyllables, S. in) supply', apply', comply', reply', ply, july', ally', fly, outfly', rely'.
82. ably, s. able, in prob’ably, am'icably, laud'ably, peace'ably, af'fably, variably, remarkably, conform'ably, rea'sonably, sea'sonably, com'parably, al'terably, tolerably, &c. (the adverb a'bly, s. āble.)
83. ibly, s. eble, in invin'cibly, forc'ibly, cred'ibly, au'dibly, leg'ibly, intelligibly, infallibly, ter'ribly, vis'ibly, sen'sibly, pos'sibly, plau'sibly, compatibly, percep'tibly, contemp'tibly, convert'ibly, &c. 84. ily, s. ėlė, in read'ily, steadily, gaud'ily, wor'thily, luck'ily, fam'ily happily, primarily, or'dinarily, sol'itarily, voluntarily, satisfac'torily, tran'sitorily, bus'ily, &c.—ily, s. īè, in shi'ly, sli'ly, wi'ly. ily, s. ile, in lily.--aily, s. àlė, in daily, gai'ly.
85. iety, s. Iet, in nullibi'ety, ubi'ety, soci'ety, medi'ety, nimi'ety, pi'ety, impiety, contrari'ety, vari'ety, ebri'ety, sobriety, insobriety, notoriety, propri'ety, impropri'ety, sati'ety, anxiety. (aiety, s. äėtė, in gaiety. oiety, s. oy-ė-tė, in moi'ety.
86. ity, s. et, in prob'ity, ascer'bity, sagac'ity, capacity, felicity, duplicity, velocity, atroc'ity, valid'ity, rapid'ity, florid'ity, profun'dity, de'ity, corpore'ity, verbal'ity, frugal'ity, liberal'ity, plurality, fatal'ity, ability, &c. (ity s. itė, in) city, pit'y.
87. osity, 8. osėtė, in verbosity, morbosity, curiosity, sententios'ity, glandulos'ity, animos'ity, tenebros'ity, numeros'ity, generosity, moros'ity, monstros'ity, aquos'ity, flatuos'ity, unctuos'ity, &c.
The NATIVES of IRELAND should frequently pronounce the following words, as they commonly give them an improper sound.
rm, at the end of a word, which the Irish pronounce in two syllables, must form only one.
arm, farm, harm, charm, alarm', disarm', warm, swarm, sperm, term, misterm', firm, affirm', infirm', confirm', unfirm', form, deform', reform', efform', 'difform', cu'biform, inform', misinform', conform', perform', transform', plat'form, worm, glow'worm, turm; born, corn, scorn, adorn', horn, shorn, thorn, lorn, morn, torn, worn, sworn, burn, adjourn', mourn, spurn, turn, return', overturn', &c.
Im, at the end of a word, must also be pronounced in one syllable. balm, embalm', calm, becalm', realm, halm, shalm, palm, psalm, qualm, elm, whelm, overwhelm', film, sea'holm.
ey, in monosyllables, or when accented, sounds like ay in day, or ā. obey', disobey', fey, hey, they, whey, grey, prey, trey, convey', purvey', survey'.-key, and ley, s. kē, lē.
a, accented, at the end of a syllable, sounds ā, or like ay in day.
ra'diance, ra'diant, ra'dius, ra'diate, pa'tron, ma'tron, commenta'tor, a'lien, aʼlienable, a'lienate, a'corn, a'ga, a'gency, a'gent, a'gio, a'gue, a'guish, pa'pacy, pa'pal, pa'pist, pa'per, pa'gan, pa'god.-father, papa, mamma, s. fâ'ther, papâ', mamma'.
When a consonant follows the vowel a in the same syllable, and the accent is on the consonant, the vowel a has always its short sound, as in hat,
mal'ice, manʼage, man'cipate, manʼful, manʼner, manʼifold, manʼsion, man'ual, hap'less, hap'py, hazʼard, hazʼardous, an'nals, anʼnual, an'swer, an'tedate, an'them, ban'ish, ban'ner, bat'tle, calam'itous, &c.
The diphthong ea sounds ē when the vowel e is accented, as in sea'son, rea'son, &c.
sea, sea'man, sea'port, sea'sonable, sea'soning, trea'son, trea'sonable, trea'tise, wea'ry, wea'risome, bea'ver, crea'ture, &c. (ea, s. ā, in) great a pear, a bear, to bear, to forbear', to swear, to tear, to wear.
éi, sounded a by the Irish, sounds ẽ in English.
deceit', deceitful, deceive', deceiv'er, receive', receiv'able, receiv er, receipt', conceit', conceit'ed, conceiv'able, conceive', perceive', perceiv'able, nei'ther, ei'ther, deceiv'ing, deceived', receiv'ing, received', conceit′ing, perceiv'ing, perceived', &c. (ei, followed by g, s. ã, thus) reign, feign, deign, &c. (ei, s. ā, also in) rein, reins, vein, drein, veil, heir.
The final e mute makes the preceding e in the same syllable, when accented, have the sound of e, as in supreme, sincere, replete.
scheme, blaspheme', theme, supreme', extreme', sincere', insincere', severe', persevere', delete', replete', complete', incomplete', mete, secrete', concrete', discrete', &c.—ere, s. ār, in there and where.
The following words are pronounced differently in IRELAND from what they are in ENGLAND.
cheer'ful, fear'ful, door, floor, gape, gath'er, beard, bull, bush, push, pull, pulpit, calf, catch, coarse, course, court, malici'ous, pudding, quash, lei'sure, clam'our, drought, search, source, strength, length, strove, drove, ten'ure, ten'able, wrath, wroth, fare'well, rode, strode, shone, schism, where'fore, there'fore, breadth, cold, bold, coffer, endeav’our, foot, mis'chievous, on'ion, put, reach, squadron, zealous, zealot.
FAULTS of the ENGLISH in PRONUNCIATION, and particularly of the LONDONERS.
The letters sts, or tes, the plural of nouns, or the singular of verbs, must all be distinctly heard in one syllable.
casts, out'casts, fasts, enthu'siasts, blasts, masts, boasts, con'trasts, chests, jests, nests, forests, contests, guests, requests', con'quests; abates', ded'icates, com'plicates, sup'plicates, dates, mit'igates, inʼstigates, hates, me'diates, ex'piates, sa tiates, ob'viates, relates', &c.
v must never be pronounced for w, nor w for v.
vale, val'iant, val'id, val'ue, van, var'nish, vast, vaunt, ve'hemence, vein, ven'erate, ven'ture, verge, vest, vic'ar, vice, view, village, vine, vin'egar, vi'olet, vir'tue, viv'id, wood, wood'land, word, work, worthy, &c. h after w must always be sounded.
whale, wheat, whelm, when, whence, where, whereat', whereby', whereas', whereunto', whet, wheth'er, whey, which, while, whilst, whim, whine, whip, whirl, whist, white, who, whoev'er, whole, &c.
h must be sounded in such words as the following:
hab'it, hail, hair, half, hall, halt, ham'let, hand, hang, hank, happy, harangue',har'ass, har'bour, hard, hardheart'ed, harm, harmony, harp'er, har'row, haste, hate, hate'ful, haugh'ty, hazʼard, head, head'long, heal, health, heap, hear, heart, heart'whole, heat, heath, hea'then, heave, heav'en, heed, height, height'en, hei'nous, held, helm, &c.
In the following words the h is silent.
heir, heir'ess, herb, herb'age, hon'est, hon'esty, hon'estly, hon'our, hon'ourable, hon'ourably, hos'pital, hos'tler, hour, hourly, hum'ble, hum'bles, hum'bled, hum'bly, hu'mour, huʼmorist, hu'morous, humorously, hu'morsome.
In the pronunciation of the following words the NATIVES of SCOTLAND are very liable to err.
of, off, in'to, with, within', without', beneath', ere, erelong', erenow', erewhile', ne'er, e'er, and, man, an, wax, waft, are, were, have, hast, has, hath, had, do, dost, doth, does, might, could, would, should, shall, length, strength, long, strong, na'tion, nati'ona ture, natural, natʼurally, bold, hold, cold, sold, told, yet.