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then what rules and orders hath he left his church to walk by?' This was a great question among them; and because they did not believe the New Testament, nor would be guided by it, they demanded some other instruction to direct and guide them, in this point; thereupon six of the Roman clergy (who of purpose were sent from Rome by the Pope, to assist in this council) were called in, viz. two Jesuits, two friars of the order of St. Augustine, and two of the order of St. Francis; and these, being admitted into the council, began to open unto them the rules and doctrine of the holy church of Rome (as they call it) which church they magnified to them, for the holy catholick church of Christ, and their doctrine to be the infallible doctrine of Christ, and their rules to be the rules, which the apostles left to the church for ever to be observed, and that the Pope is the holy vicar of Christ, and the successor of St. Peter; and forinstance, in some particulars, they affirmed the real presence of Christ in the sacrament, the religious observation of their holy days, the invocation of saints, praying to the Virgin Mary, and her commanding power in heaven over her son; the holy use of the cross and images, with the rest of their idolatrous and superstitious worship; all which they commended to the assembly of the Jews, for the doctrine and rules of the apostles. But, as soon as the assembly had heard these things from them, they were generally and exceedingly troubled thereat, and fell into high clamours against them, and their religion,crying out, ' No Christ, no woman-god, no intercession of saints, no worshiping of images, no praying to the Virgin Mary, &c.' Truly their trouble hereat was so great, that it troubled me to see their impatience; they rent their cloaths, and cast dust upon their heads, and cried out aloud, blasphemy, blasphemy! and, upon this,the council broke up: Yetthey assembled again the eighth day; and all that was done then, was to agree upon another meeting of their nation three years after, which was concluded upon before their final dissolution.
1 do believe there were many Jews there, that would have been persuaded to own the Lord Jesus; and this I assure you fora truth, and it is for the honour of our religion, and the encouragement of our divines, one eminent Rabbi there did deliver his opinion, in conference with me, that he at first feared that those, which were sent from Rome, would cause an unhappy period to their council; and professed to me, that he much desired the presence of some Protestant divines, and especially of our English divines, of whom he had abetter opinion than of any other divines in the world; for he did believe that we have a great love to their nation; and this reason he gave me for their good opinion of our divines, because he understood that they did ordinarily pray for the conversion of their nation; which he did acknowledge to be a great token of our love towards them; and, especially he commended the ministers of London, for excellent preachers, and for their charity towards their nation; of whom he had heard a great fame. As for the church of Rome, they account it an idolatrous church, and therefore will not own their religion; and, by conversing with the Jews, I found that they generally think that there is no other Christian religion in the world, but that of the church of Rome; and for Rome's idolatry, they takeoffenceat all Christian religion; by which it appeared that Rome is the greatest enemy of the Jews conversion.
For the place of the Jews next meeting, it is probable it will be in Syria, in which country I also was,and did there converse with the sect of the Rechabites, living in Syria; they still observe their old customs and rules; they neither sow, nor plant, nor build houses; but live in tents, and often remove from one place to another, with their whole family, bag and baggage. And seeing I find that, by the Italian tongue, I can converse with the Jews, or any other nation, in all the parts of the world, where I have been; if God give me an opportunity, I shall willingly attend their next council. The good Lord prosper it. Amen.
RELATION OF THE EXECUTION
JAMES GRAHAM, Late MARQUIS OF MONTROSS,
At Edinburgh, on Tuetday, the 2\st of May Instant.
With his last speech, carriage, and most remarkable passages upon the scaffold. Also a letter out of Ireland, more fully, concerning the taking of Clonmell.
London, printed by E. Griffin, in the Old Bailey, May twenty-eighth, ipso. Quarto, containing eight pages.
NOTWITHSTANDING the great hubbub this place is in at the beheading of Montross, I shall give you a short account of affairs; On Saturday last Montross came hither; he was received at the end of the town by the bailiffs, and set upon a high cart, and tied with a rope, his hat being before taken off by the hangman, and the hangman riding upon a filly-horse, with his bonnet on, and a staff in his hand, and thus he was brought up, through the town; several persons have been with him, and upon discourse he told them, that, for personal offences, he hath deserved all this, but justifies his cause; he caused a new suit to be made for himself, and came yesterday into the parliament-house, with a scarlet rocket, and a suit of pure cloth, all laid with rich lace, a beaver, and a rich hathand, and scarlet silk-stockings. The chancellor made a large speech to him, discovering how much formerly he was for the covenant, and how he hath since broke it. He desired to know, whether he might be free to answer; and being admit
ted, he told them his cause was good and that, he had not only a commission, but particular orders for what he had done, from his Majesty, which he was engaged to be a servant to, and they also had professed to comply with; and upon that account, however they dealt with him, yet he would own them to be a true parliament. And he further told them, that if they would takeaway his life, the world knew he regarded it not; it was a debt that must once be paid, and that he was willing, and did much rejoice, that he must go the same way his Majesty did, and it was the joy of his heart, not only to do but to suffer for him. His sentence was, to be hanged upon a gallows thirty feet high, three hours at Edinburgh-cross; to have his head struck off, and hanged upon Edinburgh tollbooth, and his arms and legs to be hanged up in other publick towns in the kingdom, as Glascow, &c. and his body to be buried at the common burying-place, in case his excommunication from the kirk were taken off, or else to be buried where those are buried that are hanged. All the time while sentence was giving, and also when he was executed, he seemed no way to be altered, or his spirit moved, but his speech was full of composure, and his carriage as sweet as ever I saw a man in all my days. When they bid him kneel, he told them he would, he was willing to observe any posture, that might manifest hit obedience, especially to them who were so near in conjunction with his Majesty. It is absolutely believed, that he hath gained more by his death, than ever he did in his life. The Scots are listing forces here, and have named their officers; they intend to make up their army twenty-five thousand, they are very much startled at the marching of the .English army northwards. By the next you shall hear further from
H. P. Edinburgh, May 21, 1760.
Further by another express from Edinburgh of the same date, thus:
YESTERDAY, after the sentence was pronounced against Montross, he said, That tho' he was cried out against for a bloody man, yet he never committed any act of cruelty, nor took away any man's life, but in an hostile way.
After he came to the place of execution, having been so used as before, he spoke to this purpose to one that was near him: You see what compliments they put upon me, but I never took more delight in all my life, in riding in a coach, than I did in this manner of passage to this place.
His late declaration and the history of his transactions were tied at his back, when he was hanged, but he would have nothing to do with the ministers who stood at the end of the scaffold.
The places where Montross's quarters are to be set up, are, Glascow, Sterling, Perth, alias St. Johnson, aud Aberdeen.
A letter out of Ireland, more fully concerning the taking of Clonncll,
THIS day we entered Clonraell, which was quit by the enemy the last night, about nine of the clock, after a tedious storm, which continued four hours. Our men kept close to the breach, which they had entered, all the time, save only one accidental retreat in the storm. We lost in this service Colonel Cullum, and some other officers, with divers private soldiers, and some others wounded. The enemy had made many great prepartions within, by a traverse or cross-work, and so beat our men off, as they entered; but afterwards many of them stole out of the town, and left some few, with the inhabitants, to make conditions. In the morning, our forces pursued and killed all they could light upon. The town is a very strong place, and I hope the getting of this garison will be of good use for the gaining of others, which depended upon this. The English under Ormond and Inchequeen are come in, and as many as desired had passes to go beyond seas, and the rest have leave to live quiet at home. I am Clonmell, May Your affectionate friend,
10, 1650. W. A.
For Argyle's Last Will, See Vol. Ii. p. 508.
The Process and Pleadings*
THE DEATH OF ANTHONY ASCHAM,
Resident for the parliament of England, and of John Baptista Riva, his interpreter, who were killed by John Guillim, William Spark, Valentine Progers, Jo. Halsal, William Arnet, and Henry Progers. Who are all in close prison in Madrid for the said fact, except Henry Progers, who fled to the Venetian ambassador's house, and so escaped. Sent from Madrid from a person of quality and made English.
London, printed by William Dugard, printer to the council of state, 1651. Quarto, containing twenty pages.
To his truly honoured friend Sir W. Butler, Knight.
YOUR desires to me are equivalent to decrees, which I shall be always ready to put in execution, as far as I can, and never be found
■ Thii it the sath Number in th« Catalogue of Pamphlets iu the Harleiaa library.
in contempt: therefore, according to the contents of your last, I have sent you by this post the plea, concerning the English gentlemen that afe under close restraint here in the King's Prison, for the death of Mr. Ascham, and your old acquaintance John Baptista Riva; his interpreter. We cannot conjecture yet what will become of them, for the church stands firm for them; and you well know what predominant influences the church hath in this clime.
The Lord Cottington and Sir Edward Hyde are parted, and departed from this court, the first to Valladolid, the other for Flanders; and since that time Mr. Fisher appears abroad insomelustie with his coach and lacquies, whereas, before, he kept retired and invisible. Catalonia is like to be reduced this summer, for there are mighty forces both by land and sea, to that purpose.
No more but that I am always Madrid, this 8th of May, Your ready and most real servant,
The whole discourse analysed.
FIRST, The manner and circumstance of the fact is punctually related, with the names and distinction of the actors.
Secondly, The atrocity and heinousness of the fact is aggravated, being committed upon the person of a publick minister of state, viz. the ambassador or resident of England, whose person should merit more particular respect in the catholick court, in regard of the precedencies which were always given in England to the Spanish ambassadors.
Thirdly, Divers testimonies are produced how that the persons and office of ambassadors are sacred, &c.
Fourthly, It is proved that this publick minister had the safe conduct, and consequently the protection of his Catholick Majesty; which* Tnakes the offence reflect upon him, and is punishable by his own royal justice, and so the delinquents are not to be transmitted elsewhere for their punishment.
Fifthly, A parallel betwixt the death of Ascham and Abner, who had King David's safe conduct.
Sixthly, The holy church cannot protect so proditorious a murther, as it is proved by forcible reasons.
Seventhly, Important arguments for a sudden execution of justice upon the offenders, &c.
The learned and elaborate charge of Dr. Don Augustin de Hierro, Knight of the Order of Calatrava, and Fiscal, or attorney-general, of the council-royal, against Don John Guillim, William Spark, Valentine Progers, William Arnet, and Jo. Halsal, Englishmen, who say they are, and are detained in the Royal Prison of this court, for