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EXPRESSION. XPRESSION OF SPEECH is the utterance of thought,

feeling, or passion, with due significance or force. Its general divisions are EMPHASIS, SLUR, INFLECTION, MODULATION, MONOTONE, PERSONATION, and PAUSES.

Orthoëpy is the mechanical part of elocution, consisting in the discipline and use of the organs of speech and the voice for the production of the alphabetic elements and their combination into separate words. It is the basis-the subsoil, which, by the mere force of will and patient practice, may be broken and turned up to the sun, and from which spring the flowers of expression.

Expression is the soul of elocution. By its ever-varying and delicate combinations, and its magic and irresistible power, it wills—and the listless ear stoops with expectation; the vacant eye burns with unwonted fire ; the dormant passions are aroused, and all the tender and powerful sympathies of the soul are called into vigorous exercise.

I. EMPHASIS.

I.
DEFINITIONS.

E
MPHASIS is the peculiar force given to one or more

words of a sentence. 2. To give a word emphasis, means to pronounce it in a loud' or forcible manner. No uncommon tone, however, is necessary, as words may be made emphatic by prolonging the vowel sounds, by a pause, or even by a whisper.

3. Emphatic words are often printed in Italics ; those more emphatic, in small CAPITALS ; and those that receive the greatest force, in large CAPITALS.

'Loudness.—The instructor will ence to high pitch, but to volume of explain to the class the fact, that voice, used on the same key or pitch, loudness lias not, of necessity, refer when reading or speaking.

4. By the proper use of emphasis, we are enabled to impart animation and interest to conversation and reading. Its importance can not be over-estimated, as the meaning of a sentence often depends upon the proper placing of the emphasis. If readers have a desire to produce an impression on hearers, and read what they understand and FEEL, they will generally place emphasis on the right words. Students, however, should be required to observe carefully the following rules.

II.
RULES IN EMPHASIS.

W

ORDS AND PHRASES PECULIARLY SIGNIFICANT, or im

portant in meaning, are emphatic; as, Whence and what art thou, execrable shape ?

2. WORDS AND PHRASES THAT CONTRAST, or point out a difference, are emphatic; as,

I did not say a beller soldier, but an elder.

3. THE REPETITION of an emphatic word or phrase usually requires an increased force of utterance; as,

You injured my child-you, sir!

4. A SUCCESSION of important words or phrases usually requires a gradual increase of emphatic force, though emphasis sometimes falls on the last word of a series only; as,

His disappointment, his ANGUISH, his DEATH, were caused by your carelessness.

These misfortunes are the same to the poor, the ignorant, and the weak, as to the rich, the wise, and the powerful.

The students will tell which of the preceding rules are illustrated by the following exercises—both those that are marked and those that are unmarked.

EXERCISES IN EMPHASIS.

1. Boisterous in speech, in action prompt and bold.

2. Speak little and well, if you wish to be considered as possessing merit.

3. He buys, he sells,-he STEALs, he KILLS for gold.

4. But here I stand for right, for Roman right.

5. I shall know but one country. I was born an Aměrican ; I live an Aměrican; I shall die an Aměrican.

6. I shall sing the praises of October, as the loveliest of months.

7. A good man loves HIMSELF too well to lose an estate by gaming, and his NEIGHBOR too well to win one.

8. The good man is honored, but the EVIL man is despised.

9. The young are slaves to novelty : the old, to custom : the middle-aged, to both : the dead, to neither.

10. The wicked flee when no man pursueth ; but the righteous are bold as a lion.

11. They come! to arms! TO ARMS! TO ARMS!

12. None but the brave, none but the BRAVE, none but the BRAVE deserve the fair.

13. A day, an HOUR, of virtuous liberty, is worth a whole ETERNITY in bondage..

14. It is my living sentiment, and, by the blessing of God, it shall be my dying sentiment–independence now, and independence forever.

15. The thunders of heaven are sometimes heard to roll in the voice of a united people.

16. If I were an American, as I am an Englishman, while a foreign troop remained in my country, I NEVER would lay down my arms-never, NEVER, NEVER.'

17. Let us fight for our country, OUR WHOLE COUNTRY, and NOTHING BUT OUR COUNTRY.

18. He that trusts you, where he should find you lions finds you HARES ; where foxes, GEESE. 19. What should I say to you? Should I not say,

Hath à DõG money? is it possible,

A CUR can lend three thousand duc'ats? 20. In the prosecution of a virtuous enterprise, a brave man despises danger and difficulty.

21. Was that country a DESERT ? No: it was cultivated and fertile ; rich and populous ! Its sons were men of genius, spirit, and generosity! Its daughters were lovely, susceptible, and

Friendship was its inhabitant ! Love was its inhabit'In order to make the last never depression of the voice,-almost to a more forcible, the emphasis is pro- deep aspirated whisper, drawn up duced by the falling slide, and a deep from the very bottom of the chest.

chaste !

ant! Domestic affection was its inhabitant ! LIBERTY was its inhabitant!

22. Son of night, RETIRE ; call thy winds and fly. Why dost thou come to my presence with thy shadowy arms? Do I FEAR thy gloomy form, dismal spirit of Loda? WEAK is thy shield of clouds ; FEEBLE is that meteor, thy sword.

23. What STRÕNGER breastplate than a heart untainted ! THRICE is he armed that hath his quarrel just; and he but NAKED, though locked up in STEEL, whose conscience with INJUSTICE is corrupted.

24. Speak the speech, I pray you, as I pronounce it to you: trippingly on the tongue ; but if you mouth it, as many of our players do, I had as lief the town-crier spake my lines. Nor do not saw the air too much with your hand thus, but use all gently; for in the very torrent, tempest, and (as I may say) WHIRLWIND of your passion, you must acquire and begět a temperance that will give it smoothness.

25. If you have tears, prepare to shed them now. You all do know this mantle : I remember the first time ever Cæsar put it on : ('twas on a summer's evening in his tent: that day he overcame the Nervii :)-LOOK! In this place ran Cassius' dagger through : see what a rent the envious Casca made. Through This, the well-beloved Brutus stabbed; and, as he plucked his cursed steel away, mark how the blood of Cæsar followed it! This was the most unkindest cut of all! for, when the noble Cæsar saw HIM stab, INGRATITUDE, more strong than traitors' arms, quite vanquished him! Then burst his mighty heart ; and, in his mantle muffling up his face, even at the base of Pompey's statue, which all the while ran blood, GREAT CESAR FELL. O what a fall was THERE, my countrymen! Then I, and you, and all of us, fell down ; whilst bloody TREASON flourished over us.

26. Oh, now you weep; and I perceive you feel the dint of PITY : these are gracious drops. Kind souls ! What, weep you

but behold our Cæsar's VESTURE wounded ? Look ye here! Here is HIMSELF, MARRED, as you see, by TRAITORS.

27. As Cæsar loved me, I weep for him : as he was fortunate, I rejoice at it: as he was valiant, I honor him : but as he was AMBITIOUS, I slew him. There is tears for his love, joy for his fortune, honor for his valor, and death for his ambition.

when you

II. SLUR. CLUR is that smooth, gliding, subdued movement of w the voice, by which those parts of a sentence of less comparative importance are rendered less impressive to the ear, and emphatic words and phrases set in stronger relief.

2. Emphatic words, or the words that express the leading thoughts, are usually pronounced with a louder and more forcible effort of the voice, and are often prolonged. But words that are slurred must generally be read in a lower and less forcible tone of voice, more rapidly, and all pronounced nearly alike.

3. In order to communicate clearly and forcibly the whole signification of a passage, it must be subjected to a rigid analysis. It will then be found, that one paramount idė'a always pervades the sentence, although it may be associated with incidental statements, and qualified in every possible manner. Hence, on the proper management of slur, much of the beauty and propriety of enunciation depends, as thus the reader is enabled to bring forward the primary ideä, or more important parts, into a strong light, and throw other portions into shade ; thereby entirely changing the character of the sentence, and making it appear lucid, strong, and expressive.

4. Slur must be employed in cases of parenthesis, contrast, repetition, or explanation, where the phrase or sentence is of small comparative importance; and often when qualification of time, place, or manner is made.

5. The parts which are to be slurred in a portion of the exercises are printed in Italic letters. Students will first read the parts of the sentence that appear in Roman, and then the whole sentence, passing lightly and quickly over what was first omitted. They will also read the examples that are unmarked in like manner.

EXERCISES IN SLUR. 1. The rịch, softened by prosperity, pitied the poor ; the poor, disciplined into order, respected the rich.

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