« AnteriorContinuar »
da both as spo Ilustrated by
usual style will be
the words, both as spoken and written, and name the rules in articulation that are illustrated by the exercises.
Sentences that are printed in the usual style are intended for dictation exercises, in which silent letters will be omitted and the words so written as to represent their correct and exact pronunciation.
TAUGHTER, by the aid of Phonetics, is easily taught,
I as an art. It is one of the most interesting and healthy of all class exercises. It may be either vocal or respiratory.
2. There are thirty-two well-defined varieties of laughter in the English language, eighteen of which are produced in connection with the tonics ; nine, with the subtonics of l, m, n, ng, r, th, v, and z; and five, with the atonics of f, h, s, th, and sh.
3. Commencing with vocal laughter, the instructor will first utter a tonic, and then, prefixing the oral element of h, and accompanied by the class, he will produce the syllable continuously, subject only to the interruptions that are incidental to inhalations and bursts of laughter; as, ā, bā, hā, hā, hā, bā, &c.,-ă, hă, hă, hă, hă, &c.
4. The attention of the students will be called to the most agreeable kinds of laughter, and they will be taught to pass naturally and easily from one variety to another.
A a single impulse of the voice.
DEFINITIONS. SYLLABLE is a word, or part of a word, uttered by 2. A MONOSYLLABLE is a word of one syllable; as, home. 3. A DISSYLLABLE is a word of two syllables; as, home-less.
4. A TRISYLLABLE is a word of three syllables; as, confine-ment.
5. A POLYSYLLABLE is a word of four or more syllables ; as, in-no-cen-cy, un-in-tel-li-gi-bil-i-ty.
6. THE ULTIMATE is the last syllable of a word; as ful, in peace-ful.
7. THE PENULT, or penultimate, is the last syllable but one of a word; as māk, in peace-mak-er.
8. THE ANTEPENULT, or antepenultimate, is the last syllable but two of a word; as ta, in spon-ta-ne-ous.
9. THE PREANTEPENULT, or preantepenultimate, is the last syllable but three of a word; as cab, in vo-cab-u-la-ry.
radical or opening and vanishing or gradually diminishing movement. Since a syllable is produced by a single impulse of the voice, it follows that only such an oral element, or order of oral elements, as gives but one radical and vanish movement, can enter into its formation. As the tonics can not be uttered separately without producing this movement, but one of them can enter into a single syllable ; and, as this movement is all that is essential, each of the tonics may, by itself, form a syllable. Consistently with this, we find, whenever two tonics adjoin, they always belong to separate syllables in pronunciation, as in a-e-ri-al, i-o-ta, 0-a-sis.
2. Though oral elements can not be combined with a view to lengthen a syllable, by the addition of one tonic to another, as this would produce a new and separate impulse, yet a syllable may be lengthened by prefixing and affixing any number of tonics and atonics to a tonic, that do not destroy its singleness of impulse; as, a, an, and, land, gland, glands.
3. A tonic is usually regarded as indispensable in the formation of a syllable. A few syllables, however, are formed exclusively by subtonics. In the words bidde-n rive-n, rhyth-m, schis-m, fic-kle, i-dle, lit-tle, and words of like construction, the last syllable is either pure subtonic, or a combination of subtonic and atonic. These final syllables go through the radical and vanish movement, though they are far inferior in quality, euphony, and force, to the full display of these properties on the tonics.
RULES IN SYLLABICATION. TNITIAL CONSONANTS.The elements of consonants I that commence words should be uttered distinctly, but should not be much prolonged.
2. FINAL CONSONANTS.—Elements that are represented by final consonants should be dwelt upon, and uttered with great distinctness; as,
He accepts the office, and attempts by his acts to conceal his faults.
3. WHEN ONE WORD OF A SENTENCE ENDS and the next begins with the same consonant, or another that is hard to produce after it, a difficulty in utterance arises that should be obviated by dwelling on the final consonant, and then taking up the one at the beginning of the next word, in a
'Initial Elements Prolonged.- the following lines : On this point Dr. Rush mentions the “ Canst thou not m-inister to a error of a distinguished actor, who, m-ind diseased, in order to give great force and dis Pl-uck from the memory a r-oottinctness to his articulation, dwelt ed sorrow ?" on the initial letters, as marked in Such mouthing defeats its object.