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DEAN ALFORD ANSWERS IN THE NEGATIVE.

Say he meant me, then he wills that I should have my way uncounteracted. This is absurd. The command is to resist not-what? Aggression. Rather give a kiss for a blow.

The matter as it stands is clear enough. But there are persons with whom authority prevails where fact and argument fail. I therefore quote the words of the already-cited Biblical scholar, Dean Alford:* "In another view, as expressing the deep desire of all hearts to be delivered from all evil (for rov коνηρoй IS HERE CERTAINLY NEUTER; THE INTRODUCTION OF THE MENTION OF THE EVIL ONE' WOULD HERE BE QUITE INCONGRUOUS AND EVEN ABSURD), these words form a seventh and most affecting petition, reaching far beyond the last ('Lead us not into temptation'). They are the expression of the yearning for redemption of the sons of God (Rom. viii. 23), and so are fitly placed at the end of the prayer, and as the sum and substance of the personal petitions. So Augustine very beautifully says: 'When we say, Deliver us from evil, we remind ourselves that we are not as yet in that good wherein we endure no evil. And the last request made in the Lord's Prayer goes so far as this, namely, that the Christian man, in whatever tribulation he finds himself, groans for this, weeps for this, begins with this, dwells on this, and terminates his supplication with this: 'Deliver me from evil.""

There are two passages in the New Testament, on which I have not spoken, which receive not illustration only, but explanation, from the fact which has been so fully established, namely, that the fall of the angels is a pagan fable that became a Jewish dogma, being received in the Jewish Church, whence it passed into the Church of Christ. One of these passages describes me as a murderer (John viii. 44), the reference being to my alleged influence, which Milton describes when he speaks of the disobedience of the first pair as having " brought death into the world and all our woe." I am a murderer inasmuch as, according to tradition, I seduced Eve into sin

*The Greek Testament, for the use of Theological Students and Ministers, Vol. I. 56. 4 vols. London, 1859.

DEATH A BENEFICENT APPOINTMENT.

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which brought universal death. Accordingly I am the great manslayer. It is marvellous how far men stray from the truth when they yield themselves up to the guidance of ecclesiastical speculations. Is it not a fundamental principle of the monotheism of the Bible, that death as well as life is in the hands of God? "Jehovah killeth and maketh alive” (1 Sam. ii. 6). "See now that I, even I, am He, and there is no God with me; I kill and I make alive" (Deut. xxxii. 39). If, then, death is in God's hand, and in God's alone, it is not in mine. The statement is universal, and may be expressed in these words: Death is an ordination of Jehovah. The statement finds illustration in the geological discovery that death was in the world long anterior to "the fall." It is also corroborated by the manifest fact, that death is in this state of things a correlate of life. No death, no successive life. In other words, no death, no human history. Had the first pair (whatever their name) given birth to a race of immortals, the earth would soon have been peopled to such overflowings as would require other planets to receive the inevitable emigrants from our tiny globe. But the perpetuation of Adam and Eve's existence would have been the perpetuation of their liability to disobey God, and that liability would, ere many generations had elapsed, have been stimulated into actual disobedience by the stern and unsparing competition for food which must have ensued from an ever-multiplying population of immortals, possessed of bodies which somehow or another needed the reparation bestowed by nutriment. And so you see that the change of which I am made the author, by occasioning death, led to a state of things in human society which avoids the greatest evils and produces the greatest good. Here, then, I stand pre-eminent among the benefactors of your race. If I did introduce death into the world, I was the source of forms of life and civilization incomparably superior to those of any stereotyped existence could have been. I I gave birth to progress, and progress has raised man out of savage life into an approach to the divine life. In thus superseding God's ap

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SATAN THE GOD OF POISON."

pointments, I cease to be man's foe and become his best friend, while the Creator is thrown into the shade by my superabounding glory. Tell me, then, can it be for the honour of Him whom ecclesiastics call the Almighty, that I should have either inherent or permissive power to alter the whole course of man's existence, so as to transmute evil into good, by giving him the faculty of an ever-growing and rising life, instead of the stagnation of childish innocence at the best? Tell me, too, if you, my simple-minded listener, do not feel supreme satisfaction in thus beholding the idle legends torn to pieces by the fingers of fact and common sense?

The other passage to which I allude you may find in Hebrews ii. 14, where Christ is described as having by his death destroyed death, and me, its source. The author manifestly writes under the control of the Jewish fable. That cycle of phantasms taught that I, as the angel of death, and under the name of Samael, slew the protoplasts, and through them their descendants, over whom, in virtue of their obeying me, I obtained the power or dominion of death. The name according to its etymology, signifies the God of poison;* and so, you see, specution contradicts the Scripture quoted above, which, with hundreds of other passages, asserts that Jehovah is God, God alone. According to this figment, the God of creation was defeated by the God of poison. In other words, I poisoned, and so killed, God's intelligent creation. This I did at one blow. The fall of Eve was the fall of her race. But now, how is it with my slayer, Christ? His death on the cross is said to have been my death, and yet I am still alive. I poisoned the human race in one moment by a single apple. Christ has taken two thousand years to slay the poisoner, and he is not yet slain. Nay, if the creeds are right, I never shall be slain, for eternal torments stipulate an eternal tormentor. When will the official teachers of religion cease to "teach for doc

* Nork: Etymologisch - Symbolisch - Mythologisches Real - Wörterbuch under Samael. Eisenmenger: Entdecktes Judenthum, II. 464; also the Rabbinical Tracts, Sohar and Pirke Elieser.

INDIVIDUAL DUALISM SATAN'S BIRTHPLACE.

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trines the commandments of men" (Matt. xv. 9), and in so doing cease to mislead those they teach, and dishonour the God and the Christ whose glory they profess to seek? Of this "god of poison" things are said in Jewish tradition with which I will not sully your pure ear nor distress your tranquil mind, my friend.

The ease with which I have dealt with these two passages may serve to illustrate the advantage of the historical method I have pursued, and to aid you in dealing with other similar evidences of my real personal existence.

Before I leave this important portion of my task, I must recur to the subject of the dualism out of which I have logically and historically sprung, since the view I am now about to put before you bears with no small force on the opinion held by Christ as to the demoniacs of the Gospel.

There is a dualism in every individual. Good and evil appear in each human being, and often in strong contrast. Now the good is in the ascendant, now the evil. The contrast extends itself to states of mind, e. g. whether sad or joyous. Temper too steps in with its varying moods; here, again, is a contrast as between the bad and the good. These diverse dispositions, if tolerated, still more if encouraged, acquire great power, and recur frequently, if they do not become habitual. At last they create, as it were, two persons in every individual; and these two are so different, that your friends, when you are at your worst, hardly know you. Accordingly they say of you, "He has lost self-control;" "he is no longer master of himself" (sui compos non est); "he is quite another person." And here is the essential element of possession. You are no longer one, but two. Of those two, one is yourself, and the other is your master. As your master, he is within you. If he is within you, you are possessed by him; you are his servant, his slave.

Language is full of such phraseology. Do you not say, "The drunkard is ruled by his passion for drink," as if the drunkard and his passion were two persons? Is it not said, "Man's

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SATAN BORN OF LINGUISTICAL USAGES.

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vices are his bitterest foes"? as if the foe were not the man himself. After the same manner you personify conscience: "Your conscience condemns you, flogs you, tortures you," as if you and your conscience were two beings. So also your conscience may be your accuser, and, in certain states of mind, your false accuser, your adversary-in a word, your Satan, your devil. If this dualism arises in ordinary corporeal and mental conditions, how much more so in disorder of body or mind ! Hence the phrases, "he is out of his mind;" "he has lost his wits;" "he is beside himself" (Mark iii. 21); and in the New Testament as the source of evil-speaking, "he hath an unclean spirit" (Mark iii. 30). The dualism to which I have now referred is not confined to one age or one nation. It has its ground in man's inmost nature. Man is at once subject and object. Hence the words self, myself, yourself, in contrast with I and you. Accordingly you say, "I contemplate myself;" "Look within;" "Keep yourself pure." And for this second self, language has several synonyms: e.g. Study your own character;" "Look on your heart;" "Keep your breast free from guile." At this point the word spirit offers itself as our second self. Numerous instances are found in the Scripture: e. g. "Pharaoh's spirit" (that is Pharaoh) "was troubled" (Gen. xli. 8). "Why is thy spirit so sad?" (1 Kings xxi. 5). "The Lord stirred up the spirit of Pul" (1 Chron. v. 26). In these instances, spirit is simply a dualistic pleonasm. Caleb, however, is said to have “had another spirit with him, and hath followed me fully" (Numb. xiv. 24). This was a good spirit, in opposition to the evil spirit by which the rebellious Israelites were actuated (22). The contrast between good spirits and bad runs through the Bible: e.g. "a lying spirit" (1 Kings xxii. 22); "a spirit of divination" (Acts xvi. 16); "spirit of antichrist" (1 John iv. 3); 'spirit of bondage" (Rom. viii. 15); also "thy good spirit" (Ps. cxliii. 10); "spirit of counsel" (Is. xi. 2); "spirit of truth" (John xiv. 17); "the spirit of truth and the spirit of error" (1 John iv. 6). It is hardly necessary to add, that Jesus in this particular shared in the phraseology of his day: e.g.

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