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Jan. 2 to 5, 1829.]

Arkansas Territory.

(SENATE.

Mr. TAZEWELL. They are not changed, but cut.

MONDAY, JAN. 5, 1829. So early as 1789, a drawback of one cent was allowed on

ARKANSAS TERRITORY. sugar, which was increased from time to time. There The bill “ to authorize the citizens of Arkansas Terwas then no internal tax on the article. In 1794, an ex ritory to elect certain officers,” was taken up for concise of four cents was laid on refined sugar, with the un- sideration, together with the amendments reported by derstanding, that, if exported, the amount of the excise the Committee on the Judiciary should be drawn back. But the drawback was allowed The bill, as received from the House of Representsolely on account of the excise—there was no other rea- atives, was in the following words: son assigned for it. So true was this, that both were repealed together, in the year 1818. He rose merely for

A BILL to authorize the citizens of Arkansas Territory to elect

certain officers, information. If correct in his ideas, the drawback was Be it enactel, &c. That the citizens of the Territory of Arkannever allowed on the cost of the brown sugar, but solely sas, qualified to vote, shall and may, at such time and place, and un

der such rules and regulations as the Legislature of said Territory on account of the excise. He entirely concurred with

may prescribe, elect their officers, civil and military, except such as, the gentleman from New Jersey, that, if the subject was by the laws of Congress, now in force, are to be appointed by the Preto be commenced anew, the drawback system would be

sident of the United States; and except, also, Justices of the Peace, abandoned altogether.

Auditor and Treasurer for said Territory, who shall be chosen by joint

vote of both Houses of the Legislature, at such time, and for such term Mr. SMITH said, the first excise was laid in 1794. of service, as the said Legislature shall prescribe. The same law authorized a drawback of the excise. “ Section 2. And be it further enacted, That the term of service, In 1800, another excise was laid by law, with the same

and the duties and powers, fees, and emoluments, of the officers, civil

and military, so chosen by the citizens. shall be prescribed by the provision as to drawback. This law was repealed in Legislature, and they shall be commissioned by the Governor of the 1817, and with it was repealed the drawback, though Territory, and subject to be removed from office in such mode, and this was not intended : for the excise alone was what Con

for such cause, as the Legislature shall declare, by law. All laws now

in force, inconsistent with the provisions of this act, are hereby re gress meant to repeal. In 1818, finding that they had pealed. This act shall take effect from and after the first day of Derepealed the drawback with the excise, another law was cember, one thousand eight hundred and twenty-nine." passed on the subject, by which a drawback was allowed Mr. BERRIEN explained the object of the amendof two pound raw for one of refined sugar.

ments. The first amendment, he said, had for its object Mr. WOODBURY replied to Mr. TazewELL, and as simply to place the Territory on the same footing as the sured him that the drawback did not originate with the other Territories, by taking from the Governor the powexcise. In 1797, the Legislature proceeded to allow a er to annul, by his veto, the proceedings of the Legisladrawback, on sugar refined, [extracts from which law tive body, and giving it the power to pass again bills to Mr. W. read) and one cent was allowed as an additional which he may have refused his signature, with certain redrawback on account of the increased duty on sugar ex- strictions, as in other States and Territories. acted by that law. The system began on the theory that The second amendment was merely an addition to the the drawback should be equal to the duty, and had been act giving to the People of the Territory the right to followed up to this time. He did not believe in the fraud elect their own officers, both civil and military, many of on spirits—the law allowing its exportation with benefit which are now appointed by the President of the United of drawback was abolished on account of misapprehen- States, and, in this respect, placing them upon a footing sion, and he wished to set the merchants of the country with the inhabitants of other Territories. right on this subject. Mr. W. then proceeded to reply The amendment to the third section of the bill referred io some of the arguments of Mr. BENTON; denied that to the Territory of Florida, altering and equalizing the the refiners would receive the large profit which he had representation of the Territory in its own Legislative named ; explained in what their capital did really consist; Council. Florida was originally divided into three diviand denied that their profit was more than two per cent. sions, the Eastern, the Middle, and the Western. The

He then alluded to the advantages of the drawback sys- Legislative Council was composed of thirteen members, tem; the great desire there was for the passage of the bill, six of whom were from the Eastern Division, five from that our merchants might compete with foreigners to ad- the Western, and two from the Middle. When this allotvantage in the South American and Chinese markets, and ment of the Representatives was made, the middle counalleged as a reason that these were the only markets now ty was in the possession of the Indians ; but, four or five left us, on account of the liberal policy pursued by France, years since, the Indians had been removed, and the midEngland, &c. Though the exportation was small at pre- dle division had now become the most populous one in sent, he had no doubt of its increase to the amount stat- the Territory, and the seat of Government. Yet it reed by the Senator from Maryland. He denied and re- mained with only two Representatives, while one of the pelled the statements and arguments of the Senator from others, with less inhabitants, had six, and another five. New Jersey, and accused him of bottoming his calcula- From the Eastern District had been taken off a Southern tions on the duties exacted by former tariffs, and not by Judicial District, the District of Key West, making it still the tariff law of the last session.

smaller. This inequality of representation it was desiraThe amendment submitted by Mr. CHANDLER was ble to correct. Congress had, at one time, passed an act then agreed to; and the amendment was ordered to be en- giving to the Legislative Council the authority to arrange grossed, and the bill read a third time, by the following vote: the Districts so as to equalize the representation. But

YEAS.—Messrs. Barton, Bell, Bouligny, Burnet, they were acted upon by local feelings, and were interChandler, Chase, Foot, Knight, Marks, McKinley, Mc- ested in the result, and had done nothing about it. At Lane, Noble, Ridgely, Robbins, Ruggles, Sanford, Sey- the last session of Congress another act was passed, makmour, Silsbee, Smith, of Maryland, Thomas, Willey, ing it the duty of the Governor and Legislative Council Woodbury.-22.

to alter and arrange the Districts. But another session NAYS.-Messrs. Barnard, Benton, Berrien, Dicker- of their Council had passed without any thing being done, son, Hayne, Hendricks, Iredell, Johnson of Kentucky, and in this emergency they had resorted again to Congress : Kane, Prince, Rowan, Tazewell, Tyler, White, Wil- and with a view to remedy the difficulty, the Committee liams.-15.

had reported an amendment to the present bill equalizing

the representation. It did not propose to take from the FRIDAY, JANUARY 2, 1829.

Districts, as they now stand, any of their members, but This day was chiefly occupied in the consideration of to give to the Council three additional members, to come Executive business; after which, the Senate adjourned from the Middle District, making the Council, which is over to Monday.

now composed of thirteen members, to consist of sixteen Vol. V.-3

SENATE.]

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[Jan. 6, 1829.

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TUESDAY,

members, which, as it would equalise the representation its present form, confers a limited authority upon the from all parts of the Territory, and produce no additional commissioners of that fund to make purchases of the pubexpense to the Government, he presumed there could be lic debt at certain fixed rates, the three per cents. ai 65 no objection to it. Lest any misapprehension or difficulty per cent. and other stocks at par ; the amendment would should arise about the representation, the amendment to give a discretionary authority to the commissioners to the sixth section provided that the Governor and Legisla- make purchases of the same debt at its current market tive Council might, at any time, alter or arrange the Dis- price, whenever, in their opinion, such purchases could tricts, in such manner as to secure an equality. In rela- be made beneficially for the public interest, and without tion to the amendment to the seventh section, he ob- prejudice to existing engagements. The evil, or mischief, served, that a general law of the Legislative Council of of the section, as it now stood, was, that the three per Florida provided that the Justices should fix the site of the cent. stock (about 131 millions) could never be paid off; public buildings in each county. The Justices of the In- and that about eight millions of other stocks, for the payferior Court of Jackson couniy did fix the sites of their ment of which the money would be lying in the Treasury public buildings, agreeably to such provisions, but some in 1831-32, could not be paid off until 1834-35. Mr. dissatisfaction having arisen about it, it was decided that B. verified these statements by references to laws and the people should fix the sites at an election. An election facts, and took it upon himself to affirm, that there was accordingly was had in the county of Jackson, and the re no way to prevent an accumulation of near twenty milsult was, that the people selected the same sites previously lions of dollars in the Treasury, in the years 1832-33, selected by the Justices. Subsequently, the Justices had to lie there idle, or what was still worse, to be diverted to reversed this decision, and fixed the public buildings in some subordinate object, while public debt to that asome other place, and consequently the people had ap mount was unpaid and drawing interest, but to make the plied to Congress for relief. The amendment annulled amendment which he proposed. The advantage of paythe act of the Council fixing the seat of justice of Jackson ing our debt, when we had the money on hand, was too county, and provided that the people and local authorities obvious to be insisted upon Another advantage would should have the privilege of selecting their county seat. be in reducing the price of the three per cent. stock to

Mr. SMITH, of Maryland, made no objection to the something nearer the true value of money than what it amendments, but asked for some farther explanation of now bore. the amendment to the sixth section ; which, being given The act of 1817 fixed the value of this stock at 65 per by Mr. BERRIEN, and a verbal amendment, offered by cent., which seems high enough for stock worth but 3 per Mr. B. to substitute the word “within” for the word for, cent. ; but it now ranges at from 80 to 85, with no progin the 17th line of the printed copy, being agreed to, the pect of falling, while it preserves the character of perpeamendments were then ordered to be engrossed, and the tuity which it now has. This character is abhorrent to bill to be read a third time.

American notions of public debt, but it is a favorite with

money lenders and stock dealers, and while it continues, Jan. 6, 1829.

the price of the stock will continue out of all fair proTHE SINKING FUND, &c.

portion to the interest and common uses of money. DeThe Senate proceeded to the consideration of the stroy this character of perpetuity, by adopting the amendfollowing resolutions, heretofore submitted by Mr. BEN- ment, and this stock will immediately fall, it not to 65, at TON, and which had been made the special order for to least to something considerably below 85; and a portion day:

of the public debt, which is now counted at 131 millions, Resolved, that the 5th section of the Sinking Fund act, of 1817, but which can be purchased in market for about 11 milought to be so amended as to authorize the Commissioners of that lions will fall to about 9 millions, and save 10 the public Fund to make purchase of the public debt, at its current market price, the difference between that sum and eleven millions. Mr. whenever, in their opinion, such purchases can be made beneficially for the interest of the United States, and consistently with existing B. could see no possible objection to an amendment engagements.

fraught with such manifest advantage, except in the apThat the 4th section of the same act, which authorizes & retention of two millions of surplus revenue in the Treasury, ought to prehension that the Commissioners of the Sinking Fund be repealed ; and that the first section of the Sinking Fund act of 1790, could not be safely trusted with the discretionary power which directs the whole of the surplus money in the Treasury to be which it gives them. This he considered as amounting applied to the payment of the public debt, ought to be revived and

to no objection at all. The discretion was but little, and continued in force.

"3. That the Bank of the United States ought to be required to it was to be vested in a board of eminent men.
make a compensation to the People of the United States, for the use It was a discretion to purchase, or not to purchase,
of the balances of public money on its hands.
“4. That a public debt is a public burthen, and that the present

about twenty millions of debt, at the current market
debt of the United States is a burthien on the People of the United price. It was a discretion to apply some public money
States to the amount of more than fifteen millions of dollars per annum; to the payment of the public debt, rather than to let the
from which they ought to be relieved as soon as possible, and may be
relieved in four years, by a timely" and "judicious" application of money lie idle, or be wasted, and the debt run on, carry-
the means within the power of Congress.

ing interest. This, he thought, vested but little discre5: That an abolition of duties, to the amount of the ten millions tion, and such as might be trusted, without danger, to of dollars now annually levied on account of the public debt, ought to be made as soon as that debt is paid, and may be made, according Men of the first distinction, and obliged to be of the first

our Commissioners. Who were these Commissioners ? to the present indications of the revenue, without diminishing the protection due to any branch of domestic manufactures, and with distinction, of any in the Union. They were Commismanifest advantage to the agriculture and commerce of the country.

sioners by virtue of their offices, and these offices among “6. That the Committee on Finance be directed to prepare and bring in a bill to carry into effect the objects of the first and second the highest in the country,—the Vice President of the

United States, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, The resolutions having been read, Mr. BENTON ex the Secretary of the Treasury, and the Attorney General. plained their nature and object, and advocated their A discretion to purchase the public debt at its market adoption, in a speech of about two hours, in which he en- price has always belonged to the Commissioners of the tered very fully into the consideration of each resolution, British Sinking Fund, and has never been abused by separately, and enforced the necessity and advantage of them. They have exercised it for an hundred years, agreeing to them all.

and over a debt, growing up in that time, from about the The first resolution, he said, related to the 5th section present size of our own, to above four thousand millions of the Sinking Fund act of 1817, and proposed an amend- of dollars; and if this power could be exercised by them ment to it. This proposal implied a defect in the section so long, and over an amount of debt so vast, and still withas it now stood, and such was the fact. The section, in out abuse, can it be seriously apprehended that there is

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of these resolutions,'

Jax. 6, 1829.]

Sinking Fund, foc.

(SENATE.

danger in trusting the like power to our Commissioners on its hands. Before entering upon the consideration of for the four brief years which the debt has to last, and the main question presented in this resolution, Mr. B. said over the little remnant of it to which their power would there were two preliminary inquiries necessary to be anbe applicable ?

swered, namely, first, whether, in point of fact, there Mr. B. then took up his second resolution, which pro were any such balances in the Bank, and secondly, whethposes to repeal the fourth section of the Sinking Fund er, in point of law, the People of the United States have a Act of 1818, and to revive the first section of the Sinking right to require compensation from the Bank for the use Fund Act of 1790. He stated the defect of the act of of them ? Mr. B. held the affirmative of both these in1817 to be in the authority, as it had been construed at quiries, and would prove his answer to the first of them, the Treasury, to retain two millions of dollars over and by referring to the treasury report of the last session, made above the unapplied balances of appropriations on hand, on his own call, showing an average annual amount of and the virtue of the act of 1790, in directing all the public money in the hands of the Bank, from 1817 to the surplus money on hand, over and above the appropria- date of the report, of $3,554,756 50; and he would prove tions, to be applied to the payment of the public debt. his answer to the second of them by reading, as he did The advantage of the section to be revived over the one to read, the 16th section of the Bank charter, the first clause be repealed, was clear and indisputable. The argument of which directed the Secretary of the Treasury to make was contained in the stating of the proposition, and the deposites of the public money in this Bank; and the resolution would have seemed to be free from the possi- second authorized him to remove them at any time that he bility of objection if it had not been objected to when he thought proper. This was decisive. The right to remove offered it at the last session. The objection then made the deposites at pleasure, included the right to make was founded upon the supposed necessity of keeping a terms for letting them remain ; and this was precisely reserve of two millions on hand to meet the deficiencies | what the resolution proposed to do. of revenue which might arise from disasters to the com Mr. B. then spoke at considerable length in favor of the merce from which it was derived. This objection is fairness, the equity, and the reasonableness of his proposiplausible, and respectably supported; but it is unfounded tion; and rested the public claim for the compensation he and unsolid, and vanishes upon examination, In the first required, on the following prominent facts and powerful place, there is no necessity for this reserve of two millions, considerations. because there is always an unapplied balance of several 1. That these balances in Bank were great, being an millions in the Treasury. These balances are seldom annual average amount of above three and a half millions less than three, often as high as six millions. They were of dollars. stated, in the last Treasury Report, at $5,120,000, on 2. That they were permanent, having remained in Bank the first day of the present year. These balances result twelve years, and likely to remain there the eight years from the nature of daily receipts and daily expenditures, longer which the charter had to run. the receipts always preceding the expenditures, by some 3. That they were virtually Bank capital, and availmonths. They keep several millions perpetually on hand ; able, as such, for loans or issues of notes. then why authorize a retention of two millions more ? 4. That they required no idle reserve of gold and silver The Secretary of the Treasury says it has not been re to be kept in Bank to meet them, being themselves payatained; I answer, this proves that there is no necessity ble in the notes of the Bank, though deposited in gold and for an authority to retain it. He says, the authority is silver. discretionary. I answer there is no necessity for the dis 5. That the profit to the Bank from their use must have cretion ; that is an authority which cannot be used for been great, and may have been equal to the highest rate of the benefit of the public; and may be used to their pre- Bank interest upon the greatest amount of notes issuable judice. An authority to retain two millions of surplus upon a capital of three and a half millions of dollars money in the Treasury, is an authority to make a gratu 6. That the loss to the People of the United States, itous loan of it to the Bank which has the keeping of it, while paying interest on the public debt, and receiving no and where it may be used in creating an interest in elec interest for the use of these balances in Bank, has been six tions, or at the renewal of a charter adverse to the inter per cent. per annum, for twelve years, on $3,554,756 50, ests of the people. As a precaution against deficiencies and may be at the same rate for eight years more, if this of revenue occasioned by disasters to commerce, the ob- resolution is not adopted. jection is authoritatively condemned by the voice of ex Upon these great facts and considerations, Mr. B. rested perience, and the history of our own country for seven and his argument of reason, justice, and equity. But he had twenty years. These iwenty seven years cover a period another argument of authority, example, and precedent ; of unexampled disasters to commerce-from 1790 to 1817; and as this kind of argument always had the greatest during which the act of 1790 was in force, and that of weight against the rights and liberties of the people, he 1817, with its precautionary reserve, was unheard of; and would now try the virtue of one in favor of the people. during which there was no complaint for want of these He alluded to what had been done in England, where the two millions. These twenty-seven years covered the Bank, after baffling Mr. Burke for twenty years, was at period of the mad attacks of the French Revolutionary last brought to terms by Mr. Pitt, and compelled to make Governments on commerce ; the period of the British compensation for the use of the Government deposites. Orders in Council; of the ruinous decrees of Berlin and For the sake of accuracy in his statements, Mr. B. now Milan ; the period of our own embargo, and of our war had recourse to his books, and took up some volumes of with England. Such a period of commercial disaster British Parliamentary debates, and read extracts from a can never be expected again; yet we went through it report of the Finance Committee of the House of Comwithout this precautionary reserve, and we can certainly mons, on the subject of Government balances in the Bank make out in future without it. The fact is, the construc- of England ; also extracts from the correspondence of the tion at the Treasury is erroneous ; instead of authorizing Chancellor of the Exchequer and the Governor of the a retention of two millions over and above the unapplied Bank, in relation to these balances; also extracts from a debalances, it was intended to limit the money kept to meet | bate in the House of Commons, upon the ratification of the these balances to two millions of dollars.

arrangement to which that correspondence led. From The third resolution was next taken up by Mr. B. and these extracts it appeared that the committee of the House read by him. It imported that the Bank of the United ascertained that the average annual amount of Government States ought to make a compensation to the people of the balances in the hands of the Bank, was about ten millions United States, for the use of the balances of public money sterling ; that the Bank derived great profit from them;

SENATE.)

Sinking Fund, &c.

JAN. 6, 1829.

and the Commitiee held it to be right and reasonable that judicious” application of the means in the power of
some part of these profits ought to go to the public, 1o Congress; words which were borrowed from the first
whom the capital belonged, which produced them. The message of President Washington to Congress, and en-
House of Commons was of the same opinion; the Chan- forced by the first and ablest of all the Secretaries of the
cellor of the Exchequer also ; and of the terms offered by Treasury, but which had never yet been acted upon by
the Bank, either to pay about seven hundred and fifty thou-Congress. At this part of his argument Mr. B. took the
sand dollars annually for the use of these balances, or to following bold positions :
make a loan of about fifteen millions of dollars without in 1. That one hundred millions of acres of land sold, near
terest, the latter was accepted by the Chancellor, and forty years ago, at an average of twenty cents per acre,
finally ratified by Parliament, after a debate, in which the as recommended by General Hamilton, would have been
sole point was the inadequacy of the compensation. Mr. worth sixty millions of dollars to the people, by extin-
B. admitted that there was discouragement, as well as en- guishing twenty millions of debt, and stopping the pay-
couragement, for him in this example. He was discour- ment of forty millions in interest.
aged by seeing that Mr. Burke was baffled for twenty 2. That all the land sold by the Federal Government
years, and died before the Bank was brought to terms; has not been worth one cent to the people, the amount
but he was encouraged by seeing that she was brought to received from sales being swallowed up in expenses, or
terms at last, though it took a hancellor the Exche. I lost in interest upon the capital of land unsold, while
quer and Prime Minister of England—a Pitt, and the son paying interest upon the capital of the debt unpaid.
of a Pitt—to bring her to.

3. That the sale of the eighty millions of land to which
Mr. B. took up his fourth resolution, and read it: “ That his graduation bill was applicable, would raise, at an aver-
a public debt is a public burthen; that the present debt of age of twenty-five cents per acre, twenty millions of dol-
the United States is a burthen upon the People of the lars in four years, the one half of which would pay the in-
United States, to the amount of more than fifteen millions terest on the public debt, and the other half would give
of dollars per annum ; that the people ought to be relieved to all the neglected States their proportionate shares of
from this burthen as soon as possible, and might be re the amount expended in the favored States on works of
lieved from it in four years, by a timely and judicious ap- internal improvement.
plication of the means in the power of Congress."

Mr. B.'s fifth resolution related to the abolition of duties, He would not waste time upon the general proposition and imported that duties to the amount of the ten millions of with which the resolution set out, although he knew there dollars now annually levied on account of the public debt, were many who disputed that proposition : he would go to ought to be abolished as soon as that debt was paid, and the clause which asserted the annual amount of burthen might be abolished, according to the present indications of which this debt imposed upon the people to exceed fifteen the revenue, without diminishing the protection due to millions of dollars, and prove it by a statement as brief as it any branch of domestic industry, and with great advantage would be plain and intelligible. The annual amount paid to the agriculture and commerce of the country. on the debt for the last four years averaged about twelve Mr. B. went on to say, that this resolution presented a millions of dollars, and he hoped that the payment for the great question to the consideration of the Senate and next four would rather exceed than fall short of the same American people. It was a question in the decision of average. This would be admitted to be a burthen to the which, above all others, the vote of the representative amount of twelve millions per annum, by all who admitted ought to be governed by the will of the constituent. It that taxes were burthens. In the next place, these twelve was a question to the consideration of which the attention millions were levied upon the consumption of foreign of the people ought to be worked up, and worked up in goods, the averaged duty on which was now fifty per at., time to know what their representatives were about, beupon which fifty the retail merchant had his profit, as well fore a final decision might be made to their prejudice. as upon the cost of the article. It was all cost to him. With this view he had brought forward the question at the This profit might average 33} per cent., especially where last session of Congress ; with this view he brought it the article went through the hands of several sellers. forward now; and for the same purpose he should bring it This advance on twelve millions would be four millions, forward at the next session, if this resolution was not which, together, made sixteen millions, and sustains the adopted at the present one. words of the resolution. But this is not all. A farther ex The first clause of the resolution asserts that duties pense attends the collection of these duties, to the amount ought to be abolished to the amount of ten millions of dolof about nine hundred thousand dollars per annum more, lars, the instant the public debt is paid of. I know there in salaries, fees, and commissions to the revenue officers. are many who think differently, who are of opinion that This also comes out of the pockets of the people, and con the duties oughi to be kept up, and the amount expended tributes to swell far above the statement in the resolution, by Congress in works of internal improvement; and the annual burthen which the people bear on account of my mind is clear and decisive in favor of the abolition. the public debt.

There will be enough for internal improvement without That this debt can be paid off in four years by a “timelythese ten millions, which now go, not 10 that object, but and "judicious" application of the means in the power of to the public debt. I am for the abolition, because I am Congress, was a proposition susceptible of the clearest opposed to all taxation not required for the necessary supdemonstration. Its nominal amount was fifty-eight mil port of the Government. I am against raising money by lions, its real amount about forty-nine millions, after de taxes, either for accumulation in the vaults of the Treasury ducting seven millions for stock in the United States' Bank, or for repartition among the people. What is attempted and two millions more for the difference between the to be kept in the Treasury would be wasted ; a partition nominal amount, and the market price of the three per cent. could never be fairly made ; a majority of the payers stock. The adoption of the first resolution offered by Mr. would never get back their own. The pockets of the B. would probably sink the market price of this stock one people are the best treasuries which the Government can or two millions lower by destroying its character of per- have for its spare revenues. They are the safest ; for petuity, and then the actual debt would be but forty-seven every citizen is the keeper of his own. They are the millions. But, even at forty-three millions, it can be paid cheapest, for these koepers have no salaries; they are the off in four years, by applying the twelve millions which will most beneficial, for they are the only treasuries of which go to the principal and interest, to the principal alone, and the keeper may always use the contents without blame, raising the interest from accelerated sales of the public and with profit to himself and the country. lands. This was what was intended by a “ timely' and I am for the abolition, because the sum is great in itself,

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JAN. 6, 1829.)

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SENATE.

and raised at still greater expense to the people. The ten millions of dollars would fill this Union with discord levy of ten millions for the Government cost upwards of and violence. The division of money and property is fifteen millions to the people. It is a mistake of the pre- the fruitful source of discord throughout the world. It sent da founded upon what was fact thirty years ago, to is the bane of partnerships, the rock on which the peace suppose that taxation by duties is the cheapest way of le- of families is split, and the signal for strife and contention vying money from the people. This was true when the arnongst confederates and conquerors. So sung the poet average duties were seven and a half per cent. and when of nature : the addition of that amount to the value of the article made

“ Friends now fast sworn, no sensible addition to its cost. But all this is now

Whose double bosoms seem but one heart to bear,

Who twine, as 'twere, in love inseparable, changed. The average duties are now 50 per cent. and

Shall, within this hour, upon dissension of a doit, this adds one half to the cost of the article ; the merchant's

Break out to bitteresi enmity." profit is thirty-three and a third per cent. on this duty of Yes, break out to bitterest enmity upon dissension of 50, and that adds a third more to it. Fees, salaries, and a farthing ! With how much greater bitterness, then, commissions, are then paid besides to the revenue officers when the dissension is for millions, when the parties are to the annual amount of near nine hundred thousand dol- whole communities, their passions inflamed by association, lars more. The effect of all these per cents. fees, and salaries, no common superior to decide between them, an indiis, that it now costs the people nearly two dollars to raise vidual shame lost in the mass of undistinguished multione dollar for the Government, and this load is increased tudes ! The last thing that any friend to the peace, the upon some, by the fact that smugglers, and dealers with harmony, the stability of the Union, would wish to see, smugglers, pay nothing. A levy of twelve millions for would be an annual scramble on the floor of Congress for the public debt, now occasions a levy of more than fifteen, ten millions of dollars. We shall have heart-burnings and nearly twenty millions upon the people ; a rate of ex- enough in distributing the two or three millions of surplus pense for collection out of all proportion to the revenue revenue which will remain without these ten millions, and raised, exceeded in no country upon earth but in England, in scrambling for the countless millions of the public and from which the people, in the language of the resolu- land. tion, ought to be relieved as soon as possible,

I am for the abolition, because it will be the means of I am for the abolition, because the wielding of ten mil. restoring the harmony of this Union, now greatly impaired lions of surplus revenue would dangerously increase the by a tariff, which sits hard upon the navigating and plantpatronage of the Federal Government This sum is now ing interests of the country. An abolition of ten milmortgaged to the payment of the public debt, and its ap lions of duties will relieve these interests, without injurplication to that object being fixed and regular, involves ing any other ; and thus an angry question will drop from the exercise of but little patronage. Released from that our discussion, and every cloud of discontent will vanish mortgage, it would be applicable to innumerable objects, from our horizon. and subject to the annual appropriation by Congress. Its The last branch of this resolution declares, that this distribution would attract all eyes, and excite universal cu abolition may be made, according to present indications pidity. It would draw deputations from cities, towns, and of the revenue, without detriment to domestic industry, villages, from compavies and corporations, from counties, and with great advantage to agriculture and commerce. Siates, and districts, to the feet of the Federal Govern- On this point my remarks will be few and brief. They ment, all clamorous for their share of the spoil, or neg. are abridged, and almost superseded by the labors of the lecting their own business to obtain it, and all becoming last session. This subject, upon a resolution of my own, less independent in proportion as they received it, like the

was referred to the Committee of Finance twelve months degenerate Romans, who ceased to be free when they be- ago. That Committee reported a list of thirty-two articles, gan to look upon the public granaries, instead of their own estimated to yield a revenue of seven and a quarter milcribs, for a supply of corn.

lions, on which the duties might be repealed without injuI am for the abolition, because an annual scramble on ry to domestic industry ; seven other articles, whose product the floors of Congress for ten millions of dollars, would could not be then ascertained, and six more on which the fill our halls with bargains, combinations, intrigue, and drawback for the last year exceeded the revenue, but corruption. The effect would be inevitable. Help my which, in a run of several years, yield a considerable sum. State to half a million, and I will help yours to another This makes forty-five articles, and to these I think about half. A majority of the members might meet beforehand, fifteen more might be added. But I omit these fifieen. and divide ihe whole among their own States. They I take the forty-five* reported by the Committee, and might do worse. They might insert appropriations for say that they will yield the ten millions in four years from roads and canals, in States whose representatives denied this time. They yield a million and a half more now than the constitutionality of such appropriations, and thus sub

was estimated by the Committee. Three of them alone ject them to the censure of their constituents, for not

exceed that estimate by eight hundred and thirty thoutaking a share while it was going. In this way, the dele- sand dollars. But this is a detail, and a subordinate ingation of a State might be rendered obnoxious to their quiry. If we agree in the great principle of abolition, constituents, and broken down at home by a manouvre

there will be no balk about a few articles. or a few thouhere. Is this fancy, or is it fact ? exclaimed Mr. B. It is sand of dollars more or less. The benefit to agriculture fact, and the history of our legislation proves it.

Within and commerce would be great and immediate from this the last three years the manœuvre was iried. A bill came abolition. Free trade is their delight and element, and up from the House of Representatives with appropriations this abolition of duties would set the half of our trade free.

We have a for internal improvement for a majority of the States, in- A few examples will illustrate its benefit. cluding some whose delegations could not vote for such growing trade with France, of which the chief articles on objects. The bill passed through this chamber, and be- our part are cotton and tobacco ; on her part, silks and came a law; but the design against the members failed. wines. She took from us last year seventy millions of A kindly feeling prevailed. The yeas and nays were not pounds of cotton, and thirty thousand hugsheads of tocalled. The bill went through without noise, and the obnoxious voters were not pointed out to their constituents.

* Salt, coffee, teas, linens, wines, silks, cocoa, almonds, currants,

prunes, figs, raisins, mace, cloves, nutmegs, cinnamon, cassia, popThis may be attempted again, upon a greater scale, and per, pimento, bristles, Spanish brown, ochre, camphor, Cayenne pepwith a more determined intent, if ten millions are to be an per, ginger, olive oil, olives, alum, corks. quicksilver, opinm, canually divided out.

pers, worsled sluffs, nankeens, bolting cloths, quills, black bottles, I am for the abolition, because the annual division of demijohns, thread and silk lace, cambrics, lawns, Cashmere shawls

gauze, ribbons, straw mats, and Canton orape.

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