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ing man" than in a great many of the commercial class; as for the professional class, it is but natural that they should set high store by it, as they usually do.

The contention is baseless then which would separate Elementary and Secondary on grounds of their applicability to different ranks or classes of the community. Secondary has within its limits an equal claim with Elementary on public resources, imperial and local. There is a great deal to be said even for making Secondary Education as free to the pupil as Elementary is; but in this question, besides educational considerations, there are involved elements of policy which it would be apart from our purpose to discuss here. The position is sufficiently secure if it is admitted that Secondary has a full claim on the community, whether it choose or require to exercise the claim to the fullest extent or not. There is absolutely no ground for separating Elementary Schools from Secondary in respect of management which can have for its support supposed interests of different classes of the community. The case rests here merely on the function of the Secondary School as a Day School; but when we include the sphere of its activity in respect to more strictly Technical Instruction imparted in the Evening School, which will be discussed at some length in our concluding chapter, it is enormously strengthened. The Continuation School, which is three parts Secondary, is becoming as necessary a portion of our educational system as the Elementary School itself. Would that it were as universal in its application to our youth.

The other chief argument is that Elementary Schools are many, Secondary few. This is true, and, as a matter of fact, for every one pupil regularly pursuing a Secondary course there are ten, or perhaps fifteen, pursuing an Elementary. Every parent is interested in the latter, only a tithe of parents in the former.

We shall here, however, distinguish between actual and potential interest, for every parent possesses the latter. But otherwise the facts must be allowed their due weight. The Elementary School supplies a small area, a small portion of the population, it comes close to every home and family; the Secondary School is rather remote, it serves a large area, a large number of the population.

But another element here emerges which does not seem ever to have received the prominence which it deserves, or, indeed, to have received any separate, distinct recognition; that is, the distribution of population. There may be occasion subsequently to dwell on this, but it first finds a place when we consider the distribution of the schools of various kinds. In the large towns of Scotland, like other large towns, we have the population crowded into small spaces; the actual rate varies from over 30,000 per square mile in the large Burghs of Lanarkshire to 15,000 in Aberdeen, where the natural boundaries afforded by two rivers suggested, some years ago, an extension of municipal limits considerably beyond the area built on. The average might be put at fully 25,000. In rural areas there are great varieties, but the maximum seems to be in Eenfrewshire, where, apart from the large Burghs, it is slightly over 350 per square mile. In Lanarkshire it is about 320, while in Forfarshire, exclusive of Dundee, it sinks to 141, and in Aberdeenshire, outside the city, to 77 per square mile. In these four counties the average distribution, including all towns, is respectively 1,123, 1,523, 325, 154. The results might be tabulated thus :—

Distribution of population

per square mile.

In towns. Rural portions. Average.

Renfrewshire1 . 28,623 355 1,123

Lanarkshire . 31,977 328 1,523

Forfarshire . 28,780 (Dundee) 141 325

Aberdeenshire . 15,663 (Aberdeen) 77 154

These facts are of the utmost importance. They show that when we come to deal with the location of the Secondary School we have two sets of conditions to deal with, and virtually two separate problems. The difference between urban and rural forces itself on the attention at every step; yet there has hardly ever been any attempt to differentiate them, except in remote parts of the Highlands.

One fact more must, however, be reckoned, that is, the means of communication. Distribution is not quite fairly represented by resi

1 No doubt similar results hold all over the counties of Scotland. I have worked them out only for Midlothian in addition to the foregoing. They are—Edinburgh and Leith, 21,904; rural portions, 271; average, 1,335.


dence, and especially for purposes of Secondary Education. In most of the central parts of Scotland, and to some extent elsewhere in connection with the large cities, there are suburban railway and tramway services which bring large portions of the suburban area within easy reach of the city—to those who can afford it. Thus Edinburgh and Glasgow tap large sources of supply of pupils within a radius of fifteen to twenty miles, and to a less extent Dundee and Aberdeen do the same. Through steam and electricity the urban becomes more urban, and by contrast the rural more rural.

With this modification, then, we must regard the problem of Education, especially as it relates to the Secondary School and its governing body as separate and distinct in town and in county. In the one the population within a radius, say, of two miles—a walking distance —is to be counted by the hundred thousand, in the other by the hundred. Bail way communication aids the one, bad roads hinder the other.

This has an important bearing on local administration, and here we may advert for a

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