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arc well meant and intended to the church's good, by the unworthiest of his servants: Who am, likewise, Christian reader.

Thine in Christ Jesus,

R. BOREMAN■

A thort vindication of the use and necessity of unitenities, and other schools of learning; being an answer to the first query,

What need is there of universities?

IT is truly observed by a learned * writer, that the Pope of Rome, and that church, never flew higher in power, never sunk deeper into error, than when ignorance prevailed, and learning was suppressed We may as safely, and with as much truth, assert, that where the purity of God's word is corrupted, and not preserved in its integrity, that kingdom, church, or state cannot but fall into ruin, and moulder away into divisions, caused by the multiplicity of false opinions, which, being joined with schism, do often (as they have now done) engender and beget a monster, the subverter of all government, and the disturber of peace, the nurse of religion. This and learning we may fitly resemble to the great luminaries of heaven, the sun and moon, both for their light and influence. And, as for the preserving the intire lustre of the moon, there is required a continual emanation of light from the sun; so learning borrows its true light from religion; without which a man having a learned head, and an unsanctified heart, is the fittest agent and best instrument for the devil to do mischief with; but now, here is the difference between that lesser luminary and learning, in that resemblance. The moon repays no tribute, confers no benefit to the sun; but learning, by way of reflexion, conduces much (if not to the being precisely taken, at least) to the happy and well being of religion. These two, like Eros and Anteros in the fable of the poets, are sick and well both at a time. fJulian the apostate understood this well, when he put down by a publick edict the schools where the children of Christians were to be educated; so did Pope J Paul the Second, when he absurdly pronounced those hereticks, that did either in jest or earnest but use the word academy in their tongues or writings. The Jesuits and their factors, men subtle in their generations, and active in their mischievous intentions, they know the same, and therefore endeavour uow to effect (what of late one vauntingly said in the ears of a good protestant would be done) that is, to destroy the universities, and with them the ministry and religion.

That the universities so called, as|| one explains the term,because the circle of all the arts and sciences is in them expounded or taught to young students and others of all sorts, degrees, and callings whatsoever; that these universities and other schools of learning (seed-plots and nur

* Gentilet. Exam. Concil. Trident. lib. l.sect. 7. 8. Igoorantiam et Romans sedis antoritatem simul auctam, &c. Viciss mque ut bonarum artium et literai-um instauratione facessere ccrpit iguoranlia, it* et pontificu autoritas paulatim imminui et labescere visa est.

t (J. Km. Out, J. t Platio. in Uta ejus. a Fab. Soracus la thetanr*.

series subordinate to them) are not only profitable to the church, but also necessary for the maintenance of religion; so necessary, that, without them, neither the doctrine of the gospel can be preserved pure and uncorrupted, nor the church, wherein we live, stand sure upon its foundation, but will certainly be destroyed. This I shall endeavour to prove by a familiar climax or gradation, proposed to vulgar capacities by way of question.

First, By what means can the church be pure and free from heresies, without the guidance and light of the pure word of God, the holy scriptures?

Secondly, How can that word be preserved in its purity without the ministry?

Thirdly, How can there be a ministry without able and fit ministers to explain and publish that word purely without corruption? Whose office it is to act the parts of truth's champions, to defend it against seducing hereticks, who (as * Tertullian well notes, 'evermore alledge scripture to back and bolster out their absurd opinions, and by this their boldness they move some, tire out those that are strong by their restless disputes, take the weak in their nets, and as for those of a middle temper, these they send away full of doubts and scruples.' And whence do heresies arise, but from this (as St. f Augustine observes) dum Scripturtz bonis intelligantur non bene, et quod in eis non bene intelligitur etiam temere et audacter asseritur? $c. i. e. 'Whilst the good word of God is not well understood, and that which is not well understood is rashly and boldly asserted for truth, &c.'

Now, in the fourth place, How can such stout champions, learned and faithful pastors, be had without schools of learning, the universities?

It will follow then by a necessary illation or consequence, that without universities, out of which such learned, wise, orthodox, and pious men may be called and produced how to govern particular congregations, and to sit at the helm of the church, this cannot be preserved secure and intire from heresies, but will be, like the} ship wherein our Saviour was asleep, i. e. battered with tempests, and beaten with the waves of contrary opinions.

For this cause we find in antient records, that not only among the people of God, the antient Jews and Christians, but also even among the Gentiles evermore in all ages, great care and diligence was used to ordain and maintain schools of learning, and to place in them holy and knowing men, whom they encouraged with large stipends, by whose pains and parts the liberal arts and sciences, together with the doctrine of their religion, might be taught and fastened in the people's memories.

To omit the schools of the Gentiles, as of the .Egyptians (|| to whom learning and arts were derived from the Jews) likewise those of the Chaldeans, Babylonians, Persians, Greeks, nnd Romans, all which (.to the shame of Christians in these times, had learned and men of wisdom in high estimation, especially professors and assertors of their religion; such were their Magi, their Gymnosophists, their Philosophers, their Augurs, or Soothsayers; omitting these, I shall make a plain discovery of the schools erected by the people of God, as well before as after Christ, and then leave it to the judgment of discreet and moderate judges, whether a want of love to religion, and the fear of God, does not discover itself in the profane practices of those men who labour to pull down the ministry, (which is now the Jesuits main design) by doing as the * Phili*rii'efi did by the wells of Abraham, i.e. by seeking to stop the springs and fountains of learning, into which they have thrown dirt and stones, by undeserved slanders, and reproachful infamies.

* Tertul. lib. de prescript. Scripturas obtenduut, et hac sua audacia quosdam movent, &c i Aug. Tract. IS. in Evaag. Joli. f Luke Tiii. 25. * Alsted. lib. ?4. c. 13. Eucjel.

Schalast. Heurn. primord. philosoph.

If we traverse the story cf the Old Testament, we shall find that there were (and this not without the prescript or command of God) in the kingdom of Israel, schools constituted and opened to publick use; in some whereof were placed Levites, in others Prophets, to teach and explicate the law of God, to train up disciples or scholars, who afterwards should teach either in the temples or synagogues, and propagate the doctrine of the law to succeeding generations. For, who were the sons of the prophets, of whom there is so often mention made in the Books of the Kings f; but those that were students, educated and brought up in those schools, whereof the prophets were heads and governors? This was the intent or meaning of the prophet Amos, when he said, J' I am not a prophet, nor the son of a prophet,' i. e. never brought up in the schools of the learned prophets.

What was the reason that the Lord || commanded forty-eight cities with their suburbs to be assigned to the Levites, above their brethren of the other tribes? Was it not for this, that in the land of Israel there might be schools and colleges, in the which the Levites might teach and instruct young novices, their pupils, in the law of God, and thereby fit them for the offices of the sanctuary?

Over these schools or colleges there were ever placed men renowned for their piety, learning, prudence, and gravity of manners, and those chosen out of the prophets and Levites. Thus § Samuel was the prefect or governor of the school which was at Naioth, in Mount Ramah; where were a school and scholars in the reign of Asa, if we may believe the Talmudists, who say, •* that he was therefore punished with lameness in his feet, 'because he compelled all the wise men or doctors of that place, together with their disciples or scholars, to leave their studiesand to take up arms for his aid against Baasha, King of Israel.' This they collect (how truly I will not determine) out of 1 Kings, xv. 22. where it is said, that Asa made a proclamation throughout all Judah (none was exempted) and they took away the stones of Ramah, &c. j. e. when the scholars were all warned out by the King's edict.

Eliasft was the propositus or master of the school at Jericho; in his place succeeded his disciple Elishah, and so others after him in succeeding ages.

In 2 Chroii. xxxiv. 22, we read of a college in Jf Jerusalem, wherein Huldah the prophetess dwelt, when Hilkiah went unto her witha message from Josiah. Doubtless, she dwelt by herself in one of the courts remote from the prophets and their sons, who were taught in the other. For colleges, indeed, ought to be (what a name that is given them by Eusebiusdoes import) T- «/*vfi-, places of gravity and severity, which cannot well stand with a mixture of both sexes in one and the same place. But to return from this short digression:

• pen. xxii. 18. T 1 Kings xx. 35. 2 Kings ii. 3. 7.15. * Amos vii. 14.

J Vu%b. XXXV? i 1 Sum. xix. IB. »• , Vid.JiuitoifinWTJJN 2 Chron. .\vi. 1C.

+t 2 Kings ii. 5. tt It is called there nJkVDj which is as much as a double house, so

called by reason of its two courts.

To this end and purpose it likewise was (I mean for the maintenance of schools) that the Levites, under the law, had such large incomes by God's appointment; they had well nigh (as hath been proved by me in another * treatise) the fifth part of the Jews revenues, which large allowance was given them, that, being free from all cares (to which the ministers of the Gospel are too sharply exposed) they might, with the less distraction, and more freedom of spirit, devote themselves wholly to their studies, and their ministerial functions.

Again, we find that the Jews themselves ever in after ages endeavoured (even when they were dispersed amongst the Gentiles) to retain their schools, which are called, sometimes, synagogues, although in a strict sense a school and a synagogue differ. Philo (as he is cited by Grotius on St. Matth.) usesf the names promiscuously, and calls those synagogues iioWxaxna t, for that they did both pray and preach in them, and withal (as they do now where they are) train up their youth, and exercise themselves by disputes and polemical discourses, concerning the Holy Scriptures; whereby they find out many hidden truths. This is the practice of colleges in the universities, by which means the students learn to whet their tongues in disputes against the truth's adversaries, those of Rome, together with other hereticks.

In the second place, That there were colleges, places of publick concourse even under the gospel, in the time of the apostles at Jerusalem, we may collect or gather out of the Acts. 'And there were dwelling at Jerusalem Jews, devout men, out ot every nation under heaven'||. St. Luke records § concerning our Lord Christ, that when he went into the synagogue, that is, the ** school, there was given to him, as to a doctor, the book of the Scriptures, that he should explain a portion or piece of them, which he accordingly did to the amazement and conviction of those that heard him. The same apostle likewise reports, that, when he was tweke years of age, he disputed tt with the doctors of the school with great admiration. There were then scholars, colleges, and doctors in our Saviour's time; how then dare any disallow of those which Christ himself did approve of, so, as to go often into them, which he did surely to demonstrate and shew their necessity and use. They who speak and act, by a bold opposition, the contrary, by denying their use, to such I may aptly retort, what St. Augustine did once in another case to the Donatists, the true pictures of our Separatists, ' Christianasvos esse dicitis, et Christo coiitradicilii,' i.e. 'You say you are Christians, and contradict Christ in your words and actions Jf; this cannot stand with Christianity, which admits of no such contradictions.

* The Church's plea, &c. sect. lo. p. 23. printed at London in 165, 4to. i Grot in Mi*

>v, 23. i Places of instruction. | Actsii. 5. {Luke iv. \$. 17

•s J"irQ ttfTIDliT +t Luke ii.42,46. }J Aug. Ep. 17.

In Acts vi. 9) there is mention of the synagogue or college of the Libertines, Cyrenians, and Alexandrians, and of them of Cilicia and Asia, who disputed with the protomartyr St. Stephen.

The same author * tells us how that St. Paul came from Tarsus of Cilicia unto Jerusalem, where he was instructed in the law of the Lord at the feet of Gamaliel. It was the fashion or custom then of the scholars, to sit at the feet of the doctors; whence those are chlled by the Rabbinst Pulverisantes, from the dust which they received thus sitting below their teachers. The forenamed Gamaliel was a doctor or teacher of the law in the academy of Jerusalem, and disciple of that old Simeon, who took our Saviour, bein>» then a child, in his arms, and then sung his Nunc dimittis, §c. his swan-like sung, J Lord, now lettest thou, thy servant, depart in peace, for mine eyes have seen thy salvation, i. e. The Lord Christ, who is mercy and salvation cloathed in flesh.

That school or college of Jerusalem had many famous doctors, one after another successively in after days, amongst whom, was Rabbi Hillel, who lived an hundred years before the destruction of the temple by Titus; of which Hillel we find so many rare and pious sayings in the Pirk Avoth, a book famous amongst the Jews, for choice proverbs, and grave counsels.

We read likewise of St. Paul, that, after his conversion, he went often into the synagogues or schools of the Jews, and mightily convinced them, that Jesus was the Messias (or the Christ) and persuading the things concerning the kingdom of God||.

There is mention in the acts§ of the school of one Tyrannus; it was erected by one, who was so called by his proper name, as Bezsi proves by many testimonies against Erasmus, and others, and with him, in this, the Syriack agrees; which,as Salom Glassius notes**, is the fittest to determine any doubt or controversy bordering upon a word or phrase in the New Testament, as the Chaldee paraphrase in the Old.

To omit that famous school in Asiaat Ephesus, erected by St. John the Apostle, in which Polycarp and Iretiaeus were scholars, with many other famous bishops and martyrs for the truth of Christ.

Likewise that in Palestine ofCaesarea, in which Gregory, bishop of Neocaesarea was brought up.

Also that in Alexandria, the most famous in the whole world, where, (as St. Jerom attests)from the days of St. Mark the evangelist, many and great doctors flourished, as Pataenus, Clemens Alexamlrinus, Origen, Hieracles, Dionysius, with many others.

To the forenamed we might add that of Byzantium tt in Greece, where St. Basil, that JJ Demosthenes amongst the fathers (for his sublime elegancy so called) was educated; he was brother to that learned Nazianzen, who (being indeed a magazine of all kind of learning) is worthily called, jOfixoyO*j i. e. the divine.

To this of Byzantium might be adjoined that of Tiberias in Galilee, by the lake of Gennesareth ||| so famous for the Masorites, those laborious textuaries and cabalists among the Jews.

• Actaixii. S. Tpkiwio i Luke ii 28. 29 H Acts l\ ui. 28.

i Acts xvii. 8. •• Glass. Physiol. Sac. ++ Or Constantinople, anciently called

Byzantium. tt Vid. Possevin. in vita flasil. 1111 Vid. Buxtort; in Tiberiad.

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