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Chapter I.


Retrospective—The Origins of Existing Educational

Institutions 1

Introductory—ambiguity of "Education" and "Educa-
tion question"—the present Education question in
Scotland—necessity of legislation assumed—review ol'
facts necessary to prove it—situation involves institu-
tions of various types, instruction of different grades- -
Institutions—extent of country and distribution of
populition to be provided lor—Elementary Pchool—
the Parish—Educational organisation prior to the
Reformation—Knox's scheme of reform in education
and its immediate result—its importance—the old
Parish School and its curriculum—Schools in Burghs,
chiefly Secondary—efforts of Church in seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries on behalf of education—nineteenth
century—addition of Schools of various kinds, Side,
Free Church, Society for the Propagation of Christian
Knowledge—confused state of matters in 1860-1870
—Argyll Commission and its labours—progress sinc^
1872—Higher Schools—Burgh Management of them
successful—Academies—state of Burgh Schools in
1868—Act of 187.2 injurious from many causes to
Secondary Education—Endowe 1 Schools and Endow
limits—Secondary woik performed by Elementary
Schools—the evidence of the Leaving Certificate—


Higher Grade Schools—Universities—private enter-

prise in education in Scotland.

Chapter II.

Governing Bodies and Funds ...... 65

Bodies enumerated—those charged with care of Institutions

—each independent of the other—Bodies administering

funds alone—methods of administration—regarded from

the side of the Elementary and Secondary Schools re-

spectively—cpnfusion from multiplicity of demands to

be satisfied—Secondary School in worse position than

Elementary—statistics of educational governing bodies

and their membership—Technical included in Secon-

dary—legislation necessary in order to the solution of

the "Education question".

Chapter III.

Relations of Elementary and Secondary Education . 82

Secondary involves Elementary on one side and University on

other—local and central authorities required—machin-

ery a necessary evil in education—simplest form best—

comparative importance of local governing body—various

reasons for this—arguments for two governing bodies

—considerations making for a single governing body—

contrast of conditions in urban and rural areas respec-

tively—difficulties of scheme of two governing bodies

arising from the requirements of pupils—detailed ex-

amination of the operation of a single governing body in

town and country—relative importance of Secondary

Education in various parts of Scotland, northern and

southern, industrial and agricultural—Secondary Edu-

cation in rural areas must continue to a large extent in

its earlier stages attached to the Elementary School—

interests of Elementary and Secondary local administra-

tion in some measure conflicting—reasons in favour of

either being considered paramount—line of least resist-

ance to be adopted—single control better than dual—

Secondary here regulates Elementary.

The School Board

Reconstruction of present authorities better than scheme
which breaks with the past — variety of judgments on
School Board — varieties of School Board — theoretical
basis of School Board — rendered nugatory in practice —
cumulative voting — simultaneous demission of office —
demands of Elementary Education on early School
Boards — more recently Boards have done much for
Secondary Education— Burgh School Board well fitted
to be new local governing body — small School Boards
— difficulties and imperfections — the teacher's position
under them — the system at once wasteful and in-
efficient, especially for Secondary Education — in rural
areas must be replaced by one suitable to conditions
and competent for duties to be performed.

Chapter VI.


The Teacher—The University— Endowments . . 162

Importance of the teacher—his rights bound up with
national well-being—his claims on the State—his
presence necessary on local governing body in order
to provide expert opinion not otherwise available—
University too much detached from schools—mutual
gain from closer contact—scheme of representation on
new local governing bodies—Educational Endowments
hitherto outside ordinary public management—diffi-
culties of question—varieties of object of Endowments
—suggestions as to treatment—permissive, but not
compulsory, union with public administration.

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