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before their private good, they resolved to adventure their own lives, to preserve the city, state, and kingdom.
In this resolution they met his excellency on Hounslow-Heath, who being right glad to see them, he thanked them for their love, and applauded them for their courage, and uniting the armies both into one, he forthwith marched to the relief of Gloucester, which, at that time, did much need the assistance of so brave an army. The King's forces, with great violence, did prosecute the siege, which continued from the tenth of August, to the fifth of September, on which day, the enemy hearing of the approach of his excellency, did begin to send away their carriages, and their fool and horse did march after them, and the besieged (it being a day set a-part for a publick fast) did turn it into a day of joy, and paid unto God their humble thanks, for so gracious a deliverance.
We have not the liberty to give nnto yon the discourse of this siege at large,because it doth not so properly belong unto this subject: it may suffice, that, as it was raised by the prowess of the most noble the Earl of Essex, so it was most resolutely sustained by the valour, industry and dexterity of the heroick governor, Colonel Massey, who contrived all stratagems, and occasioned all the sallies, for the ruin of his enemy, and the protection of the city.
The city of Gloucester being thus bravely relieved, and the siege raised, his excellency, the Earl of Essex, did prepare to follow the enemy, who always fled before him, and refused to stand to the hazard of a battle. The earl perceiving that the main intent of the enemy was to cut off all provision from his army, he made a bridge over the river of Severn, as if he would march to Worcester, to amuse the enemy, and to cause them to draw part of theirforces that way, which accordingly they did; and, on a sudden, he wheeled about another way, and marched to l'ewksbury, and from thence to Cirencester, where he found two regiments of the King's horse, which were but newly entered into the service. In one of their standards, the invention was the effigies of the parliamenthouse, with two traytors heads fixed on two poles on the top thereof; the inscription was this, Sicut extra sic intus; which is, as without, so within. The indignity whereof left such a just impression of disdain in the breasts of the parliament, that it was voted, that the contriver of this ignominious invention should be strictly searched out, and, being known, that he should be for ever banished the kingdom, as being unworthy to live in the English air. This good service was performed about two of the clock in the morning, the enemy, for the most part, being taken prisoners in their beds, and their horses feeding in the stables: there was also a magazine of victuals seized on, which was a welcome booty to our soldiers. There were taken, in all,four-hundred prisoners, andas many soldiers.
From hence his excellence marched into Wiltshire, and, being advanced towards Auburn-hills, he had a sight of his majesty's horse, which appeared in several great bodies, and were so marshalled to charge our army of foot, being then on their march in several divisions; which caused our foot to unite themselves into one gross, our horse perpetually skirmishing with them, to keep them off from the foot. In the mean time, the dragoons on both sides gave fire in full bodies on one another, on the side of the hill, that the woods above, and the vallies below, did eccho with the thunder of the charge. There were about fourscore slain upon the place, and more than as many more were sorely wounded.
Our horse also made a great impression upon the queen's regiment of horse, and charged them again and again, and cut in pieces many of her life-guard. In this service, the Marquis of Vivile was taken prisoner: it seems he would not be known who he was; but endeavouring to rescue himself from a lieutenant that took him prisoner, and thereupon, having his head almost cloven asunder with a pole-ax, he acknowledged himself, in the last words he spoke, which were, Vous voyez un grand Marquis mourant; that is, you see a great marquis dying. His dead body was carried to Hungerford, by the lord general's command. It had not been long there, but the King did send a trumpet to his excellency, conceiving that the marquis had been wounded only, and taken prisoner, and desired that his chirurgeons and doctors mignf. have free access unto him for his recovery. His excellency certified the trumpet that he was dead, and returned his body to the King, to receive those funeral rites as his majesty would give it. Some say, that his body was ransomed for three-hundred pieces of gold.
His excellency being come to Hungerford, the army of his majesty, which was more numerous in horse, had got before him, and was advanced towards Newbury, and sweeping the country before them, had left it destitute of provision, insomuch that, his excellency finding little or nothing at Hungerford, to satisfy the necessity of his army, he was forced to march away that night towards Newbury, to which place (although it is but seven miles distance) it was the next day before he came; when he was within two miles of it, he did understand, by his scouts, that the whole army of the King were at hand, and that they had not only possessed themselves of Newbury, but that they had made themselves masters of all advantages that could be desired, for the disposing of the battle.
Their main body did stand in a large plain, and were resolute and ready to receive our forces, which in the van, were to pass through a lane unto them, in which but six men could march on breast.
Besides, by this means, our foot were deprived in those places of the succours of our horse, and our cannon was made unprofitable. Neither was this all, for our army was also in great danger to be charged in the rear; and therefore, the most worthy Major Skippon was called off from the front, to provide a valiant remedy against all dangers that should invade the rear. All that night our army lay in the fields, impatient of the sloth of darkness, and wishing for the morning's light, to exercise their valour; and the rather, because the King had sent a challenge over night to the lord general, to give him battle the next morning. A great part of the enemy's army continued also in the field, incapable of sleep, their enemy being so nigh; and, sometimes looking on the ground, they thought upon the melancholy element of which they were composed, and to which they must return; and sometimes looking up, they observed the silent marches of the stars, and the moving scene of heaven.
The day no sooner did appear, but they were marshalled into order, and advanced to the brow of the hill; and not long after, the ordnance was planted, and the whole body of their horse and foot slood in battalia. The officers and commanders of their foot did many of them leave off their doublets, and, with daring resolution, did bring on their men; and, as if they came rather to triumph than to fight, they, in their shirts, did lead them up to the battle.
The first that gave the charge, was the most noble Lord Roberts, whose actions speak him higher than our epithets. He performed it with great resolution, and, by his own example, shewed excellent demonstrations of valour to his regiment L the cavalry of the enemy performed also their charge most bravely, and gave in with a mighty impression upon him. A prepared body of our army made haste to relieve him. Upon this, two regiments of the King's horse, with a fierce charge, saluted the blue regiment of the London trained-bands, who gallantly discharged upon them, and did beat them back; but they, being no whit daunted at it, wheeled about, and on a sudden charged them; our musqueteers did again discharge, and that with so much violence and success, that they sent them now, not wheeling, but reeling from them; and yet, for all that, they made a third assault, and coming in full squadrons, they did the utmost of their endeavour to break through our ranks; but a cloud of bullets came at once so thick from our musquets, and made such a havock amongst them, both of men and horse, that, in a fear, full of confused speed, they did fly before us, and did no more adventure upon so warm a service.
In the mean time, Sir Philip Stapleton performed excellent service with the lord general's regiment of horse, and five times together did charge the enemy: but, above all, the renown and glory of this day is most justly due unto the resolution and conduct of our general; for, before the battle was begun, he did ride from one regiment to another, and did inflame them with courage, and perceiving in them all an eager desire to battle with their enemies, he collected to himself a sure presage of victory to come. I have heard, that when, in the heat and tempest of the fight, some friends of his did advise him to leave off his white hat, because it rendered him an object too remarkable to the enemy: No, replied the earl, it is not the hat, but the heart, the hat is not capable either of fear or honour. He, himself, being foremost in person, did lead up the city regiment, and when a vast body of the enemy's horse had given so violent a charge, that they had broken quite through it, he quickly rallied his men together, and, with undaunted courage,did lead them up the hill. In his way he did beat the infantry of the King from hedge to hedge, and did so scatter them, that hardly any of the enemy's foot appeared at that present to him, to keep together in a body. After six hours long fight, with the assistance of his horse, he gained those advantages which the enemy possessed in the morning, which were the hill, the hedges, and the river.
In the mean time, a party of the enemy's horse, in a great body, wheeled about, and about three quarters of a mile below the hill, they did fall upon the rear of our army, where our carriages were placed. To relieve which, hit excellency sent a sel«cted party from the hill to assist their friends, who were deeply engaged in the fight. These forces, marching down the hill, did meet a regiment of horse of the enemy's, who, in their hats, had branches of furz and broom, which our army did that day wear, for distinction-sake, to be known by one another from their adversaries, and they cried out to our men, Friends, Friends; but, they being discovered to be enemies, our men gave fire upon them, and having some horse to second the execution, they did force them farther from them: our men being now marched to the bottom of the hill, they increased the courage of their friends, and, after a sharp conflict, they forced the King's horse to fly with remarkable loss, having left the ground strewed with the carcases of their horses and riders.
In the mean time, his excellency, having now planted his ordnance on the top of the hill, did thunder against the enemy, where he found their numbers to be thickest; and the King's ordnance (being yet on the same hill) did play with the like fury against the forces of his excellency: the cannon on each side did dispute with one another, as if the battle was but new begun. The trained-bands of the city of London endured the chiefest heat of the day, and had the honour to win it; for being now upon the brow of the hill, they lay not only open to the horse, but the cannon of the enemy; yet they stood undaunted, and conquerors against all; and, like a grove of pines in a day of wind and tempest, they only moved their heads or arms, but kept their footing sure, unless, by an improvement of honour, they advanced forward, to pursue their advantage on their enemies.
Although the night did now draw on, yet neither of the armies did draw off: the enemy's horse, in a great body, did stand on the furthest side of the hill, and the broken remainders of their foot, behind them, and having made some pillage, about the middle of the night, they drew off their ordnance, and retreated unto Newbury: on the next morning, his excellency, being absolute master of the field, did marshal again his soldiers into order to receive the enemy, if he had any stomach to the field, and to that purpose discharged a piece of ordnance, "but no enemy appearing, he marched towards Reading.
The loss which the King's forces received, in this memorable-battle, is remarkable, for besides the multitudes that were carried away in carts, there were divers found, that were buried in pits and ditches. There were many personages of note and honour slain, as the Earl of Carnarvan, the Earl of Sunderland, the Lord of Faulkland, more famous for his pen, than for his sword, Colonel Morgan, Lieutenant Colonel Fielding, Mr. Strode, and others: there were hurt the Lord Andover, Sir Charles Lucas, Colonel Charles Gerrard, Colonel Eevers, the Earl of Carlisle, the Earl of Peterborough, Lieutenant Colonel George Lisle, Sir John Russel, Mr. Edward Sackvile, Mr. Henry Howard, Mr. George Porter, Mr. Progers, Colonel Darcy, Lieutenant Colonel Edward Villars, with many more of note and eminence whose names are unknown unto us.
On the parliament side, there were slain, Colonel Tucker, Captain George Massey, and Captain Hunt, and not any more of quality, that I can learn; but before his excellency advanced towards London, he did direct his ticket to Mr. Fulke, minister of the parish of Enburn, ad. joining unto Newbury, and to the constables thereof, giving them strict command to bury the dead, which followeth in these words:
THESE are to will and require, and straightly charge and command you, forthwith, upon sight hereof, to bury all the dead bodies, lying in, and about Enburn and Newbury-wash, as you, or any of you, will answer the contrary, at your utmost perils.
Dated, September 21,
His majesty having understood the pious care of his excellency, for the burial of the dead, on both sides, he issued out his warrant to the Mayor of Newbury, for the recovery of the wounded that were taken prisoners on our side, which we have here inserted:
OUR will and command is, that you forthwith send into the towns and villages adjacent, and bring thence, all the sick and hurt soldiers of the Earl of Essex's army, and although they be rebels, and deserve the punishment of traytors, yet out of our tender compassion upon them, being our subjects, our will and pleasure is, that you carefully provide for their recovery, as well as for those of our own army, and then to send them unto Oxford.
His excellency's forces had not marched above three or four miles from Newbury, but they perceived, that a strong party of the enemy made haste to follow them, who were commanded by the Earl of Northampton, and the Lord Wilmot; Prince Rupert was also there in person; they took our forces, upon a great advantage in a narrow lane, expecting no enemy so near at hand. Our London brigade marched in the rear, and there was a forlorn hope of six-hundred musqueteers, that marched in the rear of them: but our horse, that brought up our rear, perceiving so strong a body of horse and foot so near at hand, and conceiving themselves not able to oppose them, in great confusion and disorder, they made their way through our own foot, and trampled on many of them, in that height of fear, under their horses feet. Howsoever, although this confusion of our horse did put our foot into some disorder, yet remembering the gallant service performed by them, the day before, and not willing now to lose their honour, which they knew was gained by fighting, and not by flying, they made a stand, and discharged ten drakes at the enemy, who with great fury did assault them, with their cavalry, and had lined the hedges with their foot. The lane on our rear was so crouded with the enemy, that the execution which the drakes performed was very violent, for it did beat down both horse and man, and in the midst of the lane made a new lane amongst them. The fall of these men was the rise of the courage of their companions, and thereupon adding fury to their valour, and desperateness to their fury, they adventured on the mouth of our ordnance, and on the jaws of death, and became masters of two of our drakes. In the mean time, a selected party of our foot were drawn out of the lane, into a field,