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separate in all cases, the physical from the psychical, so closely are the activities of body and soul united, and so intimately do they become commingled.

Leaving aside, however, the question of the use of terms, what are Mr. Bain's teachings in respect to mutual exclusion? In discussing the great functions of the intellect, he affirms that the mind “starts from discrimination.” “Intelligence is absolutely limited by the power of discrimination.” He states very clearly and truly certain “circumstances and conditions favorable and unfavorable to the exercise " of the power of discrimination. Among the favorable conditions are “mental vigor, freshness, and wakefulness.” Among the unfavorable conditions is the wrong direction which the energies of the mind may take. This wrong direction is little else than inattention or distraction of mind.

In speaking of this "wrong direction” he comes nearer teaching the doctrine of exclusion than in any other part of his discussions. He says: “There is a well-known antithesis or opposition between the emotional and the intellectual activities, leading to a certain incompatibility of the two. Under emotional excitement, the intellectual energies are enfeebled in amount, and enslaved to the reigning emotion. It is in the quieter states of mind that discrimination works to advantage.”

In immediate connection, however, he goes on to say, “it must not be forgotten that intellectual exercises are in themselves essentially insipid, unattractive. As exertion, they impart a certain small degree of the delight that always attends the healthy action of an exuberant faculty. The first circumstance that gives an interest to discrimination is pleasurable or painful stimulus."

This stimulus can be nothing more or less than an excited state of mind known as feeling.

In his discussion of the importance of concentration and of the conditions which favor it, Mr. Bain says: “There is no doubt that the will is the chief intervening influence, and the chief stimulants of the will are, as we know, pleasure and pain." These are taken as types of all feelings.

"Coming now," he goes on to say, “to the influences of concentration, we assign the first place to intrinsic charm, or pleasure in the act itself. The law of the will, on its side of greatest potency, is that pleasure sustains the movement that brings it. The whole force of the mind at the moment goes with the pleasure-giving exercise. The harvest of immediate pleasure stimulates our most intense exertions, if exertion serves to prolong the blessing.” The blessing is simply an agreeable feeling which accompanies or follows all rightly proportioned activity.

He adds limiting conditions, to which every one will readily assent, reaching a conclusion which no one has ever doubted, that great pleasure (or feeling) and great intellectual activity cannot co-exist in the mind. This is but another way of affirming that the mind can, at any given time, exert great activity in only one drection. If its energy is absorbed in feeling, it cannot be employed at the same moment in thinking; if absorbed in thinking, it cannot be expended in feeling.

Mr. Bain's words are: “The engraining efficiency of the pleasurable motives requires not only that we should not be carried off into an accustomed routine of voluntary activities, such as to give to the forces another direction, as when we pace to and fro in a flower garden; but also that the pleasure be not intense and tumultuous. The law of the exclusion of great pleasure and great intellectual exertion forbids the employment of too much excitement of any kind, when we aim at the most exacting of all mental results—the forming of new adhesive growths. A gentle pleasure that for the time

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contents us, there being no great temptation at hand, is the best foster-mother of our efforts at learning. Still better if it be a growing pleasure ; a small beginning with a steady increase, never too absorbing, is the best of all stimulants to mental power.”

Mr. Bain makes what he calls a subtle distinction between feeling as pleasure and pain, and feeling as excitement of mind, not necessarily pleasurable or painful. This distinction, if admitted, has no bearing upon the question immediately under consideration. The inquiry is not what kind of feeling may be allowable and useful in connection with operations of the intellect, but whether feeling of any kind is of value under the supposed conditions.

His remarks in relation to this neutral excitement, so called, are of peculiar interest in this discussion. He says: “There is a form of mental concentration that is properly termed excitement, and is not properly termed pleasurable or painful excitement. A state of excitement seizes hold of the mind for the time being and shuts out other mental occupations ; we are engrossed with the subject that brought on this state, and are not amenable to extraneous influences, until that has subsided. Hence, excitement is pre-eminently a means of making an impression, of stamping an idea in the mind; it is strictly an intellectual stimulus. There is still the proviso (under the general law of incompatibility of the two opposite moods) that the excitement must not be violent and wasting. In well understood moderation, excitement is identical with attention, mentai engrossment, the concentration of the forces upon the plastic or cementing operation, the rendering permanent as a recollection what lies in the focus of the blaze."

It would not be easy to state the truth in this matter more clearly or more convincingly than Mr. Bain has stated it. Excitement, that is feeling, is the natural stimulus to thinking. It helps to direct, to concentrate, and to intensify the thinking processes, and to make them more fruitful. Without a proper degree of feeling intellectual activity would be irksome, unsatisfying and unproductive. It is only when one or the other becomes unnaturally predominant, and the harmonious activity of the soul is thus disturbed, that either excludes the other.

Dr. L. R. FISKE spoke as follows : Mr. President, I rise more to endorse the positions taken by Principal Sill in the paper just read, than to discuss the topic. When I saw the announcement of the subject last evening the two conditions in which the writer tells us that thought and feeling are mutually exclusive were suggested to me namely, when the objects to which they relate lie in opposite directions, and when feeling is wrought up into a state of frenzy. These conditions do not ordinarily exist ; in the operations of mind they are the exceptions, not the rule. It would be an impeachment of the Creator to maintain that intellect, sensibility and will are antagonistic. The fact certainly is that these three modes of energy are co-operative. The intellect perceives, as a result thereof feeling is aroused which supplies the occasion for the action of the will in putting forth volitions. At other times feelings—desires, lively interest in an object, the emotional element in ambition, love of study, exuberance of hope, dread of failure, stimulate the intellect and inspire it to put forth efforts it could not otherwise perform. I understand the word thought in this topic to be used in the general sense of cognition, which stands for every form of intellectual activity. It must therefore include not only " logical judgment" in the action of the understanding, but those intellectual movements which belong to spontaneous consciousness, and representative consciousness, in the action of sense, and reason and memory and imagination. Many of these energies are largely dependent on feeling for their activity. Indeed, feeling is intended to be the exciter of cognition, its inspiration, its life. More than

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this, it determines to a great extent the direction or channels of cognition. The intellect would be dull without it, and its energies would practically sleep the sleep of death.

But if the word thought is taken in the technical sense as employed by psychologists, standing for the discursive movements of the intellect, feeling apparently does not perform so important a part. In this sense thought is the product of the understanding, which is the logical faculty. Logic is said to be cold; it deals with relations in a dispassionate way; it must not be swayed by feeling; it must judge with the utmost impartiality. It must allow of no preferences, it must coolly scan relations and render its verdict accordingly. It is the judge on the bench and it must be wholly uninfluenced by fear or favor. And it certainly is true that the logical faculty must act with much less dependence on the sensibility than most of the other intellectual powers.

I have sometimes thought of General Grant standing with seeming stolidity on the battle field, with that inevitable cigar in his mouth, watching the progress of the conflict, uninfluenced by the presence of suffering which must not be allowed to direct his attention from the complex movements of the armies engaged in the strife. This is the time and place for a cool brain. Decisions must be made, if possible, with absolute accuracy, as the result of a clear perception of many and complex relations. Nothing must be allowed to impair the judgment. What is needed is clear intellectual discernment and the power to take in all the relations which enter into the battle just as they are, without giving undue importance to any one or more factors which enter into the strife. And yet I apprehend not only that General Grant was not devoid of feeling, not only that the interest he felt in the progress and issue of the strife was profound and absorbing, but that his feelings made him more vigilant, that changes of relations were more readily discerned, that the energies of the intellect acted more sharply and broadly, and with more precision, because the sensibilities of his nature were aroused. Into the conditions necessary for the most perfect generalship there comes the seeming paradox of a brain that is steady and feelings stirred to a fullness commensurate with the interests at stake. Feelings there must be, but they should not be allowed to take the helm. The understanding must rule, while the feelings stimulate it to perform its whole duty. The judge who loves the truth and desires the triumph of right will render his decisions with greater clearness and force than if back of the intellect there was no heart.

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ADDRESS DELIVERED AT THE SEMI-CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION OF MICHI

GAN UNIVERSITY.

BY PRINCIPAL J. M.

B. SILL, STATE NORMAL SCHOOL.

The Michigan State Teachers' Association has named its representative on this platform, but has given no hint as to what it desires him to say. It is then only fair to declare, in aivance, the absolution of its membership from all responsibility for the direction which this address shall take and for its probable omissions and shortcomings.

Their choice of a representative was probably a concession to seniority, for I had the honor of being a minor officer of the Association, duly elected, at its preliminary meeting held at the normal school building nearly thirty-five years ago. At all events it is pleasant to take this view of the reason of the choice, since it affords a withering rebuke to those censorious critics who delight in insisting that the present depraved generation is lacking in that respect for age that ought to characterize all right-minded people.

Being, therefore, without instructions and lacking sealed orders indorsed to be opened at some particular point in these proceedings, I am compelled to guess at the wishes of my constituency and to utter such thoughts as it comes into my heart to express.

And first of all, as the representative of a great and influential body of teachers, earnest men and women not prone to flattery or adulation, I desire to express our appreciation of the honorable position assigned to us in this celebration which so fitly rounds out and finishes the first fifty years in the grand career of the University.

It is reasonable that we should regard an invitation to be heard at this time and in this notable presence, as a recognition that we are indeed an eflicient factor in the educational progress of this great commonwealth to which our love is pledged and our utmost loyalty due and gladly rendered. The value of such a recognition depends upon the source from which it comes, and we are not unmindful that in this instance it comes from a source whose dignity and authority few will deny or question, for the University of Michigan may be fairly said to stand among the very foremost of American institutions of learning. Indeed it is doubtful whether there is upon the whole continent another that greatly exceeds it in the power and extent of its influence upon present educational progress. The unparalleled rapidity of its marvelous growth; the learning and ability of its faculties; its bold but prudent leadership in whatever is wisely progressive, the numerical greatness and the cosmopolitan character of its constituency, representing every state and territory of the union, the islands of the sea and every continent the sun shines upon in its daily course, have challenged the admiration and wonder of the civilized world.

The material advantages of Michigan have made her name widely known. Within the limits of a great circle she is famed for her unrivaled commercial facilities, for the magnificence of the great lakes that almost encircle her, and the majestic straits, capable of floating the commerce of the world, by which these are linked together; for the generous fertility of her soil and the incalculable wealth of her mineral resources; but beyond the circle which I have described she is known and honored through

THE FAME OF HER GREAT UNIVERSITY,

an institution which, within the memory of men and women still in the prime of their usefulness and activity, has struggled through the weakness of infancy, has survived the dangers of adolescence, and has come at last to the beginning of a maturity glorious in present fact and still more glorious in the promise of its future; an institution which has already adorned the name of Michigan with a radiance which shines afar, like the “glory of the golden mist " which Pallas Athena pät round about the head of Achilles, beloved of heaven. Recognition from such a source is honorable, and we of the association do not, I am sure, fail in our appreciation of the respect thus shown. I take it for granted also that in the cordial invitation extended to us there is implied another kindly and important recognition, namely, of the common schools, graded and ungraded, of which, more than any other existing body, our association is the recognized exponent and representative. Taking into account the intimate relation existing between these and the University, such recognition is eminently fit and proper. These are, in a sense, from the lowest to the highest grade, from the primary class wrestling with the alphabet and the primer to the most advanced form in the high school, preparatory schools for the University. The University is the very keystone of the arch, but these are its foundations and its supporting pillars. The relation existing between this institution, the acknowledged head of our system, and the tommon schools which furnish its constituency, are organic and vital. They are relations arising from mutual indebtedness and nicely balanced interdependence. They are parts of one whole, and each is necessary to the prosperity and progress of the other.

The State Teachers' Association, speaking in behalf of the Michigan public schools of elementary and secondary instruction, offers to the University today the greetings of a vast constituency. Through it a half million of pupils, officered by fifteen thousand teachers, voice their kind wishes and their congratulations. Had they come in person instead of by representative, they would, I fear, have overtaxed the generous hospitality even of the University City. Imagine the head of a single-file procession, whose rear guard would be somewhere in the Upper Peninsula, wending its way through the strects of this astonished town.

I recognize this as preëminently and conspicuously, University day. It is

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