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ās;

és ;

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to;

2. af,
års ås, ås, as,

érs, és,
is, īs; Ös, os, os; ůs, ŭs, ūs ;
tås, tår, tà, tå, tă, tā; ter, tě, tē;
ti, ti; to, to,

tū,

tů, tú; tou. thảf, thản, thủ, thả, tha, thi; ther, thẽ, thể; īth,

īth; oth, öth, oth; ūth, ŭth, ůth; outh. ouch; ůch, ūch, úch; och, och, , och; ich, ich;

èrch, ich, ěch; af, ach, åch årch, ach, ăch. 3. chou; chủ, chú, chủ; chỏ, chó, chỗ; chi, chi; cher, che, chě; chā, chă, chå,

cli, cli, chảy, chẳn. oush ; ủsh, ŭsh, üsh; ösh, ởsh, osh; ish, ish; ersh, ish, esh; ash, sf, ăsh, esh, åsh, ársh. shou; shủ, shủ, shū; shồ, shỏ, sho; shī, shi; sher, shē, shë; shån, shår, shū, shå, shă, shå. whou; whủ, whů, whū; who, whồ, whò; whī, whi; wher, whě, who; whás, whår, whả, whă, whā, whà.

VI.
ERRORS IN ARTICULATION.
RRORS in Articulation arise chiefly, first, from the

E of ,

an'

soft ly.

his t'ry

his to ry.

nov el.

for and.

stå'm for storm. frien's friends.

wa'm

wårm. blin'ness “ blind ness.

bois t'rous bois ter ous. fac's facts.

chick'n chick en. sof" ly fiel's fields.

nov'l wil's wilds.

trav'l

trav el. Secondly, from uttering one or more elements that should not be sounded; as, év en for ev'n.

for rav'l. heav en heav'n.

sev'n. tåk en ták'n.

sof ten sof'n. sick en sick’n.

shảk en shảk'n. driv el driv'l.

shov el

shov'l. grov'l.

shriv 1 shriv'l.

rav el sev en

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grov el

tróf fy

for git

for get.

Thirdly, from substituting one element for another; as, set for sit.

cårse for course. sence since.

re pårt re pòrt. shet shůt.

trò phy.

på rent pår ent. cåre cảre.

bủn net

bồn net. dånce dánce.

chil drun“ chil dren. påst påst.

sůl ler cēl lar. åsk åsk.

mel ler mel low. gråss srill shrill.

mo munt mo mėnt. wirl whirl.

harm liss 66 harm less. a gån a gain (ă gèn). kind niss kind nėss. a gånst against (ă genst). wis per hérth hearth (hårth).

sing in

sing ing.

gråss.

pil ler

pil lów.

whis per.

VII.
WORDS.

А.

WORD is one or more Oral elements, or letters used

to represent an idea. 2. WORDS ARE DIVIDED into primitive, derivative, simple, and compound.

3. A PRIMITIVE WORD is not derived, but constitutes a root from which other words are formed; as faith, ease.

4. A DERIVATIVE WORD is formed of a primitive and an affix or prefix; as faithful, disease.

5. A SIMPLE WORD is one that can not be divided without destroying the sense; as an, the, book.

6. A COMPOUND WORD is formed by two or more words; as inkstand, book-binder, laughing-stock.

VIII.
ANALYSIS OF WORDS.

IN

order to secure a practical knowledge of the preced

ing definitions and tables, to learn to spell spoken words by their oral elements, and to understand the uses of let

1

ters in written words, the instructor will require the student to master the following exhaustive, though simple analysis.

ANALYSIS.—1st. The word SALVE, in pronunciation, is formed by the union of three oral elements; s å v-salve. Here let the student utter the three oral elements separately, and then pronounce the word.] The first is a modified breathing; hence, it is an atonic.' The second is a pure tone; hence, it is a tonic. The third is a modified tone; hence, it is a subtonic.

2d. The word SALVE, in writing, is represented by five letters; salve-salve. S represents an atonic; hence, it is a consonant. Its oral element is chiefly formed by the teeth ; hence, it is a dental. Its oral element is produced by the same organs and in a similar manner as the first oral element of z ; hence, it is a cognate of z. A represents a tonic; hence, it is a vowel. L is silent. V represents a subtonic; hence, it is a consonant. Its oral element is chiefly formed by the lower lip and the upper teeth; hence, it is a labia-dental. Its oral element is formed by the same organs and in a similar manner as that of f ; hence, it is a cognate of f. Eis silent.

ANALYSIS.—1st. The word! SHOE, in pronunciation, is formed by the union of two oral elements; sh ô-shoe. The first is a modified breathing; hence, it is an atonic. The second is a pure tone; hence, it is a tonic.

2d. The word show, in writing, is represented by four letters; shoe-shoe. The combination sh represents an atonic; hence, it is a consonant. Its oral element is chiefly formed by the teeth; hence, it is a dental. Its oral element is produced by the same organs and in a similar manner as the second oral element represented by z; hence, it is a cognate of z. The combination oe is formed by the union of two vowels, one of which is silent; hence,

The analysis logical.-It will stated, is as follows:-All modified be seen that this analysis is strictly breathings are Atonics ; logical ; and that each conclusion is The oral element of $ is a modi. deduced from two premises, one of fied breathing; which (the major proposition) is sup Hence, the oral element of s is an pressed. The first syllogism, fully Atonic.

it is an improper diphthong. It represents the oral element usually represented by 0; hence, it is an alphabetic equivalent of 0.

ANALYSIS-1st. The compound word FRUIT'-BUD is a dissyllable, accented on the penult. In pronunciation, it is formed by the union of seven oral elements; frở t'-bůdfruit'-bud. The first is a modified breathing; hence, it is an atonic. The second is a modified tone; hence, it is a subtonic. The third is a pure tone; hence, it is a tonic. The fourth is a modified breathing; hence, it is an atonic. The fifth is a modified tone; hence, it is a subtonic. The sixth is a pure tone; hence, it is a tonic. The seventh is a modified tone; hence, it is a subtonic.

2d. The word FRUIT-BUD, in writing, is represented by eight letters; fruit-bud. Frepresents an atonic; hence, it is a consonant. Its oral element is chiefly formed by the lower lip and the upper teeth ; hence, it is a labia-dental. Its oral element is produced by the same organs and in a similar manner as that of v; hence, it is a cognate of v. R represents a subtonic; hence, it is a consonant. Its oral element is chiefly formed by the tongue; hence, it is a lingual. The combination ui is formed by the union of two vowels; hence, it is a diphthong. It represents the oral element usually represented by ô; hence, it is an alphabetic equivalent of 8. T' represents an atonic; hence, it is a consonant. Its oral element is chiefly formed by the tongue; hence, it is a lingual. Its oral element is produced by the same organ and in a similar manner as that of d; hence, it is a cognate of d. B represents a subtonic; hence, it is a consonant. Its oral element is chiefly formed by the lips; hence, it is a labial. Its oral element is produced by the same otgans and in a similar manner as that of p; hence, it is a cognate of p. U represents a tonic; hence, it is a vowel. D represents a subtonic; hence, it is a consonant. Its oral element is chiefly formed by the tongue; hence, it is a lingual. Its oral element is produced by the

and in a similar manner as that of t; hence, it is a cognate of t.

same organ

IX.
RULES IN ARTICULATION.

AS the name of a letter, or when used as an emphatic - word, should always be pronounced ā (a in age); as, She did not say that the three boys knew the letter ā, but that ā boy knew it.

2. THE WORD A, when not emphatic, is marked short (ă), though in quality it should be pronounced nearly like a as heard in åsk, gråss; as,

Give ă baby sister å smile, ă kind word, and å kiss.

3. THE, when not emphatic nor immediately followed by a word that commences with a vowel sound, should be pronounced thủ; as,

The (thă) peach, the (thú) plum, thē apple, and the (thú) cherry are yours. Did he ask for à pen, or for the pen ?

4. U PRECEDED BY R.—When u long (u in tūbe), or its alphabetic equivalent ew, is preceded by r, or the sound of sh, in the same syllable, it has always the sound of o in do; as,

Are you sure that shrewd youth was rude ?

5. R MAY BE TRILLED when immediately followed by a vowel sound in the same syllable. When thus situated in emphatic words, it should always be trilled; as,

He is both brave and true. She said scratching, not scrawling.

EXERCISES IN ARTICULATION. CILENT letters are here omitted, in most of the examD ples, and the words are spelled as they should be pronounced. Students will read the sentences several times, both separately and in concert, uttering all the oral elements with force and distinctness. They will also analyze

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