« AnteriorContinuar »
influence on society, the foundling asylums, De Lamartine. It is Protestantism they illegitimate children, the condition of un- oppose. Juis Protestantism they abhor. I fortunate females; these, and a variety of have watched with attention their proceed. other subjects, together with the penal ings with reference to Polynesia, and I code, slavery, and the slave-trade, were to know that they are more anxious to expel engross his time, and absorb bis energies. from those islands the Protestant mission. But this is the case no longer. I do not aries of Great Britain, Germany, and Amer. find fault with the change which has taken ica, than they are to convert the heathen to place, because in France it is really very the Christian faith. Alas! alas! they bedifficult, if not impossible, to steer clear of lieve, and they act on that belief, that it party politics, and of political partizanship. would be better, spiritually speaking, for But yet the fact is the same. De Lamar. the Pagans to remain so, than to be contine has becoine in his turn a colleague of verted to Christianity by Protestant misBerryer, a supporter of Guizot, an approver sionaries, and to remain Protestants. of Count Molé politics, and, finally, ("tell De Lamartine, as a poet, is the boast and it not iu Gath, and publish it not in the admiration of his country; and he most streets of Askalon,”') the most forward, unquestionably merits all the fame and bold, decisive opponent of that Conserva- popularity he enjoys. But his poetical attive policy which himself and his party tributes render him a fluctuating and inoften pronounced to be the only one com different statesman. To-day, he pleads the patible with peace on the one hand, and cause of Poland with fire and energy. Towith the honor and happiness of France morrow, he proclaims at the tribune the adon the other. Is De Lamartine no longer vantages of a close alliance between France satisfied that England and France may be and Russia. Today, he pleads for the good allies, and yet honorable and enlight- abolition of slavery, and, as the magical ened rivals ? Or has he also joined the "An-words drop from his lips, he rivets the atglo-phobia” faction, which sees in Great tention and secures the suffrages of even Britain an immense obstacle to French ag an unwilling audience. To-morrow, he ingrandizement, and to French power? "1 dignantly rejects the right of search, and fear the latter is the case; and that he is tells the best and most honest minister now pledged to oppose all governments France has known for a century, “You are which are not constructed on the basis of unfit to govern. You are repugnant to the "ultra French politics and views. Now, glory, interests, and nationality of France !" what is meant by this expression is this:And why? Because that minister, M. Guithat France shall refuse the right of search; zot, will not violate the treaties which that France shall claim to take precedence were deliberately signed with Great Britain in regulating, at all times, the affairs of the for putting an end to that very slavery of East; that France shall exercise authority which he complains. He would arrive at in the affairs of Spain; that France shall the end without making use of the means. extend her frontiers to the limits claimed He would put down the slave-trade by visitby the republican party of the last century; ing other vessels, and by seizing the lawthat France shall be permitted to dictate to less pirates; but he would not allow of the rest of Europe on the fate of smaller similar searches being made on board states; that France shall become the most French vessels. formidable military and naval power in the Again : to.day he pleads with incomparwest of Europe ; that France shall extend able eloquence on the subject of the affairs her conquests in the north of Africa, estab of the East, and places before you " Turlish settlements in the continent of Amer- key,” a mere corpse, a body without a ica, especially of South America, and form soul, a form without animation. He tells colonies and governments in the Pacific you that this is as it ought to be, that proOcean. And, I regret to state, that the phecy requires it, that the march of events Legitimist party in France will lend itself will have it so, that Mahommedanism must to these demands, not because it regards be supplanted by Christianity, and the them as politically sound or wise, but in Crescent by the Cross; and then, in his order to extend the influence of the Romish own poetic strain, he presents before you church throughout the nations of the earth. that cross, triumphing over all prejudices, This is the policy of Abbé de Genoude, the and subduing eventually all things to able and eloquent proprietor and editor of itself. But, to-morrow, he pleads for the Gazette de France. This is the policy French influence in Turkey, for French inof all who are under the influence of the fluence at Constantinople ; and talks of the court of Rome, and none are more so than advantages of the Turkish alliance and the
revival of olden times; and is angry with visitor will find him a glorious host, and. Sir Stratford Canning because he does not an inimitable companion. His large heart consent to be outwitted by the French am- admits within it all who are entitled to esbassador; and the corpse of yesterday bas teem and admiration, and he is ever ready been suddenly transformed into a valuable, to sympathise with human suffering, and living, acting, formidable ally.
to seek to provide a remedy for every wo. Louis Philippe said, some few months As a man and a friend he cannot be sure ago, when De Lamartine still remained passed ; as a poet he is unrivalled in faithful to the moderate Conservative party France ; as a statesman and politician he of the new dynasty, and when threatened is most defective. Some would style him by the chiefs of the Anglo-phobia factions a “girouette." with a union against his government, “] And thus it is with the best of men ! suppose, then, I shall be compelled to ap- They mistake so often their own qualifiply to M. De Lamartine to become my min. cations, and are in favor of their weaker ister; and I may reckon myself very for: points. For myself I can only admire and tunate to have so honest and able a man to love De Lamartine, and wish him years of apply to.”
But Louis Philippe can say happiness and a life of delight, for his hap. this no longer. After the late harangne of piness is virtue, and his delight is to do the poet in the Chamber of Deputies, he can good, and render others joyful. no longer be regarded as a Conservative, but as one of the chiefs of a systematic opposition. Louis Philippe cannot confide
MARBLES OF XANTHUS. in such a man. He might do well enough
From the London Literary Gazette. to run in the same political vehicle, neck Acts of public interest are often attended by neck, along-side of M. Thiers, and they by circumstances of private sorrow: thus might together burl the national car with the removal of these memorials of ancient themselves over some fearful precipice; art has been marked by the loss of a young, but De Lamartine has demonstrated that promising, and dear relative, whose premahe is no statesman, and that he is without ture death is the subject of the following a clear, distinct, and accomplishable poli- lines from the pen of a sweet and gifted tical system. He either knows noi, or does female poet:not feel, that politics cannot be made a Marbles of Xanthus ! vanish'd from that shore, matter of imagination and feeling, but that Rich in remembrance of heart-stirring lore, the great interest of a great nation must be Scene of heroic deeds, of arts refined,
Proofs indestructible of mightier mind, treated without passion, prejudice, or poet. Would Heaven ye still, from artist's gaze conceald, ry. Louis Philippe hos very naturally Stood in your deep retirement unreveala! some sentiments of affection for De La Treasures of ancient glory though ye be, martine. Mademoiselle des Roys was the Records of death ye only are to me! mother of the poet, and she was as good Have ye been draygd to grace a stranger soil ?
Marbles of Xanthus! why, with poisonous toil, as she was charming. Her mother was Why scorn'd the passionate appeal of love, governess to the royal princes, and brought the curse denounced on him who dared remove up her daughter with the now King of the Tombs to departed spirits consecrate, French, and with Madame Adelaide, his The curse has fallen-speak, Marbles
, for the dead,
Making the grieved heart yet more desola te ?* sister. The King of the French never for. Not on th' offending, but the innoceni head. gets the associates of his earlier years, and Marbles of Xanthus ! on the Lycian strand ihe family of De Lamartine, at least on the Better had ye been spoil'd by Moslem land ! maternal side, is regarded by him with re
Could ye not scape the traveller's hungry eye, spect and interest. Yet De Lamartine can
Dooming the loving and the loved to die?
Could ye not spare the sapling, when the oak never now become his minister.
Had lall'n, all verdant, by the lightning's stroke ? Whoever desires to see this extraordi. Was it for you a widow'd mother gave nary man to advantage, should make a Her dear first-born to fill a Grecian grave ? journey to Macon with a letter of intro- Marbles of Xanthus ! monunents of fame, duction. There, in the neighboring Châ- Henceforth ye bear indelible his name !
Nor his alone-others there are who fell teau de St. Point, the author of the Har- in the same reckless toil, whose doom ye tell. monies, the Meditations, and the Souvenirs, Can kindred hearts abjure fond nature's tie, will be seen as the man who has never And feel no anguish when their loved ones die ?
Ask the reft father and the sorrowing wise, made a personal enemy and never lost a
dre ye not bought with waste of human lise ? friend. Gentle, noble, pure, serene, gene. * Vide Mr. Fellowes' work. rous, kind, he will welcome the stranger to + Lieut. Alfred Busion (son of the lamented Captain A. his interesting and antique dwelling, and B.), Major Much (leaving an aged father), and eight pri
, amuse, delight, and improve him. His I fell victims to the malaria in this ill-fated expedition.
.STEPHENS'S INCIDENTS OF TRAVEL IN |forest which happened to strike a building, YUCATAN.
or the local knowledge elicited from some From the Spectator.
particular Indian, after the man had seen,
with wonder, the interest the foreigners It may be remembered, that on the re. attached to what the natives term old turn of Mr. Stephens from his mission to walls.” In the use of the word cities, howCentral America, he passed through Yu- ever, some limitation should perhaps be catan, visiting some of the ruined cities of placed upon the modern European notions the aboriginal inhabitants, and hearing of of the term. It seems probable that the many more. Circumstances prevented him greater number of these buildings were defrom then pursuing his researches, or voted to religious purposes, the mass of bringing away any considerable relics; but the people remaining in a state of abject he left Yucatan with the full intention of slavery or degradation of caste. The mere returning to make a more thorough ex. power of erecting them would augur con. ploration, and to form an American mu. siderable scientific knowledge in the superseum: a purpose which he carried into intendents, a high degree of mechanical effect in about a year after his first visit ; dexterity in the workmen, and a thicklyand these volumes contain a narrative of peopled country. It would, however, be his travels, and the result of his researches. going too far to conclude that the cities or
Mr. Stephens was accompanied on this, sites of these buildings were inhabited by as on the former occasion, by Mr. Cather- an active and industrious population, bearwood, an artist, to survey the sites and copying a proportion, as in modern Europe, to the ruins. Dr. Cabot, a physician and or the character of the public buildings of the nithologist, also volunteered to accompany place. They were the works of superthe present expedition; but his presence stition : it is probable that such knowledge contributes little to the story beyond an as existed was confined to the priestly occasional account of the effects produced caste, and that while these gorgeous but by his medical skill. With a few trifling barbaric piles were erected for them, the exceptions, the explorations of the party builders were in a state of abject ignorance were limited to two degrees of longitude and poverty, differing little from that in (88-90), and little more than one of lati. which they are now found. The religious tude, (20-21): further progress was check- piles erected by the same people under the ed by the scantily-inhabited and primeval arts and influence of the Romish missioncondition of the country ; and Mr. Stephens, aries, afford an analogous example of what as it seems to us, was not amply provided we mean,-a splendid church and convent; in funds or appliances proportioned to the a congregation of Indians in the lowest object, but trusted, American-like, to the condition both material and mental. chance of good-natured help. A further These researches more than confirm the difficulty was the nature of the climate, assertion, as to the number of ruins to be which induced fever and ague when exposed found within a small space, hazarded by at certain places in certain seasons. In de Mr. Norman in his touch-and-go tour, spite of all such drawbacks, Mr. Stephens from the information of the natives, or visited upwards of forty ruins of cities, probably from Mr. Stephens himself. The nearly forty of which are within the limits descriptions also exhibit considerable diver. before mentioned. The most perfect dis-sity of style in the details, amidst a conplayed remains of extensive and elaborate siderable uniformity of building. In other buildings erected on artificial mounds, and respects, no new discoveries have been for the most part rising above each other made respecting the advancement or the in a succession of triple terraces; the character of this mysterious people ; per. others exhibited ruins more analogous to haps they are rather lowered than raised. those of Babylon, the ground being thickly if they equal in mechanical execution the strewed with fragments, but no building re- builders of Palenque, and approach them in maining sufficiently perfect to enable the design for (perhaps symbolical) ornaments, spectator to determine its character from they fall far below them in imitation of the that particular ruin. Startling as these re-human figure. To us, who profess no sults are, Mr. Stephens thinks that a more minute knowledge of American antiquities, accurate survey, or, properly speaking, a the points of novelty which Mr. Stephens thorough clearing of the Tropical forest, has elicited appear to be these. The arch would discover greater wonders; for some was known this people. The mounds of his most successful feats were the result and terraces which support the upper buildof accident—a haphazard line through alings appear at first sight to be solid masses of heaped-up earth; but on exploring what were exploring. The discoveries, how. was traditionally said to be a cave, it was ever, might have been presented in a more discovered, and a systematic examination specific and satisfactory form. Aiming at confirmed the fact, that in many cases these a popular narrative, the author's plan of mounds contained chambers, sometimes composition is too particular for'a general square, sometimes in the shape of a small view and yet not sufficiently detailed for hay-rick, and once connected by passages. an antiquarian exposition. Large and ela. They were all, however, empty, and their borate drawings, with the drily technical uses could not be ascertained. Both pil- account of a mere surveyor, were not de lars and columns have been discovered; the sirable : but we think a better effect would latter, in their most perfect form, approach. have been produced and a more distinct ing a bald Greek Doric. At Kabah, one impression left of the ruins of Yucatan, of the cities till now unvisited, greater had he entirely separated the architectural variety in the arrangement of the apart- accounts from the narrative of his travels, ments was seen: in one city an internal presented each ruin successively, and acstaircase was found leading to the top of companied the more important ones with the building ; in another, the interior rooms fuller details. The story might have been were built up with solid masonry, evident- shorter, but its effects would have been ly as the work proceeded, the ceiling being more telling. finished last. At the ruins of Tuloom, on In such parts of the work as belong more the sea-coast, the entire wall of a city was immediately to travels, Mr. Stephens extraceable, the perpendicular cliff forming hibits his wonted spirits and animation the defence on the sea-side : and we may In the account of his contrivances at the remark that the remains on the coast and ruins, there is often a Robinson Crusoe-like the island of Cosumel often appear to be character; and in their exploration of the of a superior character to those in the in- caves and subterranean wells, from which terior-less elaborate in ornament, but in the dry season the inhabitants laborimore simple and useful-looking in design. ously draw their supplies of water, there is The only exception to this opinion is a often considerable interest. Wandering in gateway and connected ruins at Labna, the remoter parts of the country, the author which Mr. Stephens pronounces equal to saw the people—Indians, Whites, and mix. any Egyptian remains; and the plate con- ed breeds--in their genuine and undisfirms this opinion. It may be observed guised character; and his pictures of this that the serpent is constantly found among primitive society have a curious novelty. the ornaments; and there is a represen- But as a whole, there is something of the tation of a Death's head and cross-bones tediousness of a twice-told tale about these which would do honor to any English mere "incidents of travel.” The probachurch-yard. Mr. Stephens attaches great bility of this Mr. Stephens seems to have importance to some carved wooden lintels; felt; but, instead of shortening his book, he but carving on wood is by no means rare has labored his descriptions. -the paddle of the veriest savage is often It is the confirmed opinion of Mr. Ste. carved. A paved causeway, perfect for a phens, that the cities whose ruins he has short
space, has been discovered ; and it is investigated were not the work of an exsaid by Indian tradition to have led from tinct people, but of the race which Cortes one of the principal ruins to the present found in Mexico, and which still inhabits capital.
the country. His arguments for this view The zeal, energy, and perseverance of are entitled to attention; and one of the Mr. Stephens in exploring these ruins, is most cogent is the general destruction of worthy of high praise ; and, with the ex- the Indian priesthood and nobility by the ception of Uxmal, whither Waldeck had policy and religion of the Spaniards. But been before him, all that he has done is if the people were the same, they were in clear accession, and which no one else their decline: they might have the ine, seems likely to have attempted. Allow.chanical skill to practise arts which had ance must also be made for the difficulties descended to them, just as the Roman war. Mr. Stephens had to contend with, in like machines in the decline of the Empire limited means, listless laborers, indiffer. were equal or superior to those of their anence, and ignorance in the native whites, cestors; but the spirit of their ancestors (except here and there a padre,) as well as
To the mere argument of their the labor of clearing in a tropical country, antiquity Mr. Stephens opposes the effects and the effects of fever, which sometimes of tropical vegetation and rains in bastenprostrated the travellers amid the ruins theyling ruin; and this not altogether as a mat
ter of reasoning, but of experience. On his cisterns; and the neighboring Indians, first arrival he saw
though nominally free, are in reality slaves THE EFFECT OF A YEAR'S VEGETATION IN THE
of the tank. In the remoter villages, when TROPIC8.
the natural or artificial ponds are exhaustOn the fi.teenth at eleven o'clock, we reached ed in the dry season, they have to draw a the hacienda of Uxmal. It stood in its suit of supply from subterranean wells, which, if sombre gray, with cattle-yard, large trees, and water were expended in the English mantanks, the same as when we left it; but there ner, would occupy the whole time of everywere no friends of old to welcome us: the Del-body in procuring this necessary fluid. Bemonico major domo had gone to Tobasco, and fore the civilization of the country had dethe other had been obliged to leave on account clined, this natural want was supplied by a of illness. The Mayoral remembered us, but we did not know him; and we determined to great number of ponds, with wells or impass on and take ap our abode immedia'ely in mense jars at the bottom, artificially paved the ruins. Stopping but a few minutes to give by two layers of stones, the upper cover. directions abou: the luggage, we mounted again, ing the joints of the lower layer, and the and in ten minutes, emerging from the woods, interstices carefully closed with cement. came out upon the open field; in which, grand Neglected, and half filled with mud, the and lofty as when we saw it before, stood the discovery of these artificial reservoirs, House of the Dwars; hut the first glance show- like most discoveries in Yucatan, was only ed us that a year had made great changes. The sides of the lofty structure, then bare and nak- made by the accident of some speculative ed, were now covered with high grass, bushes, Spaniard clearing out his pond. Still Mr. and weeds, and on the top were bushes and Stephens thinks the country could not have young trees twenty feet high. The House of watered the population it formerly containthe Nuns was almost smothered ; and the whole ed, according to English modes of drinkfield was covered with a rank growth of grass ing; and he offers this ingenious solution. and weeds, over which we could barely look as we rode through. The foundations, terraces,
“ Among the wonders unfolded by the discoand tops of the buildings, were overgrown; very of these ruined cities, what made the weeds and vines were rioting and creeping on strongest impression on our minds was the fact the facades; and mounds, terraces, and ruins, that their immense population existed in a rewere a mass of destroying verdure. A strong gion so scantily supplied with water. Throughand vigorous nature was struggling for mastery out the whole country there is no stream, or over art, wrapping the city in its suffocating em- spring, or living fountain ; and, but for the exbraces, and burying it from sight. It seemed traordinary caves and hollows in the rocks from as if the grave was closing over a friend, and which the inhabitants at this day drink, they we had arrived barely in time to take our fare must have been entirely dependent upon artiwell.
ficial fountains, and literally upon the rain that Amid this mass of desolation, grand and state came down from heaven. But on this point ly as when we left it, stood the Casa del Gober- there is one important consideration. The abonador, but with all its terraces covered, and se- rigines of this country had no horses or cattle parated from us by a mass of impenetrable ver
or large domestic animals, and the supply redure.
quired for the use of man only was comparativeOn the left of the field was an overgrown mil- ly small. Perhaps at this day, with different pa, along the edge of which a path led in front wants and habils, the same country would not of this building. Following this path, we turned support the same amount of population. And the corner of the terrace, and on the farthest besides, the Indian now inhabiting that dry and side dismounted, and tied our horses. The grass thirsty region illustrates the effect of continual and weeds were above our heads, and we could scarcity, habit, and training, in subduing the see nothing. The Mayoral broke a way through appetites. Water is to hiin as to the Arab of them, and we reached the foot of the terrace, the desert, a scarce and precious commodity. Working our way over the stones with much When he puts down the load from his back, his toil, we reached the top of the highest terrace. body streaming with perspiration, a few sips of Here, too, the grass and weeds were of the same water dipped up in the palın of his hand from a rank growth. We moved directly to the wall hollow rock suffice to quench his thirst. Still
, at the East end, and entered the first open door. under any circumstances, the sources of supply Here the Mayoral wished us to take up our present one of the most interesting features conabode; but we knew the localities better than nected with the discovery of these ruined cities, he did, and, creeping along the front as close to and go to confirm belief in the vast numbers and the wall as possible, cutting some of the bushes power as well as the laborious industry of the and tearing apart and trampling down others,
ancient inhabitants." we reached the centre apartment. Here we From the nature of the subject, and the stopped. Swarms of bats, roused by our ap- necessity of plans and engravings to illusproach, fluttered and flew through the long trate it with effect, we must refer to the chamber, and passed out at the doors.
volumes for any specific account of the The want of Yucatan is water. On the discoveries of Mr. Stephens; but an exlarge plantations it is preserved in immense l tract will convey a notion of the difficul