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the necessary continuance of the exertion, machine brought to the ground. Now it for which our limbs are entirely unfit. is to repair this decay of speed, to restore
Of inanimate sources of power, the every instant the velocity lost in that in. steam-engine is the only one which is not stant, that the small steam-engine embarkby its nature inapplicable to the purpose: ed in the machine is alone wanted, and it and to that attaches with even greater is easy to see that the power required for force the objection which renders living this effect must be very much less than power useless ;-it is hopelessly heavy in that which would be necessary to list and proportion to its effect. Nor does Mr. to start the machine ; the entire amount of Henson's successful effort to reduce the which power, it has hitherto been supweight of the steam-engine bring it within posed, the machine itself must carry. the essential conditions of utility if the The great novelty, then, of Mr. Henson's ordinary mode of dealing with the subject aërial carriage, and the very important adwere not to be abandoned.
vance its inventor has made towards suc. But that ordinary mode tacitly assumes cess in this oft-defeated enterprise, is the that it is necessary to carry in the machine separation of the starting from the mainthe means of producing all the power re- taining power. Although this is no novelty quired to raise and sustain it. It is in dis- in abstract science it produces all the effect pensing with this necessity, and thus re- of a most important invention in its appli. ducing very greatly the amount of ma- cation to this purpose ; and it is no slight chinery to be carried, that the chief, but ground for believing that Mr. Henson will not the only peculiarity of Mr. Henson's eventnally succeed, to find that his chief invention lies; and it is by this means he novelty accords so exactly with established has opened a path which seems destined to science: as far as this device is concerned lead to the accomplishment of this long there is nothing whatever which can raise sought object.
a doubt. The device by which Mr. Henson has Familiar, however, as this principle may gained so great an additional likelihood of be to those in any degree accustomed to success, applies, not to the construction of mechanics, its importance in this extrathe machine, but to the manner of using it. ordinary design requires that it should be The carriage, loaded and prepared for carefully illustrated. The weight of a flight, starts from the top of an inclined clock is never able to set the clock in moplane, in descending which, it acquires the tion; but when the pendulum has been velocity necessary for its further flight. made to swing by being drawn out of the The mode in which that velocity sustains perpendicular, the weight amply suffices to it in the air is readily understood : the keep up its motion. Nor would even the machine advances with its front edge a lit- weight be needed but for the resistance of tle raised, so that its under surface in the air and the friction and swiftness of the pinges obliquely on the air: that impact is machinery by which the motion of the penaccompanied by a resistance of the air, dulum is registered and indicated: these which is sufficient to prevent the descent destroy a minute part of the pendulum's of the machine ; just as the wind striking motion at every vibration, which destroyed the sails of a windmill obliquely presented part it is the office of the weight to restore. to it, has power enough to propel them The pendulum really moves by virtue of with all the machinery they set in motion. the force first exerted in drawing it from
So far, then, it seems that the velocity the perpendicular: the weight prevents the gained in descending the inclined plane, is decay of that force. Now just this takes that by which the machine proceeds and is place with Mr. Henson's machine : it is set sustained, and, but for hindering forces, in motion by its descent down the inclined would proceed for ever; for it is a me. plane; it is kept in motion by the steamchanical axiom, verified by all the results engine it carries. of art and science, that if hindering forces In nature the same process may be obconld be taken away, a body once set in served. A crow in rising from the ground motion would move for ever. But this is under the necessity of making very strenmotion through the air, though of itself it uous efforts with his wings to lift himself: generates the perpendicular resistance of while doing so he acquires horizontal veihat Auid by which the machine is sustain- locity, and as soon as that velocity is suffied as to elevation, generates also at the cieni to bring the resistance of the air to same time a resistance in the forward di- act on his sloping front and wings with rection by which in no long time the mo. effect enough to sustain him, he proceeds tion itself would be destroyed, and the with comparatively easy beats; after a time we may see the same bird quietly sailing | mental facts alike fail to give us the needful round and round in the air, scarcely moving information. his wings at all. Many of our readers must As far as probabilities can be collected have asked themselves how a bird with from observations on the flight of birds, merely outstretched wings is kept from they warrant a strong expectation of Mr. falling? They will now readily see that it Henson's success. If, however, his engine is by virtue of its original velocity, main- should be found to need reinforcement, it tained and perhaps augmented in former is said there are available inventions reparts of the flight.
cently matured, whose combined applicaBut further, it will be observed that it is tion will much more than double its power. horizontal velocity which is required, and Nor can it be doubted that, cleared as the that is gained by Mr. Henson in descending subject now is of its mysteries and chief an inclined plane. Now just this device is difficulties, the attention of our engineers often employed by large birds in starting will be strongly drawn to the subject, and from an eminence: instead of incurring the the inventive energies of this mechanical great labor we have noticed in the case of age speedily bring the machine to perfccthe crow, the feathered voyager makes first tion. a curve downwards, the velocity gained in One of the most remarkable as it is one which, with subsequent and easy augmen of the most cheering considerations contations, is that which keeps up his flight. nected with this subject is the fact, that It is not often that a new contrivance in those improvements in locomotion are ever art has so exact a prototype in nature. first committed by Providence to that part
The steam engiue invented by Mr. Hen- of the human family which is at the time son to meet the especial necessities of his best fitted to use them for the general benenërial carriage, is distinguished by its ex- fit ;-best fitted, we mean, not so much by treme lightness in comparison with its pow. the extent and firmness of their political er. This is effected, in great part, by re. relations, or the energy of their enterprise, ducing the necessary weight of water. "The or the magnitude of their capital, though boiler mainly consists of a considerable these are far from indifferent, as by the number of inverted cones, presenting their moral temperament which they will bring blunted points and much of their surface to their entrusted employment. Savages, to the fire. The amount of surface acted on who without restraint of conscience might by radiating heat is about fifty square feet, desolate with grim delight the enlarged and about as much more is exposed to the circle put within their reach are not in. heat of communication. Comparing the vested with these new powers! nor even boiler with those of locomotive engines, it when the unwonted device is placed before is expected to furnish a quantity of steam their eyes have they the means, the energy equivalent to the power of twenty horses, or the intellect to use it with effect at all if used with considerable expansion. The to be compared with that of its employment steam is condensed in a number of pipes of with more advanced communities; invensmall diameter, which are exposed to the tion and its results seem nearly dormant, strong current of air produced by the flight: except for the purposes to which it can be this mode of condensation has been found applied by the most enlightened portions remarkably effective. All unnecessary of the race. And if so in all past time, weight of parts has been avoided, and in- may we hope to discover in the circumdeed no part has been retained whose ser-stances attending this new and unparalleled vices are not essential. The result is, that enterprise, traces of the same great design, a twenty-horse engine is kept in efficient and may we not easily suppose that so long action ith ut twenty gallons of water, as the new art, should come into practiand its entire weight is but about 600lbs. cal use, shall require the appliances of capi
The weight of the whole machine, and tal, of cultivated skill, of tried integrity, and its load, is estimated at 3000lbs: the area of the most exact and elaborate science, of the sustaining surfaces will be about 4500 so long it will be mainly in the hands of square feet. The load will; therefore, be that section of the wide earth's inhabitants about two-thirds of a pound to each square who are most likely to use its astounding foot, which is less by one-third than that capabilities in the spirit of justice and goodof many birds.
will to all. The most important question which remains to be decided refers to the competency of the steam-engine; and here un. happily mechanical science and experi
OBSERVATIONS UPON OBSERVERS, the albatross, as they winged their way through
Europe, or that on their visits to China they REMARKS ON THE FACULTY OF WINKING. had taken a dose of opium sufficient to put them
asleep as long as Rip Van Winkle, or the seven
sleeping youths of Ephesus. Doubtless, howNo book makes its appearance in the days ever, on awaking, they would have published we live in, without being soon followed by their dreams of Constantinople, visions of Pekin, another which is styled its “ Companion.” We or a "thousand and one nights,” amongst the have “ Companions to the Prayer-book," “ Com- ruins of Cabool. panions to the Almanack," and companions 10 As there is nothing so impertinent as the moiwenty other works, which it would be tedious dern spirit of observation, so there is nothing so to enumerate.
unmerciful. It would be a great pity to allow the treatise Scire tuum nihil est, nisi te scire hoc sciat alter, lately published with the title of “What to Ob
There is no objection to any lady or gentleserve," to want a comrade when companionship man making observations in any number, or is so much in fashion, and writers pair off like to any length, upon any subject, from a comfit members of the House of Commons. It is therefore proposed to have a little discussion here in them? Why must they print all the nonsensi
to a constitution, but why should they inflict our own rambling way upon the question“ what cal details of their memorandum-books ? And, not to observe,” leaving it to some base compi- what is more to our purpose, why are treatises ler to digest our remarks, or make what hash written to encourage them, and give them adof them he pleases for the instruction of the pub. ditional facility in an art at which they are allic, the profit of the booksellers, and his own ready only too proficient? There seems no very “ filthy lucre," if he should chance to be one of urgent necessity in these times to teach people that melancholy brotherhood who live by their how or what to observe. Observation is the wits, albeit they have no wit to live by.
vice of the day; nothing is allowed to pass The importance of the present question is ob- without observation. Society is become one vious. The range of human observation being vast observatory, and London is even provided coextensive with the universe, the more we with a Quadrant. The smallest and most unaslimit our excursions through so boundless a field, suming
nebula, or a comet only three days old, the less will be our fatigue, and the more exact has a better chance of creeping unseen across our acquaintance with those tracts of knowledge the field of a telescope at Greenwich, than the within which we have confined the exercise of minutest hole in our coat has of eluding the noteour faculties. Some carry this principle so far takers of this all-observing age. as to devote their entire lives to the examination of a cockle-shell, to diving into the bells of heath
A chiel's amang ye takin notès ! er blossoms, or to researches into the mysteries Where is the “chiel amang ye” that is not of a Greek'accent, and they have their reward takin notes ?". Every paper we take up might in obtaining perfect and undisputed mastery of justly be called " The Observer.” Observing is these several exalted studies; whereas it is plain, beeome as odious as time-serving, and the Obthat had the conchologist meddled with accents, servatives outnumber the Conservatives ten times the grammarian with heather-bells, or the bota- over. Time was when people were divided into nist with either cockle-shellor circumflex, not one the observers and the observed, but now even the of the three would have made his name immortal. observed of all observers is himself an observer.
These may be thought examples of rather Let Observation with extended view narrow circles of intelligence, but it is still true Survey mankind from China to Peru. that the sportsman who follows all sorts of game Is there a viler couplet or a viler precept in the does not make the best day's shooting, and that English language? This is precisely what ob. he who applies himself to every thing is not far servation is doing at present. Our grandfathers removed from him who applies to nothing. and grandmothers used to do sundry things
It has never been our loi to meet with the fa- “under the rose;" but all the roses in Persia mous treatise, “ De omnibus rebus," but there would not screen one of the present generation can be little doubt of its being extremely heavy from the all-prying, Paul-prying eye of your reading, even without taking into account the modern observer. In the rosiest thicket of the appendix, “ de quibusdam aliis.” We have seen, “garden of Gûl” itself, Prudence would hesitate however, only too many books composed with to tie her own garter in these remarking and apparently the same object, namely, to leave reporting days. We are not a generation of nothing unsaid that was sayable, and nothing vipers, but of eagles or lynxes. It would be observable unobserved.
hazardous to commit a faux-pas in the very There is, for instance, a numerous tribe of heart of a mill-stone; and the smallest coral tourists and travellers who are too observant by island in the South Sea has lost all reputation a thousand degrees, and whose study it is to as a sanctuary from the public gaze. leave nothing unremarked through all the lands The fallenlis semita vitæ exists no more; the they visit, with an occasional exception in favor world, which once was so full of green lanes and of what is truly remarkable in each. Had these byways, through which it was so pleasant to writing ramblers, or rambling writers, only un- saunter from one stage of life to another, is now derstood the first principles of the science-traversable by high-roads only, and there is no "what not to observe”- they would have had such thing as a private path, a private house, a fewer to ridicule and more to read them. How private transaction, or a private man, from the often have we wished they had slumbered, likel pole to the equator, and from the equator to the pole. The existence of a public is now a tre-1" a few observations” in the House of Commons, mendous truth: but the public voice is not half thinks himself entitled to discuss the measures so terrible as the public eye.
of the grandest viziers, and the proclamations of Despite of the progress of iemperance, almost three-tailed pachas. every house in the country may be said to be The world has either ceased to have corners, a public-house, for it is absolutely impossible to or no business is any longer done in them. bait a trap for a mouse on a Monday night with- Where is the corner now without a Q in it? The out the fact being known over the three kingdoms little crooked thing that asks questions is enbefore the set of Tuesday's sun-a manifest dowed with the attribute of ubiquity, and society proof that the påblic eye is upon our minutest seems to have resolved itself into a general comand most retired actions, and that, only for con- mittee of inquiry, or rather to have formed itself siderations of climate and temperature, we might into one vast "army of observation." as well live in our greenhouses as in our man: The disastrous influence of this upon several sions of brick or stone. Yet, it is in an age like of the fine arts, for instance jobbing in its various this that books, forsooth, must be written to teach branches, and the still robler art of tormenting people how to observe! Had we an Argus in our fellow-creatures, is too manifest to need exthese didactic days, there would not be wanting planation. If on the one hand, by indulging our some goodnatured individual to present him with curiosity, we have made some iriting addition to a hundred pair of Solomon's spectacles. our knowledge of chemistry, geology, and math
Lyceus, the type of ocular acuteness, would ematics, consider all we have lost upon the other, surely have a solar microscope bestowed on him in the more fascinating and interesting departoutof the same superfluous benignity. The genius ments of public jugolery and holy humbug. of the age, if a genius it has, is peeping. That Diplomacy is now openly laughed at; the pub. there should be folks who delight in peeping is lic expects io be made the confidaate of every not surprising ; but that any one should like to political secret; the “reason of state," once held be peeped al does indeed astonish. Yet there in such becoming reverence, is treated with the are men, and great men too, who like to be coarsest ridicule; Machiavelli is sent to " Old peeped at vastly. Milton had no notion of the Nick," his namesake; mystery and intrigue, pleasure of a morning walk in the fields without that in former times were the very keys that being spied from behind the bushes.
opened the temple of fame to statesmen, are Sometimes walking not unseen
numbered among the mortal sins, and the tide By hedge-row elms, or hillocks green.
of opinion is running with alarming rapidity However, to be observed was a distinction two against even red tape and envelopes. The day centuries ago, which it certainly is not at pres- is perhaps not far off when an English and a ent, when there is not a hedge-row in the king- French minister will conduct their negotiations dom without one pair of eyes at least peering through the medium of a correspondence in the out from behind it in obedience to the law of public journals; and probably ai the next genuniversal observation. For our part, we do not eral congress of the European powers any Quidsay that we wish every descendant or disciple of nunc desirous of being present will have only to Peeping Tom sen: to ihe birthplace of that type pay a guinea for a ticket
, if indeed he does not and“ great original" of all observers; nor do insist upon his right to pass in and out of the we assert that it would be no serious misfortune hall as freely as the plenipotentiary of Russia or if the public was seized with a fit of ophthalmia, Great Britain. or had a cataract in its eye about the size of Ni
Having alluded above to the art of toragara; but we are humane enough to sympa- menting our fellow.men, we cannot help add. thize with those who use such language.
ing a word upon the subject, because we feel Suppose you had the luck of Sancho Panza, that the evil genius of observation has already and were to be made governor of some island, deplorably contracted this spacious field for the or governor-general of some distant colony or exercise of talent and ingenuity. The planter dependency of the empire, how would you like of Jamaica or St. Domingo can no longer walto be unable to take a morning's ride on your lop his own nigger" in quiet and comfort, behorse, mule, ass, elephant, or hobby, or to play cause every stroke of the whip is sure to be any innocent prank whaisoever, for the amuse- heard over the whole terraqueous glohe. ment of yourself, your litle court, or perhaps Corporal punishments have alarmingly deyour native country, without being marked and creased in the army for the same reason. It remarked, viewed and reviewed, scanned, ob- is a gross abuse of words to call a man a priserved, watched, noted down, and then shown rate soldier, who is not allowed to enjoy so much up, as if the ramblings of a statesman were no
as a flogging in a barrack-square even on a Sunmore to be respected than the aberration of the day without the public eye witnessing every stars ?—or, as is because the nation bestows on lash he receives, and the public press trumpetan individual a high office and a large salary, ing the transaction through the length and it is therefore entitled to set up a great telescope breadth of the land. However, it is not in the and make him the public gaze like an occulta- army we expect to find the blessings of practical tion of Mars, a transit of Venus, or a common liberty ; but is any other department more whiskered and bearded comet? No man now is exempt from the inquisitorial eye of the modern master of his gaits of going ; his gaits* are claim tyrant, Observation ? Look at our trade; read ed as public property, and every whippersnapper the Report of the Children's Employment Comthat car pen a newspaper paragraph, or make mission, and mark the encroachments of this The commissioned "observers," speaking of a were probably corrected in this splendid and foundry at Willenhall, call it "shameful and cruel" imposing way, it really strikes us that a thrashto correct naughty little workmen with sledges, ing with a thunderbolt is an honor which ought files, and hammer-handles! An'amiable and to be reserved for the gods and godlings of the accomplished lady of the same place is made the earth, in our aristocratic seminaries, and the vulsubject of the most injurious remarks for merely gar terrors of the broom left to the children of " laying hold of the hair of the boys before break- smiths and weavers. This is worth the considfast and lugging them as long as she could stand eration of the Education Committee of the Privy over them; she also punched then in the face Council. with her fist, like a man fighting with another But enough has been said, it is presumed, to man."
daring spirit upon the once boasted freedom of * Qu. gates.-PRINTER'S DEVIL.
the British manufacturer.
establish the necessity of limitin and checking, This is the way in which commissioners paid instead of stimulating and encouraging the spirit by government respect the liberty of English- of observation, one of the most impertinent and men! Mrs. Jones of Willenhall cannot chastise vexations spirits by which a man or a nation was a young manufacturer in ever so feminine a man- ever possessed. The eye ought to be trained ner without being observed on in a big blue book, to wink more and to see less; the habit of " turnpresented formally to both houses of Parliament. ing a deaf ear" ought to be diligently cultiva. Nay the commissioners must call her fair hand ted; and if people could be restrained from apa fist ! and compare her, in the energetic dis- plying their noses so close as they are fond of charge of the commonest maternal duty, in “a doing to a multitude of little arrangements and man fighting with another man,” a sarcasm just transactions, public and private, with which they as applicable to Boadicea and Mrs. Brownrigg, have nothing to do, there would not be a tenth indeed to every English lady who has exerted part of the bad odors of which we hear every herself in her day to sustain the manly character day such loud complaints, for all metaphysicians of the nation.
agree that a smell, whether sweet or unsavory, Again, at Sedgely, it has been the long estab. is not a smell, unless it is smelled. lished and time-honored practice to punish chil. It is not so easy, however, to decline or avoid dren with rods of iron, which are occasionally the intelligence tendered us by our ears and made red-hot, when it is intended to administer a noses, as that which offers itself through the warmer whipping than usual.
mediam oi vur eyes.
The organs of hearing “In Sedgely, they are sometimes struck," says and smelling are unprovided with natural stopMr. Commissioner Pry, “with a red-hot iron, pers; they have no apparatus corresponding and burnt and bruised simultaneously.” This is with the eyelid. We shall not pronounce this a mentioned with reprobation !-the commissioner defect in the human structure, but it clearly being probably ignorant that rods of iron are might have heen ordered otherwise, and it is mentioned in Scripture, where the birch-rod is certain that there are numerous situations in never once named, from which circumstance which it would be a charming privilege to be able it may fairly be concluded that wherever the rod to bar out a sound or a smell at pleasure. A is recommended in the Bible (for instance, in the stopper for the ear would remove, for example, book of Proverbs), it is a rod of iron that is meant. one of the gravest objections entertained by But we are not yet done with the observers of many to parliamentary lise, nay, even to the marSedgely, who evince as little classical taste as ried state itself ; but more upon this subject upon scriptural information. They proceed to “ob- another occasion. serve :"
The principal organ of observation is deci"Sometimes the children have a flash of light- dedly the eye. Hence the sun, the greatest of ning sent at them. When a bar of iron is drawn observers, is called the eye of the world, white hot from the forge, it emits fiery particles which the man commonly flings in a shower up- and Heaven is said to
of this great world the eye and soul; on the ground by a swing of his arm before placing the bar upon the anvil. This shower is
Wake with all its eyes, sometimes directed at the boy. It may come every star that twinkles being the eye of its own over bis hands and face, his naked arms, or on system. But it has not been sufficiently noticed his breast. If his shirt be open in front, which is that the eye has a non-observing power as well usually the case, the red-hot particles lodge as an observing one; and is given us as much therein, and he has to shake them out as fast as to wink with as to see with. If the sun has not he can." This highly picturesque and classical mode of eyelid, there is a compensation for this seeming
the gift of winking, being unprovided with an discipline, worthy of adoption at Eton and Har- defect of his optics in the clouds that occasionrow, instead of exciting the rapturous admiration ally obscure his vision, in the eclipses to which of the commissioner for its exquisite taste and he is periodically subject
, and particularly in the refinement, is actually produced as an instance beautiful arrangement that produces the pheof barbarily! Can any thing more romantic be conceived than chastisement with “a flash of not always staring at the faults and follies, the
nomenon of sunset. This glorious luminary is lightning ?" To us it appears the very poetry of vanities and villanies, the malfeazances and punishment; and the only question is, whether misseazances of poor mortals: he is not alit is not much too sublime for the children of the
ways working classes, who are only too well off to be whipped with chain-cables and caned with billy
Darting his light through every guilty hole, Tollers. When we reflect that the little Olym- like a thousand malignant little eyes in the pians themselves, when they were naughty, I heads of human beings. Possessing the faculty