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f, as in fame, fife.

as in tart, toast. h, hark, harm.

th, thank, youth. k, kind, kiss.

ch, chase, march. P pipe, pump.

sh, shade, shake. 8, same, sense.

" whale, white. "O modified.—The modified oral long, has the sound of yu, as in element of o, in this work, is repre- ūse. When u long, or its alphabetic sented by (8 or ;) the same marks as equivalent eu, is preceded by r, or its regular second power. This mod- the sound of sh, in the same syllaified or medium element may be pro- ble, it has always the sound of o in duced by uttering the sound of o in do; as, rude, sure, brew. not, slightly softened, with twice its 'R trilled.-In trilling r, the tip usual volume, or prolongation. It is of the tongue is made to vibrate usually given when short o is imme- against the roof of the mouth. R diately followed by f, ft, 88, st, or th, may be trilled when immediately folas in off, sõft, cross, cost, broth; also lowed by a vowel in the same sylin a number of words where short o lable. When thus situated in emis directly followed by n, or final phatic words, it should always be ng, as in gone, begone ; lòng, along, trilled. Frequently require the stuprong, sõng, strong, thông, thrõng, dent, after a full inhalation, to trillr wrong. SMART says, To give the continuously, as long as possible. extreme short sound of o to such Wh.—To produce the oral elewords is affectation; to give them ment of wh, the student will blow the full sound of broad a (a in all), from the center of the mouth—first is vulgar.

compressing the lips, and then sud'U initial-preceded by R.-U, denly relaxing them while the air is at the beginning of words, when escaping.


VIRST require the student to pronounce distinctly the

word containing the atonic element, then the subtonic cognate, uttering the element after each word—thus :

s: lip, p; orb, b, &c. The attention of the pupil should be called to the fact that cognates are produced by the same organs, in a similar manner, and only differ in one being an undertone, and the other a whisper.

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HE instructor will require the students to read or

recite the table of Alphabetic Equivalents, using the following formula : The Alphabetic Equivalents of a first power are ai, au, ay, e, ea, ee, ei, ey; as in the words, gain, gauge, stray, melee', great, vein, they.

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For å, ai, au, ay, e, ea, ee, ei, ey; as in gain, gauge, stray, melee', great, vein, they.

For å, ai, ua; as in plaid, guaranty.
For å, au, e, ea, ua; as in haunt, sergeant, heart, guard.

For å, au, aw, eo, 0, oa, ou ; as in fault, hawk, George, cork, broad, bought.

For å, ai, e, ea, ei; as in chair, there, swear, heir.

For ė, ea, ee, ei, eo, ey, i, ie; as in read, deep, ceil, people, key, valise, field.

For è, a, ai, ay, ea, ei, eo, ie, u, ue; as in any, said, says, head, heifer, leopard, friend, bury, guess.

For è, ea, i, o, ou, u, ue, y; as in earth, girl, word, scourge, burn, guerdon, myrrh.

For i, ai, ei, eye, ie, oi, ui, uy, y, ye; as in aisle, sleight, eye, die, choir, guide, buy, my, rye.

For i, ai, e, ee, ie, 0, 01, U, ui, y; as in captain, pretty, been, sieve, women, tortoise, busy, build, hymn.

For o, au, eau, eo, ew, oa, oe, oo, ou, ow; as in hautboy, beau, yeoman, sew, coal, foe, door, soul, blow.

For 8, a, ou, ow; as in what, hough, knowledge.

For o, ew, oe, oo, ou, u, ui ; as in grew, shoe, spoon, soup, rude, fruit.

For ů, eau, eu, ew, ieu, iew, ue, ui; as in beauty, feud, new, adieu, view, hue, juice.

For ů, o, oe, oo, ou; as in love, does, blood, young.
For ů, 0, 00, ou; wolf, book, could.
For ou, ow; as in now.
For oi (dl), oy; as in boy.

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For f, gh, ph; as in cough, nymph.
For j, 9; as in gem, gin.
For k, c, ch, gh, q; as in cole, conch, lough, etiquette.
For s, c; as in cell.
For t, d, th, phth ; as in danced, Thames, phthisic.
For v,f, ph; as in of, Stephen.
For y, i ; as in pinion.
For z, C, 8, 2; as in suffice, rose, webec.
For z, 9, 8; as in rouge, osier.
For ng, n; as in anger, bank.
For ch, t; as in fustian.

For sh, c, ch, 8, 88, t; as in ocean, chaise, sure, assure, martial.



FTER the instructor has given a class thorough drill

on the preceding tables as arranged, the following exercises will be found of great value, to improve the organs of speech and the voice, as well as to familiarize the student with different combinations of sounds. Students will not pass from these exercises until they can utter the elements represented by the figured vowels in whatever order the instructor may require.

As the fifth element represented by a, and the third element of e, are always immediately followed by the oral element of r in words, the r is introduced in like manner in these exercises. Since the sixth sound of a, when not a syllable by itself, is always immediately followed by the oral element of f, n, or s, in words, these letters are here employed in the same manner.





TONICS AND SUBTONICS. 1. bå, bå, bå, bå, bår, båf; be, be, ber;

bi, bỉ ; bồ, bỏ, bỏ; bà, bů, bû; bou. åb, åb, åb, åb, årb, &f; èb, eb, ib, ib; ob, ob, 8b; úb, ůb,

ůb; oub. då, då, då, då, dår, dås; dė, de, di, di; do, dỗ, do; dů, dů, dů; dou. åd, åd, åd, &d, ård, &f; éd, ed, id, id; öd, od, od; ud, ůd,

ůd; oud. gå, gå, gå, gå, går, gån; gė, gė, gi, gi; go, go, gỗ; gủ, gů, gů;

gů; gou. åg, åg, åg, åg

åg, årg, åf; ég, ég, ig, ig; og óg, åg; úg, ůg,

ong 2. pås, jår, ja, jår, ja, ja, jå, jà;

ja; jer,

jer, je, je; ji, ji; jó, jó, jò; jů, jů, jů; jou. lås, lår, då, lå, lå, là; lêr, le, le; li, li; 18, 18,

lů, lů, lů; lou. åf, årl, ål, ål, ål,

eri, el, èl; il, il; 81, 81,

ůl, ůl,








ül ;





mås, mår, må, må, må, må; mêr, mė, mė; mi, mi; mở, mồ, mó; mů, mů, mů; `mou.

ärm, ản, ảm, ẩm, ảm; “rm, êm, im, im; ôm, 8m, 5m; ủm, ủn, mm; oum. 3. nå,

nå, nå, når, nåf, nå; nė, ner, ne; ni, ni; nů, nỏ, nỗ ; nó, nů, nů; ång, årng, ång, if, ång, ång; éng, erng, eng; Ẩng, ng; ông, ông, ông; ủng, ủng, ủng; oung. rå, rå, rår, rå, rå, råf; rė, rër, re;

ri, ri; ro, ró, rồ; rů, rů, 4. hà, hả, thẳr, thảf, thủ, mủ; ther, the, thẻ,

fini, thi ; hỏ, thỏ, đỏ; thu, tủ, tủ; thou. åth, åth, åf, àth, årfh, åth; efh, érth, eth; ith, ith; ôfh, ởfh, oth ; ith, ùth, úth; oufh.

vå, vår, vå, våt, vå; věr, vė, ve; vi, vi; vó, VỎ, vỏ; vũ, vů,

vů; åv, åf, åv, ảv, åv, årv; érv, év, év; iv, iv; ov, ov, ov; úv, úv, ův; Ouv. wà, wåwår, wå, wå, wåf; wêr, we, wi, wi; wo, w8, wồ; wủ, wo, wồ; wủ, wủ, wů;

wů; wou. yå yå, på yår, gån; yė, ye, yer; yi, yi; yo, yo, yð; yů, yů, yů; you. zou; zů, zů, zủ; Z8, zó, zo; zi, zi; zer, zė, ze; zaf, zür, za, zå, zů, zá. Ouz; ůz, ůz; öz,

oz; iz, érz, ez, èz; &f, årz, az,

åz, àz.



5. yà,


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